Assessment of air gap membrane distillation for milk concentration
Moejes, S.N. ; Wonderen, G.J. van; Bitter, J.H. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2020
Journal of Membrane Science 594 (2020). - ISSN 0376-7388
Membrane distillation - Milk - Network optimization - Process design - Reverse osmosis
Multi-effect evaporation is the state of the art for concentration of liquid food products to high solid content. Membrane technology with reverse-osmosis and membrane distillation offer an alternative. For the concentration of milk, a reverse osmosis and air-gap membrane distillation network was modelled and optimized. Fouling dynamics and scheduling are taken into account. Reverse osmosis is favourable until its maximum achievable concentration. Air gap membrane distillation is, despite the low operational temperatures, energy intensive for the concentration of milk. A large recirculation flow to keep sufficient cross flow has to be heated and cooled, and the costs for heating and cooling dominate the total costs for product concentration. Moreover, fouling increases the energy requirements. The optimal system for air gap membrane distillation has only one stage operating at a high concentration and relative low flux. Applying multiple stages reduces the investment costs due to smaller units, but the heating and cooling costs increase. Major opportunities to improve the performance of air gap membrane distillation for concentration of milk are: 1) increase the cold and hot side temperatures to their maximum acceptable values, 2) develop spacers that allow lower linear flow velocities in the system and thus lower recirculation rates, and 3) make use of available waste heat.
Legionella growth potential of drinking water produced by a reverse osmosis pilot plant
Learbuch, K.L.G. ; Lut, M.C. ; Liu, G. ; Smidt, H. ; Wielen, P.W.J.J. van der - \ 2019
Water Research 157 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 55 - 63.
Drinking water quality - Legionella pneumophila - Regrowth - Reverse osmosis
Treatment processes, such as membrane filtration with reverse osmosis (RO), are used to produce drinking water with a high degree of biostability. To our knowledge, the influence of RO water on biofilm formation and growth of L. pneumophila has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed (i) to determine the Legionella growth potential of (remineralised) RO-water produced by a pilot plant and to compare this to conventional treated groundwater, and (ii) to determine if different pipe materials, in contact with remineralised RO-water, can cause growth of L. pneumophila. The Legionella growth potential of water was determined with the boiler biofilm monitor (BBM) that mimics the flow of water in a premise plumbing system. The Legionella growth potential of materials in contact with remineralised RO-water was determined by using the biomass production potential (BPP)-test. ATP concentrations in the biofilm on the glass rings from the BBM fed with (remineralised) RO water fluctuated around 100 pg ATP cm −2 . In contrast, BBMs fed with conventionally treated water resulted in ten-fold higher ATP concentrations in the biofilm. Moreover, conventionally treated water had a Legionella growth potential that was 1000-fold higher than that of (remineralised) RO-water. Furthermore, glass, copper and PVC-C had the lowest biofilm concentrations and Legionella growth potential in the BPP-test, followed by PE-Xb, PE-Xc and PE-100. The highest biofilm concentration and Legionella growth potential were with PVC-P. Hence, our study demonstrated that remineralised RO-water did not enhance growth of L. pneumophila in the BBM that mimics the premises plumbing system. However, when PE or PVC-P materials are used growth of L. pneumophila can still occur in the premises plumbing system despite the high quality of the supplied remineralised RO-water.