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Balanced harvest: concept, policies, evidence, and management implications
Zhou, Shijie ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Garcia, Serge M. ; Plank, Michael J. ; Bundy, Alida ; Charles, Anthony ; Hansen, Cecilie ; Heino, Mikko ; Howell, Daniel ; Jacobsen, Nis S. ; Reid, David G. ; Rice, Jake C. ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van - \ 2019
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29 (2019)3. - ISSN 0960-3166 - p. 711 - 733.
Ecological effect - Ecosystem approach to fishery - Ecosystem structure - Fishing intensity - Production - Selectivity - Sustainability
Balanced harvest has been proposed to reduce fishing impact on ecosystems while simultaneously maintaining or even increasing fishery yield. The concept has attracted broad interest, but also received criticisms. In this paper, we examine the theory, modelling studies, empirical evidence, the legal and policy frameworks, and management implications of balanced harvest. The examination reveals unresolved issues and challenges from both scientific and management perspectives. We summarize current knowledge and address common questions relevant to the idea. Major conclusions include: balanced harvest can be expressed in several ways and implemented on multiple levels, and with different approaches e.g. métier based management; it explicitly bridges fisheries and conservation goals in accordance with international legal and policy frameworks; modelling studies and limited empirical evidence reveal that balanced harvest can reduce fishing impact on ecosystem structure and increase the aggregate yield; the extent of balanced harvest is not purely a scientific question, but also a legal and social choice; a transition to balanced harvest may incur short-term economic costs, while in the long-term, economic results will vary across individual fisheries and for society overall; for its application, balanced harvest can be adopted at both strategic and tactical levels and need not be a full implementation, but could aim for a “partially-balanced” harvest. Further objective discussions and research on this subject are needed to move balanced harvest toward supporting a practical ecosystem approach to fisheries.
Mechanistic insight in the selective delignification of wheat straw by three white-rot fungal species through quantitative 13C-IS py-GC–MS and whole cell wall HSQC NMR
Erven, G. van; Nayan, Nazri ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. ; Kabel, M.A. - \ 2018
Biotechnology for Biofuels 11 (2018). - ISSN 1754-6834 - 16 p.
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - Lentinula edodes - pleurotus eryngii - Selectivity - Lignin degradation - Lignin quantification - Cα-oxidation - Ligninolytic enzymes
Background The white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (Cs), Pleurotus eryngii (Pe), and Lentinula edodes (Le) have been shown to be high-potential species for selective delignification of plant biomass. This delignification improves polysaccharide degradability, which currently limits the efficient lignocellulose conversion into biochemicals, biofuels, and animal feed. Since selectivity and time efficiency of fungal delignification still need optimization, detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms at molecular level is required. The recently developed methodologies for lignin quantification and characterization now allow for the in-depth mapping of fungal modification and degradation of lignin and, thereby, enable resolving underlying mechanisms. Results Wheat straw treated by two strains of Cs (Cs1 and Cs12), Pe (Pe3 and Pe6) and Le (Le8 and Le10) was characterized using semi-quantitative py-GC–MS during fungal growth (1, 3, and 7 weeks). The remaining lignin after 7 weeks was quantified and characterized using 13C lignin internal standard based py-GC–MS and whole cell wall HSQC NMR. Strains of the same species showed similar patterns of lignin removal and degradation. Cs and Le outperformed Pe in terms of extent and selectivity of delignification (Cs ≥ Le >> Pe). The highest lignin removal [66% (w/w); Cs1] was obtained after 7 weeks, without extensive carbohydrate degradation (factor 3 increased carbohydrate-to-lignin ratio). Furthermore, though after treatment with Cs and Le comparable amounts of lignin remained, the structure of the residual lignin vastly differed. For example, Cα-oxidized substructures accumulated in Cs treated lignin up to 24% of the total aromatic lignin, a factor two higher than in Le-treated lignin. Contrarily, ferulic acid substructures were preferentially targeted by Le (and Pe). Interestingly, Pe-spent lignin was specifically depleted of tricin (40% reduction). The overall subunit composition (H:G:S) was not affected by fungal treatment. Conclusions Cs and Le are both able to effectively and selectively delignify wheat straw, though the underlying mechanisms are fundamentally different. We are the first to identify that Cs degrades the major β-O-4 ether linkage in grass lignin mainly via Cβ–O–aryl cleavage, while Cα–Cβ cleavage of inter-unit linkages predominated for Le. Our research provides a new insight on how fungi degrade lignin, which contributes to further optimizing the biological upgrading of lignocellulose.
Novel Selectivity-Based Forensic Toxicological Validation of a Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantitative Determination of Eight Amphetamines in Whole Blood
Teunissen, Sebastiaan F. ; Fedick, Patrick W. ; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A. ; Nielen, Michel W.F. ; Eberlin, Marcos N. ; Graham Cooks, R. ; Asten, Arian C. van - \ 2017
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 28 (2017)12. - ISSN 1044-0305 - p. 2665 - 2676.
Amphetamines - Forensic toxicology - Paper spray mass spectrometry - Selectivity - Validation - Whole blood
Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry is used to identify and quantify eight individual amphetamines in whole blood in 1.3 min. The method has been optimized and fully validated according to forensic toxicology guidelines, for the quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), and 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA). Additionally, a new concept of intrinsic and application-based selectivity is discussed, featuring increased confidence in the power to discriminate the amphetamines from other chemically similar compounds when applying an ambient mass spectrometric method without chromatographic separation. Accuracy was within ±15% and average precision was better than 15%, and better than 20% at the LLOQ. Detection limits between 15 and 50 ng/mL were obtained using only 12 μL of whole blood. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Questioning the effectiveness of technical measures implemented by the Basque bottom otter trawl fleet : Implications under the EU landing obligation
Alzorriz, N. ; Arregi, L. ; Herrmann, B. ; Sistiaga, M. ; Casey, J. ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2016
Fisheries Research 175 (2016). - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 116 - 126.
Bottom trawl - Contact probabilityl Bay of Biscay - Discards - Landing obligation - Selectivity - Square mesh panel (SMP)
The selective properties of a bottom trawl fitted with a 70 mm diamond mesh codend and a 100 mm top square mesh panel (SMP) for hake (Merluccius merluccius), pouting (Trisopterus luscus and Trisopterus minutus) and red mullet (Mullus surmuletus) were investigated over the period 2011-2013. The experiments were carried out over three separate cruises aboard two commercial Basque bottom otter trawlers in the Bay of Biscay area. "Fall-through" experiments were also undertaken to estimate the potential size selection of 100 mm square mesh for the same species. Results from the "Fall-through" experiments and the at-sea selectivity cruises demonstrated that a 100 mm SMP has the potential to enable undersized and immature individuals to escape through the meshes. However, the selectivity cruises demonstrated that in practice, the SMP was largely ineffective at releasing undersized individuals as only a small fraction of the fish entering the trawl attempted to escape through the SMP during their drift towards the codend. The fraction attempting to escape was quantified by the "SMP contact probability" and was less than 4% for hake and red mullet and less than 15% for pouting. Furthermore, for each species, the release potential for the diamond mesh codend was found to be significantly lower than the length-at-maturity and the legal minimum conservation reference size. On average, the proportions of the total catch of undersized individuals of each species retained by the gear, were 52%, 17% and 45% for hake, pouting and red mullet respectively. Based on our findings, we conclude that the gear currently deployed by the Basque bottom otter trawl fleet operating in the Bay of Biscay is largely ineffective at releasing undersized hake, pouting and red mullet. The introduction of the obligation to land all catches, under the 2013 reform of the EU Common Fisheries policy will create new challenges for the Basque bottom otter trawl fleet and thereby an incentive to improve selectivity to avoid unwanted catches of undersized individuals.