Hazardous Chemicals in Plastics in Marine Environments : International Pellet Watch
Yamashita, Rei ; Tanaka, Kosuke ; Yeo, Bee Geok ; Takada, Hideshige ; Franeker, Jan A. van; Dalton, Megan ; Dale, Eric - \ 2019
In: Hazardous Chemicals Associated with Plastics in the Marine Environment Springer Verlag (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319955667 - p. 163 - 183.
Additives - Equilibrium - Open ocean - Pellets - Sorption
Marine plastic debris, including microplastics <5Â mm, contain additives as well as hydrophobic chemicals sorbed from surrounding seawater. A volunteer-based global monitoring programme entitled International Pellet Watch (IPW) is utilizing the sorptive nature of plastics, more specifically of beached polyethylene (PE) pellets, in order to measure persistent organic pollutants (POPs) throughout the world. Spatial patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides have been revealed. Original data of IPW show large piece-to-piece variability in PCB concentrations in pellets collected at each location. This is explained by the combination of slow sorption/desorption and large variabilities of speed and route of floating plastics. The sporadically high concentrations of POPs, both sorbed chemicals and hydrophobic additives, are frequently observed in pellets and the other microplastics in open ocean and remote islands. This poses a chemical threat to marine ecosystems in remote areas.
Sorption and biodegradation of six pharmaceutically active compounds under four different redox conditions
Wilt, Arnoud de; He, Yujie ; Sutton, Nora ; Langenhoff, Alette ; Rijnaarts, Huub - \ 2018
Chemosphere 193 (2018). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 811 - 819.
Biodegradation - Pharmaceuticals - Redox conditions - Sediment - Sorption
This study explored the removal of six pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in lab-scale experiments with sediments under four redox conditions, namely aerobic, nitrate reducing, sulfate reducing, and methanogenic conditions using batch and column set-ups. Redox conditions were found to influence PhAC removal by sorption and biodegradation. The most optimal PhAC removal was observed at the outer ranges of the redox spectrum, i.e. either aerobic or deep anaerobic (sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions), whereas nitrate reducing conditions were found least effective for PhACs biodegradation and sorption. For instance, sorption coefficient Kd values for metoprolol in column experiments were 90, 65, 42 and 11 L/kg for sulfate reducing, methanogenic, aerobic and nitrate reducing conditions, respectively. For the same conditions Kd values for propranolol were 101, 94, 55 and 55 L/kg, respectively. As expected, biodegradation efficiencies were highest under aerobic conditions, showing >99% removal of caffeine and naproxen, but no removal for propranolol and carbamazepine. The adaptive capacity of sediment was demonstrated by pre-exposure to PhACs leading to improved PhAC biodegradation. The results of this study indicate the necessity to combine diverse redox conditions, including aerobic conditions, for maximizing PhAC removal by sorption and biodegradation. Furthermore, our findings stress the need for additional treatment measures as recalcitrant PhACs are not effectively removed under any redox condition.
Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha)
Zheng, Tianye ; Sutton, Nora B. ; Jager, Pim de; Grosshans, Richard ; Munira, Sirajum ; Farenhorst, Annemieke - \ 2017
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 99 (2017)5. - ISSN 0007-4861 - p. 595 - 600.
Glyphosate - Hybrid cattail - Native cattail - Phytoremediation - Sorption - Wetland pollution
Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.
Fate of personal care and household products in source separated sanitation
Butkovskyi, A. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. ; Hernandez Leal, L. - \ 2016
Journal of Hazardous Materials 320 (2016). - ISSN 0304-3894 - p. 427 - 434.
Black water - Grey water - Micropollutants - Sorption - Triclosan - UASB sludge
Removal of twelve micropollutants, namely biocides, fragrances, ultraviolet (UV)-filters and preservatives in source separated grey and black water treatment systems was studied. All compounds were present in influent grey water in μg/l range. Seven compounds were found in influent black water. Their removal in an aerobic activated sludge system treating grey water ranged from 59% for avobenzone to >99% for hexylcinnamaldehyde. High concentrations of hydrophobic micropollutants in sludge of aerobic activated sludge system indicated the importance of sorption for their removal. Six micropollutants were found in sludge of an Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating black water, with four of them being present at significantly higher concentrations after addition of grey water sludge to the reactor. Hence, addition of grey water sludge to the UASB reactor is likely to increase micropollutant content in UASB sludge. This approach should not be followed when excess UASB sludge is designed to be reused as soil amendment.