- Katrien Descheemaeker (1)
- Charlotte Fraiture de (1)
- Sabine Homann Kee-Tui (1)
- Poolad Karimi (1)
- Emmanuel Manzungu (1)
- Patricia Masikati (1)
- Lyla Mehta (1)
- Synne Movik (1)
- Nhamo Nhamo (1)
- Trinity Senda (1)
- Gevious Sisito (1)
Global satellite-based ET products for the local level irrigation management: An application of irrigation performance assessment in the Sugarbelt of Swaziland
Karimi, Poolad ; Bongani, Bhembe ; Blatchford, Megan ; Fraiture, Charlotte de - \ 2019
Remote Sensing 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2072-4292
CMRSET - Ensemble - Remote sensing - Southern Africa - SSEBop - Sugarcane - Water productivity
Remote sensing techniques have been shown, in several studies, to be an extremely effective tool for assessing the performance of irrigated areas at various scales and diverse climatic regions across the world. Open access, ready-made, global ET products were utilized in this first-ever-countrywide irrigation performance assessment study. The study aimed at identifying 'bright spots', the highest performing sugarcane growers, and 'hot spots', or low performing sugarcane growers. Four remote sensing-derived irrigation performance indicators were applied to over 302 sugarcane growers; equity, adequacy, reliability and crop water productivity. The growers were segmented according to: (i) land holding size or grower scale (ii) management regime, (iii) location of the irrigation schemes and (iv) irrigation method. Five growing seasons, from June 2005 to October 2009, were investigated. The results show while the equity of water distribution is high across all management regimes and locations, adequacy and reliability of water needs improvement in several locations. Given the fact that, in general, water supply was not constrained during the study period, the observed issues with adequacy and reliability of irrigation in some of the schemes were mostly due to poor scheme and farm level water management practices. Sugarcane crop water productivity showed the highest variation among all the indicators, with Estate managed schemes having the highest CWP at 1.57 kg/m3 and the individual growers recording the lowest CWP at 1.14 kg/m3, nearly 30% less. Similarly center pivot systems showed to have the highest CWP at 1.63 kg/m3, which was 30% higher than the CWP in furrow systems. This study showcases the applicability of publicly available global remote sensing products for assessing performance of the irrigated crops at the local level in several aspects.
Integrated Assessment of Crop-Livestock Production Systems Beyond Biophysical Methods : Role of Systems Simulation Models
Masikati, Patricia ; Homann Kee-Tui, Sabine ; Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Sisito, Gevious ; Senda, Trinity ; Crespo, Olivier ; Nhamo, Nhamo - \ 2017
In: Smart Technologies for Sustainable Smallholder Agriculture / Nhamo, N., Chikoye, D., Gondwe, T., Elsevier Inc. Academic Press - ISBN 9780128105214 - p. 257 - 278.
Agricultural intensification - Rural economy - Smallholder farms - Southern Africa - Target farmer typologies
Crop-livestock farming systems that are predominant in Africa, are complex with various interrelated ecological and economic factors. They involve multiple products or benefits (intended and nonintended), with trade-offs and synergies occurring both on- and off-site and varying over time. Understanding both simplistic relationships and complex interactions between climate and agricultural production systems to determine overall system efficiency and impacts on human well-being is a major challenge. Computer-based tools coupled with participatory approaches for systems integrated assessments have the potential to resolve multiple dimensions of these complex systems. The products of these environmental, economic, and social analyses are important in the development of climate smart adaptation strategies. To reduce burdening the environment and contributing to resilience and sustained production capacity, highly efficient technologies are required. Although some advances have been made in technology generation, their assessment for delivery of crop-livestock systems has lagged behind. This chapter describes approaches that couple participatory methods with computer-based decision supporting tools to achieve an integrated assessment of crop-livestock systems in relation to climate change. Simulation results show that climate change will have an impact on crop-livestock production systems hence smallholder farmers' well-being will also affected. However, impacts will be varied, the three farm categories studied for Nkayi district will not be affected to the same degree due to agricultural management practices and wealth status. Tailoring adaptation packages to different farm categories can assist in developing context-specific technologies to buffer the impacts of climate change. Improved on-farm high-quality fodder production (inclusion of fodder and grain legume) and growing medium duration maize varieties would offset impacts of climate change by about 20%-30% for farmers with livestock. For those farmers without livestock (<40% of rural population) by diversifying on-farm crop production, improved management and growing medium duration crop varieties can reduce economic losses due to climate change from 25% to 19%. The integrated approach can evaluate impacts of climate change on both agricultural production and also human well-being, which is imperative in developing context-specific national adaptation strategies.
|Introduction - Flows and practices : The politics of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in eastern and Southern Africa
Mehta, Lyla ; Movik, Synne ; Bolding, Alex ; Derman, Bill ; Manzungu, Emmanuel - \ 2017
In: Flows and Practices African Books Collective - ISBN 9781779223142 - p. 1 - 29.
Access to water - Donors - IWRM - Southern Africa - Water policies and reform
For the past two decades, IWRM has been actively promoted by water experts as well as multilateral and bilateral donors who have considered it to be a crucial way to address global water management problems. IWRM has been incorporated into water laws, reforms and policies of southern African nations. This chapter provides a conceptual framework to study: the flow of IWRM as an idea; its translation and articulation into new policies, institutions and allocation mechanisms, and the resulting practices and effects across multiple scales - global, regional, national and local. The empirical findings of the complexities of articulation and implementation of IWRM in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda form the core of this book. We demonstrate how Africa has been a laboratory for IWRM experiments, while donors as well as a new cadre of water professionals and students have made IWRM their mission. The case studies reveal that IWRM may have resulted in an unwarranted policy focus on managing water instead of enlarging poor women's and men's access to water. The newly created institutional arrangements tended to centralise the power and control of the State and powerful users over water and failed to address historically rooted inequalities.