- Shirley A. Pomponi (1)
- Dirk E. Martens (1)
- Mert Gökalp (1)
- Jasper M. Goeij De (1)
- Stephanie Munroe (1)
- Morten O.A. Sommer (1)
- Ronald Osinga (1)
- Mari Rodriguez Evgrafov de (1)
- Kenneth Sandoval (1)
- Antonio Sarà (1)
- Detmer Sipkema (2)
- Hauke Smidt (1)
- Dennis Versluis (1)
- Mark W.J. Passel van (1)
- Tim Wijgerde (1)
Genetic algorithm as an optimization tool for the development of sponge cell culture media
Munroe, Stephanie ; Sandoval, Kenneth ; Martens, Dirk E. ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Pomponi, Shirley A. - \ 2019
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal 55 (2019)3. - ISSN 1071-2690 - p. 149 - 158.
Cell culture - Dysidea etheria - Genetic algorithm - Medium optimization - Metabolic activity - Sponge
Sponges are rich sources of novel natural products. Production in cell cultures may be an option for supply of these compounds but there are currently no sponge cell lines. Because there is a lack of understanding about the precise conditions and nutritional requirements that are necessary to sustain sponge cells in vitro, there has yet to be a defined, sponge-specific nutrient medium. This study utilized a genetic algorithm approach to optimize the amino acid composition of a commercially available basal cell culture medium in order to increase the metabolic activity of cells of the marine sponge Dysidea etheria. Four generations of the algorithm were carried out in vitro in wet lab conditions and an optimal medium combination was selected for further evaluation. When compared to the basal medium control, there was a twofold increase in metabolic activity. The genetic algorithm approach can be used to optimize other components of culture media to efficiently optimize chosen parameters without the need for detailed knowledge on all possible interactions.
Development of an Integrated Mariculture for the Collagen-Rich Sponge Chondrosia reniformis
Gökalp, Mert ; Wijgerde, Tim ; Sarà, Antonio ; Goeij, Jasper M. De; Osinga, Ronald - \ 2019
Marine Drugs 17 (2019)1. - ISSN 1660-3397
Chondrosia reniformis - Fishfarm - Integrated multitrophic aquaculture - Mariculture - Sponge
In this study, novel methods were tested to culture the collagen-rich sponge Chondrosia reniformis Nardo, 1847 (Demospongiae, Chondrosiida, Chondrosiidae) in the proximity of floating fish cages. In a trial series, survival and growth of cultured explants were monitored near a polluted fish farm and a pristine control site. Attachment methods, plate materials, and plate orientation were compared. In a first trial, chicken wire-covered polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was found to be the most suitable substrate for C. reniformis (100% survival). During a second trial, survival on chicken wire-covered PVC, after six months, was 79% and 63% for polluted and pristine environments, respectively. Net growth was obtained only on culture plates that were oriented away from direct sunlight (39% increase in six months), whereas sponges decreased in size when sun-exposed. Chicken wire caused pressure on explants and it resulted in unwanted epibiont growth and was therefore considered to be unsuitable for long-term culture. In a final trial, sponges were glued to PVC plates and cultured for 13 months oriented away from direct sunlight. Both survival and growth were higher at the polluted site (86% survival and 170% growth) than at the pristine site (39% survival and 79% growth). These results represent a first successful step towards production of sponge collagen in integrated aquacultures.
Sponge microbiota are a reservoir of functional antibiotic resistance genes
Versluis, Dennis ; Evgrafov, Mari Rodriguez de; Sommer, Morten O.A. ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Smidt, Hauke ; Passel, Mark W.J. van - \ 2016
Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (2016)NOV. - ISSN 1664-302X
Antibiotic resistance - Functional metagenomics - Microbiota - Resistance gene - Sponge
Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n = 6), gentamicin (n = 1), amikacin (n = 7), trimethoprim (n = 17), chloramphenicol (n = 1), rifampicin (n = 2) and ampicillin (n = 3). Fifteen of 37 inserts harbored resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria.