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Effects of stress and cortisol on the polarization of carp macrophages
Maciuszek, Magdalena ; Rydz, Leszek ; Świtakowska, Iga ; Verburg-van Kemenade, Lidy ; Chadzińska, Magdalena - \ 2019
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 94 (2019). - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 27 - 37.
Carp - Cortisol - Head kidney - Monocytes/macrophages - Stress - Trunk kidney
In teleost fish, myelopoiesis is maintained both in the head (HK) and trunk kidney (TK), but only the HK holds the endocrine cells that produce the stress hormone cortisol. We now compared the effects of prolonged restraint stress (in vivo) and cortisol (in vitro) on the polarization of HK and TK-derived carp macrophages. Monocytes/macrophages from both sources were treated in vitro with cortisol, lipopolysaccharide or with both factors combined. In vivo, fish were challenged by a prolonged restraint stress. Gene expression of several markers typical for classical M1 and alternative M2 macrophage polarization, as well as glucocorticoid receptors, were measured. Cells from both sources did not differ in the constitutive gene expression of glucocorticoid receptors, whereas they significantly differed in their response to cortisol and stress. In the LPS-stimulated HK monocytes/macrophages, cortisol in vitro counteracted the action of LPS while the effects of cortisol on the activity of TK monocytes/macrophages were less explicit. In vivo, restraint stress up-regulated gene expression of M2 markers in freshly isolated HK monocytes/macrophages, while at the same time it did not affect TK monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, LPS-stimulated HK monocytes/macrophages from stressed animals showed only minor differences in the gene expression of M1 and M2 markers, compared to LPS-treated monocytes/macrophages from control fish. In contrast, stress-induced changes in TK-derived LPS-treated cells were more pronounced. However, these changes did not clearly indicate whether in TK monocytes/macrophages stress will stimulate classical or alternative polarization. Altogether, our results imply that cortisol in vitro and stress in vivo direct HK, but not TK, monocytes/macrophages to the path of alternative polarization. These findings reveal that like in mammals, also in fish the glucocorticoids form important stimulators of alternative macrophage polarization.
A role for CXC chemokines and their receptors in stress axis regulation of common carp
Pijanowski, Lukasz ; Verburg-van Kemenade, Lidy ; Chadzinska, Magdalena - \ 2019
General and Comparative Endocrinology 280 (2019). - ISSN 0016-6480 - p. 194 - 199.
Carp - CXC chemokines - CXC receptors - Stress
Although chemokines mainly function to activate leukocytes and to direct their migration, novel evidence indicates non-immune functions for chemokines within the nervous and endocrine systems. These include development of the nervous system, neuromodulation, neuroendocrine regulation and direct neurotransmitter-like actions. In order to clarify a potential role for chemokines and their receptors in the stress response of fish, we studied changes in the expression patterns of CXC ligands and their receptors in the stress axis organs of carp, during a restraint stress procedure. We showed that stress down-regulated the gene expression of CXCL9-11 (CXCb1 and CXCb2)in stress axis organs and up-regulated expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor in NPO and pituitary. Moreover, upon stress, reduced gene expression of CXCL12a and CXCL14 was observed in the head kidney. Our results imply that in teleost fish, CXC chemokines and their receptors are involved in neuroendocrine regulation. The active regulation of their expression in stress axis organs during periods of restraint indicates a significant role in the stress response.
Effects of parity and litter size on cortisol measures in commercially housed sows and their offspring
Roelofs, Sanne ; Godding, Lisa ; Haan, Jeanne R. de; Staay, Franz Josef van der; Nordquist, Rebecca E. - \ 2019
Physiology and Behavior 201 (2019). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 83 - 90.
Birth weight - Hair cortisol - Pigs - Salivary cortisol - Stress
Breeding sows are regularly exposed to on-farm stressors throughout the duration of their production period. The impact of such stressors may differ for primi- and multiparous sows, as sows could learn to cope with stressors as they gain experience with them. If parity affects stress in sows, it may also impact their prenatal offspring through differential maternal stress. In addition to parity, litter size is another potential factor involved in stress of sows and piglets. Larger litters may be a source of discomfort for gestating sows, while it can result in intra-uterine growth restriction of piglets. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether parity and litter size affect cortisol measures in breeding sows and their offspring. To do this, we measured salivary cortisol concentrations of 16 primiparous and 16 multiparous sows at three time points: 1) while sows were group housed, 2) after sows were separated from the group prior to moving to the farrowing unit and 3) after handling procedures. In addition, hair cortisol concentration was determined for the sows during late gestation and for their low birth weight (n = 63) and normal birth weight (n = 43) offspring on day 3 after birth, to reflect in-utero cortisol exposure. It was expected that if sows adapt to on-farm stressors, the more experienced, multiparous sows would show decreased stress responses in comparison to primiparous sows. However, we found a comparable acute stress response of primi- and multiparous sows to separation from the group. Handling procedures did not influence sows’ salivary cortisol concentrations. Sows’ hair cortisol concentration was positively correlated with litter size. Future research is needed to assess whether this finding reflects increased stress in sows carrying larger litters. Parity or litter size did not have a direct effect on their offspring's hair cortisol concentration. Larger litters did have a higher occurrence of low birth weight piglets. For these piglets, females had higher neonatal hair cortisol concentrations than males. Overall, our results indicate that breeding sows do not adapt to all on-farm stressors. In addition, litter size may influence HPA axis activity in both sows and piglets.
Evaluating potential biomarkers of health and performance in veal calves
Marcato, Francesca ; Brand, Henry van den; Kemp, Bas ; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2018
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5 (2018)JUN. - ISSN 2297-1769
Biomarkers - Challenges - Diseases - Health - Stress - Veal calves
Veal calves undergo many challenges in the early stages of their life. Such challenges, including mixing procedures and transportation of calves to the veal farm, may have a negative influence on growth rate, feed intake, metabolism, immunity and disease susceptibility of calves. As a consequence, many hematological, physiological, metabolic and immunological parameters of stressed calves might be altered on arrival at the veal farm. Some of these response variables might be useful as biomarkers of performance of calves at the veal farm as they might provide information about an ongoing disease process, or may predict future diseases. Biomarkers might be helpful to group and manage calves in different risk categories after arrival. By adopting treatment decisions and protocols on a risk-group or individual basis, it would be possible to improve animal health and reduce both disease incidence and antibiotic use. Moreover, the use of biomarkers might be an economically feasible approach as some of them do not need invasive techniques and others can be measured in blood already taken during routine checks. Previous literature mainly assessed the physiological responses of calves to transportation. However, information on the link between on-farm arrival data and future health and performance of veal calves is limited. This review, therefore, examined a wide range of papers and aimed to identify potential biomarkers of future health and performance.
Drought response in field grown potatoes and the interactions between canopy growth and yield
Aliche, Ernest B. ; Oortwijn, Marian ; Theeuwen, Tom P.J.M. ; Bachem, Christian W.B. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Linden, Gerard van der - \ 2018
Agricultural Water Management 206 (2018). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 20 - 30.
AUC - Irrigation - Maturity - Rainfall - Stress
Potato is an important food crop with high yields. However when exposed to drought it suffers major yield losses. Considering its global importance and the increasing incidence of drought due to climate change, research toward drought tolerance in potato remains imperative. We have studied a set of 103 commercial cultivars representing the genetic diversity in the European potato market. The cultivars were grown in different field locations in three subsequent years (2013–2015). Our aim was to understand how different field drought regimes affect canopy growth in potato, and how these effects translate to tuber yield. The field environmental conditions were monitored, and pictures of canopy ground cover during the growing season were taken. Canopy growth parameters were extracted by an iterative method using the beta sigmoid growth function to model canopy growth. At harvest, tuber yield was scored and tuber size was graded. The GGE (Genotype and Genotype-by-Environment) bi-plot and Finlay Wilkinson's Regression were used to investigate Genotype x Environment interactions. We observed that the timing of the drought occurrence differentially affected canopy growth and tuber yield. Under drought stress, fast attainment of exponential growth and maximum canopy cover had negative effects on tuber formation and tuber bulking. Growth rate, maximum canopy cover, and area under the canopy curve (photosynthetic capacity over the growth season) were more important for tuber bulking than they were for tuber formation under drought stress. Cultivars with high yield were identified as potential material for improvement to drought tolerance. These findings will contribute to the breeding for drought-tolerant potato amidst the threats of climate change.
Stress differentially affects the systemic and leukocyte estrogen network in common carp
Szwejser, Ewa ; Pijanowski, Lukasz ; Maciuszek, Magdalena ; Ptak, Anna ; Wartalski, Kamil ; Duda, Malgorzata ; Segner, Helmut ; Kemenade, Lidy van; Chadzinska, Magdalena - \ 2017
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 68 (2017). - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 190 - 201.
17β-estradiol - Aromatase - Carp - Estrogen receptors - Leukocytes - Stress
Both systemic and locally released steroid hormones, such as cortisol and estrogens, show immunomodulatory actions. This research gives evidence that circulating and leukocyte-derived estrogens can be involved in the regulation of the immune response in common carp, during homeostasis and upon restraining stress. It was found that stress reduced level of blood 17β-estradiol (E2) and down-regulated the gene expression of components of the “classical” estrogen system: the nuclear estrogen receptors and the aromatase CYP19, in the hypothalamus, the pituitary and in the ovaries. In contrast, higher gene expression of the nuclear estrogen receptors and cyp19a was found in the head kidney of stressed animals. Moreover, stress induced changes in the E2 level and in the estrogen sensitivity at local/leukocyte level. For the first time in fish, we showed the presence of physiologically relevant amounts of E2 and the substrates for its conversion (estrone – E1 and testosterone – T) in head kidney monocytes/macrophages and found that its production is modulated upon stress. Moreover, stress reduced the sensitivity of leukocytes towards estrogens, by down-regulation the expression of the erb and cyp19 genes in carp phagocytes. In contrast, era expression was up-regulated in the head kidney monocytes/macrophages and in PBLs derived from stressed animals. We hypothesize that, the increased expression of ERα, that was observed during stress, can be important for the regulation of leukocyte differentiation, maturation and migration. In conclusion, these results indicate that, in fish, the estrogen network can be actively involved in the regulation of the systemic and local stress response and the immune response.
Water cortisol and testosterone in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) recirculating aquaculture systems
Mota, Vasco C. ; Martins, Catarina I.M. ; Eding, Ep H. ; Canário, Adelino V.M. ; Verreth, Johan A.J. - \ 2017
Aquaculture 468 (2017). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 255 - 261.
Hormone - Recirculating aquaculture - Steroid - Stress - Water - Water exchange rate
The accumulation of steroids released by fish in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) may potentially influence their physiology and behavior. The present study examined the release rate of cortisol and testosterone by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and their accumulation in six identical lab scale RAS operated at different water exchange rates (150 L/kg feed/day, (LowRAS) and 1500 L/kg feed/day, (HighRAS)) and how steroid accumulation is affected by grading and weighing induced stress. Water cortisol and testosterone concentrations during the experimental period ranged between 1.0 and 5.1 ng/L and between 1.4 and 9.4 ng/L, respectively. Water cortisol concentration was 34% and 43% significantly higher in LowRAS when compared with HighRAS at week 3 and week 4, whereas for water testosterone concentration the two treatments did not differ. Overall steroid release rates were 0.02 ± 0.02 and 0.04 ± 0.02 ng/g body weight/h for cortisol and testosterone, respectively. Two hours after grading and weighing water cortisol concentration increased 30% in the LowRAS whereas water testosterone concentration remained unchanged. Calculated cortisol and testosterone discharge from the system were, respectively, 87% and 89% lower in LowRAS than in HighRAS. These findings show that reduced water usage and acute stressors can induce significant accumulation of cortisol in the rearing water at levels close to olfactory detection. Accumulation of metabolites, in particular steroids, should be taken in consideration when designing and managing RAS to prevent exceeding allowable concentrations. Statement of relevance RAS containing Nile tilapia, cortisol and testosterone are released to the culture water. Water cortisol concentration depends on the water exchange rate that is used and higher concentrations are expected in lower water exchange rates. Fish grading and weighing has a short-term effect on the water cortisol concentrations, after which concentrations return to the basal levels. These findings show that reduction in water usage and fish handling may lead to a significant increase of hormones in the rearing water, which emphasizes the importance of accounting for steroids in the design and management of RAS.
Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination
Pérez-Hernández, I. ; Ochoa-Gaona, S. ; Adams, R.H. ; Rivera-Cruz, M.C. ; Pérez-Hernández, V. ; Jarquín-Sánchez, A. ; Geissen, V. ; Martínez-Zurimendi, P. - \ 2017
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24 (2017)2. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 1769 - 1783.
Hydrocarbons - Remediation - Stress - Tolerance - Toxicity - Trees
Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and Tabebuia rosea (macuilis). Three-month-old plants were planted in soil with three treatments of heavy petroleum and a control (C0 0 mg kg−1; C1 18,000 mg kg−1; C2 31,700 mg kg−1; C3 47,100 mg kg−1) with four repetitions per treatment and species; the experiment was carried out for 245 days. Height and biomass of all species significantly diminished as petroleum concentration increased, although plant survival was not affected. The quantity of colony-forming units (CFU) of rhizospheric bacteria varied among tree species and treatments; petroleum stimulated bacterial CFU for S. macrophylla. The number of fungi CFU for S. macrophylla and T. rosea was significantly greater in C0 than in soil with petroleum, but among species and among different concentrations, no significant differences were found. The greatest percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation was found in C1 for soil without plants (45 %). Differences from the remaining treatments (petroleum concentrations in soil and plant species) were not significant (P <0.05). Among all trees, H. campechianum had the greatest TPH degradation (32.5 % in C2). T. rosea (C1) and H. campechianum (C2) resulted in petroleum degradation at levels ranging from 20.5 to 32.5 %. On the basis of this experiment, the tree species used did not improve TPH degradation. However, all of them showed high rates of survival and vigor. So, as tree species provide goods and services, experiments with inoculation of hydrocarbonclastic microorganisms, addition of fertilizers, and mixture of tree and grasses are recommended.
Animal behavior and well-being symposium : Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals
Koolhaas, J.M. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)6. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2284 - 2296.
Coping style - Domestic farm animals - Fitness - Stress - Temperament - Welfare
This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.
Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates : Project introduction and first results
Liebschner, Alexander ; Seibel, Henrike ; Teilmann, Jonas ; Wittekind, Dietrich ; Parmentier, Eric ; Dähne, Michael ; Dietz, Rune ; Driver, Jörg ; Elk, Cornelis van; Everaarts, Eligius ; Findeisen, Henning ; Kristensen, Jacob ; Lehnert, Kristina ; Lucke, Klaus ; Merck, Thomas ; Müller, Sabine ; Pawliczka, Iwona ; Ronnenberg, Katrin ; Rosenberger, Tanja ; Ruser, Andreas ; Tougaard, Jakob ; Schuster, Max ; Sundermeyer, Janne ; Sveegaard, Signe ; Siebert, Ursula - \ 2016
In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II Springer New York LLC (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ) - ISBN 9781493929801 - p. 631 - 636.
Auditory evoked potential - Noise logger - Stress - Tagging - Temporary threshold
The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise from pile driving and stress reactions caused by anthropogenic noise is investigated. Animals are equipped with DTAGs capable of recording the actual surrounding noise field of free-swimming harbor porpoises and seals. Acoustic noise mapping including porpoise detectors in the Natura 2000 sites of the North and Baltic Seas will help to fully understand current noise impacts.
Stress-induced adaptation of neutrophilic granulocyte activity in K and R3 carp lines
Pijanowski, L. ; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L. ; Irnazarow, I. ; Chadzinska, M. - \ 2015
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 47 (2015)2. - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 886 - 892.
Common carp - IL-10 - NET formation - Neutrophilic granulocytes - Respiratory burst - Stress
Both in mammals and fish, stress induces remarkable changes in the immune response. We focused on stress-induced changes in the activity of neutrophilic granulocytes in the R3 and K lines of common carp, which showed differential stress responses. Our study clearly demonstrates that a prolonged restraint stress differentially affects the activity of K and R3 carp neutrophils. In the K line, stress decreased the respiratory burst, while in the R3 line it reduced the release of extracellular DNA. Surprisingly, the stress-induced changes in ROS production and NET formation did not correlate with changes in gene expression of the inflammatory mediators and GR receptors. In neutrophilic granulocytes from K carp, gene expression of the stress-sensitive cortisol GR1 receptor was significantly higher than in neutrophils from R3 fish, which will make these cells more sensitive to high levels of cortisol. Moreover, upon stress, neutrophilic granulocytes of K carp up-regulated gene expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 while this was not observed in neutrophilic granulocytes of R3 carp.Therefore, we can hypothesize that, in contrast to R3 neutrophils, the more cortisol sensitive neutrophils from K carp respond to stress with up-regulation of IL-10 and consequently reduction of ROS production. Most probably the ROS-independent NET formation in K carp is not regulated by this anti-inflammatory cytokine. These data may indicate a predominantly ROS-independent formation of NETs by carp neutrophilic granulocytes. Moreover, they underline the important role of IL-10 in stress-induced immunoregulation.