Gene interactions observed with the HDL-c blood lipid, intakes of protein, sugar and biotin in relation to circulating homocysteine concentrations in a group of black South Africans
Plessis, Jacomina P. du; Melse-Boonstra, Alida ; Zandberg, Lizelle ; Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie - \ 2020
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports 22 (2020). - ISSN 2214-4269
Biotin - Blood lipid–gene interactions - Gene–diet interactions - Hyperhomocysteinemia - Nutrient–gene interactions - Nutrigenetics - Precision nutrition - Protein - Sugar - Total homocysteine
Background: Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) is associated with several pathologies. Gene–diet interactions related to Hcy might be used to customize dietary advice to reduce disease incidence. To explore this possibility, we investigated interactions between anthropometry, biochemical markers and diet and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to Hcy concentrations. Five SNPs of Hcy-metabolizing enzymes were analyzed in 2010 black South Africans. Results: Hcy was higher with each additional methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T minor allele copy, but was lower in methionine synthase (MTR) 2756AA homozygotes than heterozygotes. Individuals harboring cystathionine β synthase (CBS) 833 T/844ins68 had lower Hcy concentrations than others. No interactive effects were observed with any of the anthropometrical markers. MTHFR C677T and CBS T833C/844ins68 homozygote minor allele carriers presented with lower Hcy as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) increased. Hcy concentrations were negatively associated with dietary protein and animal protein intake in the TT and TC genotypes, but positively in the CC genotype of CBS T833C/844ins68. Hcy was markedly higher in TT homozygotes of MTHFR C677T as added sugar intake increased. In CBS T833C/844ins68 major allele carriers, biotin intake was negatively associated with Hcy; but positively in those harboring the homozygous minor allele. Conclusions: The Hcy–SNP associations are modulated by diet and open up the possibility of invoking dietary interventions to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. Future intervention trials should further explore the observed gene–diet and gene–blood lipid interactions.
Supplemental LED lighting affects the dynamics of tomato fruit growth and composition
Fanwoua, Julienne ; Vercambre, Gilles ; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard ; Dieleman, Anja ; Visser, Pieter de; Génard, Michel - \ 2019
Scientia Horticulturae 256 (2019). - ISSN 0304-4238
Acid - Dilution - Fruit quality - Light-emitting diodes - Metabolism - Sugar - Tomato fruit
Understanding how greenhouse crops respond to supplemental lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) compared with traditional lighting systems is essential to utilize the full potential of LEDs and their further adoption in energy efficient greenhouses. This study quantified the effects of supplemental lighting with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps and LED light on the dynamics of fruit growth and composition in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Two tomato genotypes (‘Foundation’ and ‘Progression’) were grown under daylight supplemented either with HPS (125 μmol m−2 s−1) combined with red/blue LED lighting (106 μmol m−2 s−1, HPS + LED light treatment) or red/blue LED light only (106 + 110 μmol m−2 s−1, LED + LED light treatment); and two genotypes (‘Foundation’ and ‘NUN09204’) under daylight supplemented either with red/blue LED light (200 μmol m−2 s−1, red/blue LED light treatment) or red/blue LED + far-red LED light (200 μmol m−2 s−1 + 40 μmol m−2 s−1, red/blue + far-red LED light treatment). Fresh weight and composition in glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citric acid and malic acid of tomato fruits at different stages of development were measured and analyzed in terms of three main underlying components: water dilution, dilution by soluble and storage compounds and metabolism. Growing fruits under the LED + LED compared to the HPS + LED light treatments increased average fruit fresh weight in all genotypes. The red/blue + far-red LED light treatment increased the production of soluble sugar, increased the dilution by soluble and storage compounds, and reduced water dilution leading to a strong increase in glucose, fructose and sucrose concentration in the pericarp. The LED + LED light treatment did not affect the metabolism of fruit biochemical compounds compared to the HPS + LED light treatments, but caused small changes in water dilution, which were reflected in the concentration of biochemical compounds. Dilution and metabolism were involved in genotypic differences in fruit composition. Our results show that altering the spectral composition of the supplemental light in energy efficient greenhouses can be done without an effect on fruit quality or even with an improvement of tomato fruit quality. Possible physiological processes underlying these light-induced changes in fruit biochemical compounds during fruit development in different genotypes were discussed.
Preference and perception of fat in salty and sweet foods
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. ; Costanzo, Andrew ; Keast, Russell S.J. - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 64 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 131 - 137.
Fat - Preference - Salt - Saltiness - Sugar - Sweetness - Taste
Introduction Higher liking for fat is a risk factor for obesity. Fat in food is often combined with a sweet or salty taste. This study aims to investigate the role of fat on pleasantness and perception in both a salty and a sweet liquid food product. Methods In a complete factorial design, 47 participants (23 males) tasted creamy tomato soup and custard in four fat concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30%), combined with four salt concentrations (0.04, 0.35, 0.7, 1.5%) in soup, and four sugar concentrations (0.56, 4.5, 9, 18%) in custard. Participants rated pleasantness, saltiness intensity, sweetness intensity and fattiness intensity. The preferred fat concentrations were determined by hedonic ranking. Results Fat and salt separately affected pleasantness in soup (P <.01). Fat, sugar and their interaction affected pleasantness in custard (P <.001). Sugar and salt were a stronger influencer of pleasantness than fat. Preference for fat in soup was variable, whereas the highest concentration of 30% fat was preferred in custard (P <.001). Ratings of fattiness intensity were more responsive to fat concentrations in soup than in custard (P-interaction fat × food base <.001). Conclusion Salt and sugar are stronger influencers on food liking than fat. Across foods, there is no consistent effect of fat on perception or on liking, therefore the attractiveness of fat in foods cannot be generalised. The attraction to high fat levels in custard, while hardly perceiving differences in fat concentrations, remains unclear and needs further investigation.