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Global satellite-based ET products for the local level irrigation management: An application of irrigation performance assessment in the Sugarbelt of Swaziland
Karimi, Poolad ; Bongani, Bhembe ; Blatchford, Megan ; Fraiture, Charlotte de - \ 2019
Remote Sensing 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2072-4292
CMRSET - Ensemble - Remote sensing - Southern Africa - SSEBop - Sugarcane - Water productivity
Remote sensing techniques have been shown, in several studies, to be an extremely effective tool for assessing the performance of irrigated areas at various scales and diverse climatic regions across the world. Open access, ready-made, global ET products were utilized in this first-ever-countrywide irrigation performance assessment study. The study aimed at identifying 'bright spots', the highest performing sugarcane growers, and 'hot spots', or low performing sugarcane growers. Four remote sensing-derived irrigation performance indicators were applied to over 302 sugarcane growers; equity, adequacy, reliability and crop water productivity. The growers were segmented according to: (i) land holding size or grower scale (ii) management regime, (iii) location of the irrigation schemes and (iv) irrigation method. Five growing seasons, from June 2005 to October 2009, were investigated. The results show while the equity of water distribution is high across all management regimes and locations, adequacy and reliability of water needs improvement in several locations. Given the fact that, in general, water supply was not constrained during the study period, the observed issues with adequacy and reliability of irrigation in some of the schemes were mostly due to poor scheme and farm level water management practices. Sugarcane crop water productivity showed the highest variation among all the indicators, with Estate managed schemes having the highest CWP at 1.57 kg/m3 and the individual growers recording the lowest CWP at 1.14 kg/m3, nearly 30% less. Similarly center pivot systems showed to have the highest CWP at 1.63 kg/m3, which was 30% higher than the CWP in furrow systems. This study showcases the applicability of publicly available global remote sensing products for assessing performance of the irrigated crops at the local level in several aspects.
Agricultural land use change and associated driving forces over the past 180 years in two municipalities of the Brazilian Cerrado
Arruda, Murilo Rodrigues de; Slingerland, Maja ; Santos, José Zilton Lopes ; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2019
GeoJournal 84 (2019)3. - ISSN 0343-2521 - p. 555 - 570.
Agriculture - Case study - Cattle - Cerrado - Crops - Sugarcane
This paper aims to test the hypothesis that a single driving force from the local, national, or global level is capable of triggering land use changes, including large scale deforestation, within a historical context. To reach this goal we describe and explain the driving forces from the global to farm level that have shaped agricultural land uses, as a case study, over 180 years in the municipalities of Quirinópolis and Gouvelândia in the Brazilian Cerrado. Through secondary data, field surveys, and interviews with farmers and other stakeholders involved with agricultural production, we identified four distinct periods in which drastic or little land use occurred. The evidence found supports our hypothesis. Two drastic land use changes occurred in Quirinópolis and Gouvelândia. The first one was the replacement of about 400,000 ha of original vegetation by pastures and crops between 1965 and 1985 triggered by the availability of abundant subsidized rural credits for farmers; the second one was initiated in 2005 with the replacement of 100,000 ha of pastures and cropping area by sugarcane, which was driven by the sudden domestic and world demand for sugar and ethanol.
Reduction of Sugarcane Water Footprint by Controlled Drainage, in Khuzestan, Iran
Jahani, Babak ; Soltani Mohammadi, Amir ; Nasseri, Abd Ali ; Oel, Pieter R. van; Sadeghi Lari, Adnan - \ 2017
Irrigation and Drainage 66 (2017)5. - ISSN 1531-0353 - p. 884 - 895.
Controlled drainage - Sugarcane - Water footprint - Water table management
The main objective of this study was to estimate the different components of the water footprint for sugarcane production under the conditions of free (FD) and controlled drainage (as an on-farm strategy for agricultural water management, CD) in an arid and semi-arid region in the south-west of Iran (Khuzestan Province). The different components of the water footprint (green, blue and grey) were assessed based on on-farm measurements. The total amount of water footprint for sugarcane production in the study area stood at 250 m3t-1 in the treatment FD. Of this, 12.2, 71.8 and 16.0% were of the green, blue and grey water footprints, respectively. By using CD this value was reduced to 203 m3t-1 in total, of which, 13.7, 76.8 and 9.5% were of the green, blue and grey water footprints, respectively. This decrease in the amount of water footprint seems to be mainly a result of an increase in crop productivity (due to soil condition improvement), reduction of the in- and outflow of the sugarcane farm and also reduction of nitrate losses in the CD treatment.
Increased sink strength offsets the inhibitory effect of sucrose on sugarcane photosynthesis
Ribeiro, Rafael V. ; Machado, Eduardo C. ; Magalhães Filho, José R. ; Lobo, Ana K.M. ; Martins, Márcio O. ; Silveira, Joaquim A.G. ; Yin, Xinyou ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2017
Journal of Plant Physiology 208 (2017). - ISSN 0176-1617 - p. 61 - 69.
Photosynthesis - Saccharum - Source-sink - Sucrose - Sugarcane
Spraying sucrose inhibits photosynthesis by impairing Rubisco activity and stomatal conductance (gs), whereas increasing sink demand by partially darkening the plant stimulates sugarcane photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the stimulatory effect of darkness can offset the inhibitory effect of exogenous sucrose on photosynthesis. Source-sink relationship was perturbed in two sugarcane cultivars by imposing partial darkness, spraying a sucrose solution (50 mM) and their combination. Five days after the onset of the treatments, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and the initial slope of A-Ci curve (k) were estimated by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynthesis was inhibited by sucrose spraying in both genotypes, through decreases in Vcmax, k, gs and ATP production driven by electron transport (Jatp). Photosynthesis of plants subjected to the combination of partial darkness and sucrose spraying was similar to photosynthesis of reference plants for both genotypes. Significant increases in Vcmax, gs and Jatp and marginal increases in k were noticed when combining partial darkness and sucrose spraying compared with sucrose spraying alone. Our data also revealed that increases in sink strength due to partial darkness offset the inhibition of sugarcane photosynthesis caused by sucrose spraying, enhancing the knowledge on endogenous regulation of sugarcane photosynthesis through the source-sink relationship.
Meiotic analysis and FISH with rDNA and rice BAC probes of the Thai KPS 01-01-25 sugarcane cultivar
Thumjamras, Sarut ; Iamtham, Siriluck ; Prammanee, Siripatr ; Jong, Hans de - \ 2016
Plant Systematics and Evolution 302 (2016)3. - ISSN 0378-2697 - p. 305 - 317.
Cross-species chromosome painting - Meiosis - rDNA FISH - Saccharum - Sugarcane
The interspecific sugarcane hybrid “KPS 01-01-25” is one of Thailand’s most successful cultivars, but its genetics and genomic constitution are greatly complicated due to the highly polyploid nature of this crop. Here we analyzed the crop’s karyotype, studied chromosome pairing at meiosis I and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA and rice BACs as probes. Mitotic cell complements in early tapetal cells showed 110 well-spread chromosomes. Pollen mother cells at pachytene clearly demonstrated fully paired configurations of the long chromosomes, in which few pairing partner exchanges and loops could be discerned. In diakinesis cells we observed 74.1 % bivalents, 18.6 % univalents, 2.9 % trivalents and 4.4 % quadrivalents. During this stage secondary associations were abundant, but these threadlike structures disappear after metaphase I. FISH with 5S rDNA produced up to ten fluorescent spots, of which 2–5 are often very small, whereas the 45S rDNA probe showed foci on 8–9 chromosomes. Based on our results and that of related studies we estimate that this sugarcane is composed of 11–12 genomes. We also selected rice BACs containing chromosome 5 genes controlling economically important genes. Eight BACs with relatively strong dot-blot hybridization on genomic sugarcane DNA were selected for FISH on sugarcane chromosome slides. These cross-species chromosome BAC FISH revealed weak signals, and most of the foci were distributed over parts of the chromosomes. Based on these experiments we concluded that cross-species FISH in sugarcane can better be carried out with sorghum BACs as probes.