- Albert A. Koelmans (1)
- Alette A.M. Langenhoff (1)
- Alexander Ahring (1)
- Marta Antonelli (1)
- M.L. Baat de (1)
- D.A. Bas (1)
- S.A.M. Beusekom van (1)
- Lucie C. Vermeulen (1)
- S.T.J. Droge (1)
- Andrea F. Brunsch (1)
- Jennifer France De (1)
- Huub H.M. Rijnaarts (1)
- Nur Hazimah Mohamed Nor (1)
- Marijke Hengel van (1)
- Enya Hermsen (1)
- Nynke Hofstra (2)
- Julian Klaus (1)
- Merel Kooi (1)
- M.H.S. Kraak (1)
- Carolien Kroeze (1)
- Thomas L. Laak ter (1)
- Jesse Limaheluw (1)
- Svenja M. Mintenig (1)
- Gertjan Medema (2)
- F. Meer van der (1)
- Laurent Pfister (1)
- Keith Smettem (1)
- J.E. Spanier (1)
- Michelle T.H. Vliet van (1)
- Ryan Teuling (1)
- P.F.M. Verdonschot (1)
- M. Vries de (1)
In situ removal of four organic micropollutants in a small river determined by monitoring and modelling
Brunsch, Andrea F. ; Langenhoff, Alette A.M. ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Ahring, Alexander ; Laak, Thomas L. ter - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 252 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 758 - 766.
Micropollutants - Modelling - Monitoring - Photodegradation - Surface water
Organic micropollutants (OMPs) are widely detected in surface waters. So far, the removal processes of these compounds in situ in river systems are not yet totally revealed. In this study, a combined monitoring and modelling approach was applied to determine the behaviour of 1-H benzotriazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac and galaxolide in a small river system. Sewage treatment plant effluents and the receiving waters of the river Swist were monitored in 9 dry weather sampling campaigns (precipitation < 1 mm on the sampling day itself and <5 mm total precipitation two days before the sampling) during different seasons over a period of 3 years. With the results gained through monitoring, mass balances have been calculated to assess fate in the river. With the DWA Water Quality Model, OMP concentrations in the river were successfully simulated with OMP characteristics gained through literature studies. No removal was determined for 1-H benzotriazole and carbamazepine, whereas diclofenac showed removal that coincided with light intensity. Moreover, modelling based on light sensitivity of diclofenac also suggested relevant degradation at natural light conditions. These two approaches suggest removal by photodegradation. The highest removal in the river was detected for galaxolide, presumably due to volatilisation, sorption and biodegradation. Furthermore, short-term concentration variability in the river was determined, showing that daily concentration patterns are influenced by dynamics of sewage treatment plant effluent volumes and removal processes in the river.
An exploration of the disease burden due to Cryptosporidium in consumed surface water for sub-Saharan Africa
Limaheluw, Jesse ; Medema, Gertjan ; Hofstra, Nynke - \ 2019
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 222 (2019)5. - ISSN 1438-4639 - p. 856 - 863.
Cryptosporidium - Disease burden - Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) - Surface water
The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhoeal disease, but in many contexts its burden remains uncertain. The Global Waterborne Pathogen model for Cryptosporidium (GloWPa-Crypto) predicts oocyst concentrations in surface water at 0.5 by 0.5° (longitude by latitude) resolution, allowing us to assess the burden specifically associated with the consumption of contaminated surface water at a large scale. In this study, data produced by the GloWPa-Crypto model were used in a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for sub-Saharan Africa, one of the regions most severely affected by diarrhoeal disease. We first estimated the number of people consuming surface water in this region and assessed both direct consumption and consumption from a piped (treated) supply. The disease burden was expressed in disability adjusted life years (DALYs). We estimate an annual number of 4.3 × 10 7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 7.4 × 10 6 –5.4 × 10 7 ) cases which represent 1.6 × 10 6 (95% UI 3.2 × 10 5 –2.3 × 10 6 ) DALYs. Relative disease burden (DALYs per 100,000 persons) varies widely, ranging between 1.3 (95% UI 0.1–5.7) for Senegal and 1.0 × 10 3 (95% UI 4.2 × 10 2 –1.4 × 10 4 ) for Eswatini. Countries that carry the highest relative disease burden are primarily located in south and south-east sub-Saharan Africa and are characterised by a relatively high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Direct surface water consumption accounts for the vast majority of cases, but the results also point towards the importance of stable drinking water treatment performance. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to utilise modelled data on pathogen concentrations in a large scale QMRA. It demonstrates the potential value of such data in epidemiological research, particularly regarding disease aetiology.
Microplastics in freshwaters and drinking water: Critical review and assessment of data quality
Koelmans, Albert A. ; Mohamed Nor, Nur Hazimah ; Hermsen, Enya ; Kooi, Merel ; Mintenig, Svenja M. ; France, Jennifer De - \ 2019
Water Research 155 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 410 - 422.
Drinking water - Human health - Microplastics - Surface water - Waste water
Microplastics have recently been detected in drinking water as well as in drinking water sources. This presence has triggered discussions on possible implications for human health. However, there have been questions regarding the quality of these occurrence studies since there are no standard sampling, extraction and identification methods for microplastics. Accordingly, we assessed the quality of fifty studies researching microplastics in drinking water and in its major freshwater sources. This includes an assessment of microplastic occurrence data from river and lake water, groundwater, tap water and bottled drinking water. Studies of occurrence in wastewater were also reviewed. We review and propose best practices to sample, extract and detect microplastics and provide a quantitative quality assessment of studies reporting microplastic concentrations. Further, we summarize the findings related to microplastic concentrations, polymer types and particle shapes. Microplastics are frequently present in freshwaters and drinking water, and number concentrations spanned ten orders of magnitude (1 × 10−2to 108#/m3) across individual samples and water types. However, only four out of 50 studies received positive scores for all proposed quality criteria, implying there is a significant need to improve quality assurance of microplastic sampling and analysis in water samples. The order in globally detected polymers in these studies is PE ≈ PP > PS > PVC > PET, which probably reflects the global plastic demand and a higher tendency for PVC and PET to settle as a result of their higher densities. Fragments, fibres, film, foam and pellets were the most frequently reported shapes. We conclude that more high quality data is needed on the occurrence of microplastics in drinking water, to better understand potential exposure and to inform human health risk assessments.
Cryptosporidium concentrations in rivers worldwide
Vermeulen, Lucie C. ; Hengel, Marijke van; Kroeze, Carolien ; Medema, Gertjan ; Spanier, J.E. ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Hofstra, Nynke - \ 2019
Water Research 149 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 202 - 214.
Global - Model - Pathogens - Surface water - Transport - Water quality
Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrhoea and infant mortality worldwide. A better understanding of the sources, fate and transport of Cryptosporidium via rivers is important for effective management of waterborne transmission, especially in the developing world. We present GloWPa-Crypto C1, the first global, spatially explicit model that computes Cryptosporidium concentrations in rivers, implemented on a 0.5 × 0.5° grid and monthly time step. To this end, we first modelled Cryptosporidium inputs to rivers from human faeces and animal manure. Next, we use modelled hydrology from a grid-based macroscale hydrological model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity model). Oocyst transport through the river network is modelled using a routing model, accounting for temperature- and solar radiation-dependent decay and sedimentation along the way. Monthly average oocyst concentrations are predicted to range from 10−6 to 102 oocysts L−1 in most places. Critical regions (‘hotspots’) with high concentrations include densely populated areas in India, China, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Nigeria, Algeria and South Africa, Mexico, Venezuela and some coastal areas of Brazil, several countries in Western and Eastern Europe (incl. The UK, Belgium and Macedonia), and the Middle East. Point sources (human faeces) appears to be a more dominant source of pollution than diffuse sources (mainly animal manure) in most world regions. Validation shows that GloWPa-Crypto medians are mostly within the range of observed concentrations. The model generally produces concentrations that are 1.5–2 log10 higher than the observations. This is likely predominantly due to the absence of recovery efficiency of the observations, which are therefore likely too low. Goodness of fit statistics are reasonable. Sensitivity analysis showed that the model is most sensitive to changes in input oocyst loads. GloWPa-Crypto C1 paves the way for many new opportunities at the global scale, including scenario analysis to investigate the impact of global change and management options on oocysts concentrations in rivers, and risk analysis to investigate human health risk.
Nationwide screening of surface water toxicity to algae
Baat, M.L. de; Bas, D.A. ; Beusekom, S.A.M. van; Droge, S.T.J. ; Meer, F. van der; Vries, M. de; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Kraak, M.H.S. - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 645 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 780 - 787.
Algal toxicity - Herbicide risk - Nationwide screening - Pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry - Surface water
According to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), chemical water quality is assessed by monitoring 45 priority substances. However, observed toxic effects can often not be attributed to these priority substances, and therefore there is an urgent need for an effect-based monitoring strategy that employs bioassays to identify environmental risk. Algal photosynthesis is a sensitive process that can be applied to identify the presence of hazardous herbicides in surface water. Therefore, the aim of this study was to employ an algal photosynthesis bioassay to assess surface water toxicity to algae and to identify the compounds causing the observed effects. To this purpose, Raphidocelis subcapitata was exposed to surface water samples and after 4.5 h photosynthetic efficiency was determined using PAM fluorometry. In this rapid high throughput bioassay, algal photosynthesis was affected by surface water from only one of 39 locations. Single compounds toxicity confirmation elucidated that the observed effect could be solely attributed to the herbicide linuron, which occurred at 110 times the EQS concentration and which is not included in the WFD priority substances list. In conclusion, applying the algal photosynthesis bioassay enables more efficient and effective assessment of toxicity to primary producers because it: (i) identifies the presence of herbicides that would be overlooked by routine chemical WFD monitoring, and (ii) avoids redundant chemical analyses by focusing only on (non-)target screening in samples with demonstrated effects.
Exploring streamwater mixing dynamics via handheld thermal infrared imagery
Antonelli, Marta ; Klaus, Julian ; Smettem, Keith ; Teuling, Ryan ; Pfister, Laurent - \ 2017
Water 9 (2017)5. - ISSN 2073-4441
Mixing dynamics - Stream confluence - Surface water - Thermal infrared imagery
Stream confluences are important hotspots of aquatic ecological processes. Water mixing dynamics at stream confluences influence physio-chemical characteristics of the stream as well as sediment mobilisation and pollutant dispersal. In this study, we investigated the potential for handheld thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to provide rapid information on stream water mixing dynamics at small scales. In-situ visualisation of water mixing patterns can help reduce analytical errors related to stream water sampling locations and improve our understanding of how confluences and tributaries influence aquatic ecological communities. We compared TIR-inferred stream temperature distributions with water electrical conductivity and temperature (measured with a submerged probe) data from cross-channel transects. We show that the use of a portable TIR camera can enhance the visualisation of mixing dynamics taking place at stream confluences, identify the location of the mixing front between two different water sources and the degree of mixing. Interpretation of handheld TIR observations also provided information on how stream morphology and discharge can influence mixing dynamics in small streams. Overall, this study shows that TIR imagery is a valuable support technique for eco-hydrological investigation at small stream confluences.