Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Historical commons as sites of transformation. A critical research agenda to study human and more-than-human communities
Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Valente, Sandra ; Figueiredo, Elisabete ; Parra, Constanza - \ 2019
Geoforum (2019). - ISSN 0016-7185
Commoning - Community - Institutions - More-than-human - Sustainability - Transformation

The most critical question for sustainability research is how to facilitate transformative change. Yet, the academic scope of historical commons’ research is limited to institutional design and environmental sustainability. In this paper we argue for a transformative research agenda for historical commons focused on the study of processes building humans and more-than-human communities. We start by reviewing three commons schools, namely the mainstream and critical institutionalism and the community economies collective, and assess how these relate to sustainability and to theories on agency, community and change. We then define a research agenda taking a political and critical ontology of the community economies collective, and a phenomenological epistemology of critical institutionalism. We follow by characterising the underlying practices building humans and more-than human communities by showing three ideal stages of commoning found in our empirical cases in the north-western Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Finally, we end by presenting a guiding framework for analysing processes of building communities in historical commons. In conclusion, we encourage further exploration of underlying practices that widen humans’ interdependency and inter-being and call for action-research projects and experimental methods that promote transformative encounters between humans and nature. Our framework is a first attempt to inspire researchers of historical commons to actively engage in unravelling the full potential of historical commons as sites of transformation.

The emergence of mobility inequality in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia: A socio-spatial analysis of path dependencies in transport-land use policies
Hidayati, Isti ; Yamu, Claudia ; Tan, Wendy - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)18. - ISSN 2071-1050
Greater Jakarta - Mobility inequality - Path dependence - Social-spatial structures - Space syntax - Sustainability - Transport-land use policies - Urban transformation

Despite numerous studies suggesting a path-dependent relationship between transport-land use policies and urban structures, particularly on the emergence of car-oriented development, this connection has rarely been explained with spatial evidence. To address this gap, this paper investigated the historical and spatial urban transformation of Greater Jakarta from three different time periods to understand today's extensive use of and dependence on private vehicles. This study applied a multi-method approach of (1) historical literature review, (2) computational analysis of the street network using space syntax, and (3) visual analysis of video recordings to allow for a comprehensive insight into the socio-spatial aspects of urbanization as a path-dependent course. The findings indicate that Jakarta's pedestrian network has been diminishing over time against the well-connected vehicular network. Furthermore, the remaining potential for walking cannot be actualized due to walking inconveniences at the street level. This suggests mobility inequality, since access to citywide urban functions is highly dependent on the access to private vehicles. It also provides spatial evidence that previous policies have had a long-term impact on socio-spatial structures. This paper contributes not only scientific reference for transport and mobility studies in the Southeast Asia region, but also a practical reference for urban planners and policy-makers on how to achieve sustainable development goals and to provide equal access for all.

Archetype analysis in sustainability research: meanings, motivations, and evidence-based policy making
Oberlack, Christoph ; Sietz, Diana ; Bonanomi, Elisabeth Bürgi ; Bremond, Ariane de; Dell' Angelo, Jampel ; Eisenack, Klaus ; Ellis, Erle C. ; David, M. ; Giger, Markus ; Heinimann, Andreas ; Kimmich, Christian ; Kok, Marcel T.J. ; Navarrete, David Manuel ; Messerli, Peter ; Meyfroidt, Patrick ; Václavík, Tomás ; Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
Archetype - Land systems - Social-ecological system - Sustainability - Vulnerability

Archetypes are increasingly used as a methodological approach to understand recurrent patterns in variables and processes that shape the sustainability of social-ecological systems. The rapid growth and diversification of archetype analyses has generated variations, inconsistencies, and confusion about the meanings, potential, and limitations of archetypes. Based on a systematic review, a survey, and a workshop series, we provide a consolidated perspective on the core features and diverse meanings of archetype analysis in sustainability research, the motivations behind it, and its policy relevance. We identify three core features of archetype analysis: Recurrent patterns, multiple models, and intermediate abstraction. Two gradients help to apprehend the variety of meanings of archetype analysis that sustainability researchers have developed: (1) understanding archetypes as building blocks or as case typologies and (2) using archetypes for pattern recognition, diagnosis, or scenario development. We demonstrate how archetype analysis has been used to synthesize results from case studies, bridge the gap between global narratives and local realities, foster methodological interplay, and transfer knowledge about sustainability strategies across cases. We also critically examine the potential and limitations of archetype analysis in supporting evidence-based policy making through context-sensitive generalizations with case-level empirical validity. Finally, we identify future priorities, with a view to leveraging the full potential of archetype analysis for supporting sustainable development.

Envisioning new horizons for the political economy of sustainable food systems
Duncan, Jessica ; Levkoe, Charles Z. ; Moragues-Faus, Ana - \ 2019
IDS Bulletin-Institute of Development Studies 50 (2019)2. - ISSN 0265-5012 - p. 37 - 56.
Food sovereignty - Food studies - Food systems - Governance - Interdisciplinary - Political ecology - Political economy - Power - Sustainability

This article considers how political economy can expand to contribute to the contemporary study of sustainable food systems, raising new questions for researchers, practitioners, and social movement actors engaged in collaborative efforts to transform dominant foodscapes. Our discussion and analysis draw on the outcomes of a workshop of the International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food) and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) on the political economies of sustainable food systems in June 2018. The workshop participants identified five cross-cutting research issues and related methods worthy of focus: multiple forms of knowledge, technology and innovation, expansion or scaling sustainable innovations, the role of the private sector, and democratic governance. We conclude by positing ways forward that contribute to the evolving political economy of sustainable food systems.

Manuscripts how to build a cross-disciplinary institute: the curious case of the south american institute for resilience and sustainability studies
Scheffer, Marten ; Mazzeo, Nestor - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
Art and science - Art-science collaboration - Institute - Resilience - SARAS - South America - Sustainability

There is no recipe for setting up a new institute, especially if it is meant to be different from anything that currently exists. Here, we give a look behind the scenes at how we dreamt up the transdisciplinary South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability Science (SARAS), located in Uruguay, and how, with help from a network of renowned freethinkers and dedicated doers, we made it happen. Trying to shape the institute over the first decade, we learned 10 important lessons that may be helpful for others in similar situations. (1) Securing a stable budget is essential, but a permanent challenge. (2) Structural international funding for a place-based institute is unlikely. (3) Having the institute outside the formal structure of a university gives liberty, but it is important to nurture good relationships. (4) An informal setting with ample scheduled time for walks, camp fires, and other leisure interactions helps participants build the trust and take the time needed to connect across disciplines and worldviews but can be seen as decadent by outsiders. (5) It is important to build resilience to the occasional reshuffling of cards inherent with government change. (6) It remains difficult for remote international board members to fathom the local dynamics and challenges inherent to running the institute on the ground. (7) Keeping the big idea alive while solving the continuous stream of everyday issues requires a combination of personalities with complementary skills in the dreamer-doer continuum. (8) There is a trade-off in selecting board members because the famous persons needed for credibility and for their extensive networks often have little time to contribute actively. (9) Truly linking science and arts requires long-term interaction between artists and scientists that are personally interested in this enterprise to allow for the necessary building of trust and mutual understanding. (10) A local sense of ownership is essential for long-term resilience.

Dietary choices and environmental impact in four European countries
Mertens, Elly ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Zanten, Hannah H.E. van; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Dofková, Marcela ; Mistura, Lorenza ; Addezio, L. D'; Turrini, Aida ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Havard, Sabrina ; Trolle, E. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Veer, Pieter van 't - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 237 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526
Dietary quality - Energy intake - Greenhouse gas emission - Land use - Sustainability

Effective food policies in Europe require insight into the environmental impact of consumers’ diet to contribute to global nutrition security in an environmentally sustainable way. The present study therefore aimed to assess the environmental impact associated with dietary intake across four European countries, and to explain sources of variations in environmental impact by energy intake, demographics and diet composition. Individual-level dietary intake data were obtained from nationally-representative dietary surveys, by using two non-consecutive days of a 24-h recall or a diet record, from Denmark (DK, n = 1710), Czech Republic (CZ, n = 1666), Italy (IT, n = 2184), and France (FR, n = 2246). Dietary intake data were linked to a newly developed pan-European environmental sustainability indicator database that contains greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and land use (LU) values for ∼900 foods. To explain the variation in environmental impact of diets, multilevel regression models with random intercept and random slopes were fitted according to two levels: adults (level 1, n = 7806) and country (level 2, n = 4). In the models, diet-related GHGE or LU was the dependent variable, and the parameter of interest, i.e. either total energy intake or demographics or food groups, the exploratory variables. A 200-kcal higher total energy intake was associated with a 9% and a 10% higher daily GHGE and LU. Expressed per 2000 kcal, mean GHGE ranged from 4.4 (CZ) to 6.3 kgCO2eq/2000 kcal (FR), and LU ranged from 5.7 (CZ) to 8.0 m2*year/2000 kcal (FR). Dietary choices explained most of the variation between countries. A 5 energy percent (50 g/2000 kcal) higher meat intake was associated with a 10% and a 14% higher GHGE and LU density, with ruminant meat being the main contributor to environmental footprints. In conclusion, intake of energy, total meat and the proportion of ruminant meat explained most of the variation in GHGE and LU of European diets. Contributions of food groups to environmental footprints however varied between countries, suggesting that cultural preferences play an important role in environmental footprints of consumers. In particular, Findings from the present study will be relevant for national-specific food policy measures towards a more environmentally-friendly diet.

Partnering for sustainability in agri-food supply chains : the case of Barilla Sustainable Farming in the Po Valley
Pancino, Barbara ; Blasi, Emanuele ; Rappoldt, Anne ; Pascucci, Stefano ; Ruini, Luca ; Ronchi, Cesare - \ 2019
Agricultural and Food Economics 7 (2019)1. - ISSN 2193-7532
Contract design - Crop rotation - Horizontal agreements - Supply chain protocols - Sustainability

The objective of the paper is to understand the process of designing a multi-stakeholder partnership in the adoption of sustainable innovations in value chains. More specifically, the focus is on the design of feasible types of horizontal agreements and contractual formulas to be implemented in the agri-food supply chain in order to introduce sustainable agricultural practices. To this purpose, the Barilla Sustainable Farming initiative, which is currently in the first phase of designing an MSP, is used as a case study.

Demands on land : Mapping competing societal expectations for the functionality of agricultural soils in Europe
Schulte, Rogier P.O. ; O'Sullivan, Lilian ; Vrebos, Dirk ; Bampa, Francesca ; Jones, Arwyn ; Staes, Jan - \ 2019
Environmental Science & Policy 100 (2019). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 113 - 125.
Agriculture - EU - LANDMARK - Policy - Soil - Sustainability

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has been highly successful in securing the supply of food from Europe's agricultural land. However, new expectations have emerged from society on the functions that agricultural land should deliver, including the expectations that land should regulate and purify water, should sequester carbon to contribute to the mitigation of climate change, should provide a home for biodiversity and allow for the sustainable cycling of nutrients in animal and human waste streams. Through a series of reforms of the CAP, these expectations, or ‘societal demands’ have translated into a myriad of EU and national level policies aimed at safeguarding the sustainability and multifunctionality of European agriculture, resulting in a highly complex regulatory environment for land managers. The current reform of the CAP aims to simultaneously simplify and strengthen policy making on environmental protection and climate action, through the development of Strategic Plans at national level, which allow for more targeted and context-specific policy formation. In this paper, we contribute to the knowledge base underpinning the development of these Strategic Plans by mapping the variation in the societal demands for soil functions across EU Member States, based on an extensive review of the existing policy environment relating to sustainable and multifunctional land management. We show that the societal demands for primary production, water regulation and purification, carbon sequestration, biodiversity and nutrient cycling vary greatly between Member States, as determined by population, farming systems and livestock densities, geo-environmental conditions and landscape configuration. Moreover, the total societal demands for multifunctionality differs between Member States, with the lowest demands found in Member States that have designated the higher shares of EU CAP funding towards ‘Pillar 2′ expenditure, aimed at environmental protection and regional development. We review which lessons can be learnt from these observations, in the context of the proposals for the new CAP for the period 2021–2027, which include enhanced conditionality of direct income support for farmers and the instigation of eco-schemes in Pillar 1, in addition to Agri-Environmental and Climate Measures in Pillar 2. We conclude that the devolution of planning to Strategic Plans at national level provides an opportunity for more effective and targeted incentivisation of sustainable land management, provided that these plans take account for variations in the societal demand for soil functions, as well as the capacity of contrasting soils to deliver on this multifunctionality.

The Moral Complexity of Agriculture: A Challenge for Corporate Social Responsibility
Olde, Evelien M. de; Valentinov, Vladislav - \ 2019
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 32 (2019)3. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 413 - 430.
Agriculture - Corporate social responsibility - Moral complexity - Sustainability - Systems theory

Over the past decades, the modernization of agriculture in the Western world has contributed not only to a rapid increase in food production but also to environmental and societal concerns over issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, soil quality and biodiversity loss. Many of these concerns, for example those related to animal welfare or labor conditions, are stuck in controversies and apparently deadlocked debates. As a result we observe a paradox in which a wide range of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, originally seeking to reconnect agriculture and society, frequently provoke debate, conflict, and protests. In order to make sense of this pattern, the present paper contends that Western agriculture is marked by moral complexity, i.e., the tendency of multiple legitimate moral standpoints to proliferate without the realistic prospect of a consensus. This contention is buttressed by a conceptual framework that draws inspiration the contemporary business ethics and systems-theoretic scholarship. From the systems-theoretic point of view, the evolution of moral complexity is traced back to the processes of agricultural modernization, specialization, and differentiation, each of which suppresses the responsiveness of the economic and legal institutions to the full range of societal and environmental concerns about agriculture. From the business ethics point of view, moral complexity is shown to prevent the transformation of the ethical responsibilities into the legal and economic responsibilities despite the ongoing institutionalization of CSR. Navigating moral complexity is shown to require moral judgments which are necessarily personal and contestable. These judgments are implicated in those CSR initiatives that require dealing with trade-offs among the different sustainability issues.

Balanced harvest: concept, policies, evidence, and management implications
Zhou, Shijie ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Garcia, Serge M. ; Plank, Michael J. ; Bundy, Alida ; Charles, Anthony ; Hansen, Cecilie ; Heino, Mikko ; Howell, Daniel ; Jacobsen, Nis S. ; Reid, David G. ; Rice, Jake C. ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van - \ 2019
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29 (2019)3. - ISSN 0960-3166 - p. 711 - 733.
Ecological effect - Ecosystem approach to fishery - Ecosystem structure - Fishing intensity - Production - Selectivity - Sustainability

Balanced harvest has been proposed to reduce fishing impact on ecosystems while simultaneously maintaining or even increasing fishery yield. The concept has attracted broad interest, but also received criticisms. In this paper, we examine the theory, modelling studies, empirical evidence, the legal and policy frameworks, and management implications of balanced harvest. The examination reveals unresolved issues and challenges from both scientific and management perspectives. We summarize current knowledge and address common questions relevant to the idea. Major conclusions include: balanced harvest can be expressed in several ways and implemented on multiple levels, and with different approaches e.g. métier based management; it explicitly bridges fisheries and conservation goals in accordance with international legal and policy frameworks; modelling studies and limited empirical evidence reveal that balanced harvest can reduce fishing impact on ecosystem structure and increase the aggregate yield; the extent of balanced harvest is not purely a scientific question, but also a legal and social choice; a transition to balanced harvest may incur short-term economic costs, while in the long-term, economic results will vary across individual fisheries and for society overall; for its application, balanced harvest can be adopted at both strategic and tactical levels and need not be a full implementation, but could aim for a “partially-balanced” harvest. Further objective discussions and research on this subject are needed to move balanced harvest toward supporting a practical ecosystem approach to fisheries.

The diffusion of climate-smart agricultural innovations: Systems level factors that inhibit sustainable entrepreneurial action
Long, Thomas B. ; Blok, Vincent ; Coninx, Ingrid - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 232 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 993 - 1004.
Climate-smart agriculture - Entrepreneurial eco-system - Entrepreneurship - Socio-technical transitions - Sustainability

Sustainable entrepreneurs are key actors in sustainability transitions; they develop needed innovations, create markets, and pressure incumbents. While socio-technical transitions literature is well developed, questions remain in terms of (1) the different roles that sustainable entrepreneurs can play in sustainable transitions, and (2) how best to empower these roles. To explore these challenges, we review literature and construct a framework combining the multilevel perspective and entrepreneurial ecosystem perspective. We apply this framework to the context of climate-smart agriculture in (Western and Central) Europe. By analysing semi-structured interview data (n = 27) we find that sustainable entrepreneurs are constrained by ineffective policy, resistant users, as well as novel alignment issues within the supply chain. We focus on the role of sustainable entrepreneurs as coordinators of action rather than developers of technological innovation within transition contexts characterised by low landscape pressures, large unmotivated incumbent firms, low consumer awareness and demand, and unincentivized users (farmers).

Deterministic simulations to determine the impacts of economic and non-economic breeding objectives on sustainable intensification of developing smallholder dairy farms
Kariuki, C.M. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Kahi, A.K. ; Komen, H. - \ 2019
Livestock Science 226 (2019). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 7 - 12.
Breeding objectives - Developing dairy cattle systems - Non-market weights - Sustainability

Dairy cattle farming in developing countries is mainly by resource poor smallholder farmers. Intensification of production within smallholder production systems is being driven by increasing demand for animal products. Current intensification is driven by importation of high-input high-output genotypes. This puts in question the sustainability of these resource constrained systems under harsh environmental conditions. Sustainability of production systems can be defined as long-term resilience and productivity. We use deterministic simulations to compare the impacts of three criteria to define breeding objectives i.e., economic, desired gains and non-market value, on annual genetic and monetary gains in production (market) and functional (non-market) traits for a small-sized nucleus genomic selection breeding program under developing country conditions. Market traits considered were milk yield (MY) and mature body weight (MBW). Non-market traits were calving interval (CI) and production lifetime (PLT). Fat yield (FY) was also considered a non-market trait as it had no market value. With the economic objective, traits were weighted on economic values. Weights for desired gains and non-market (NM) values were derived iteratively. Economic objectives placed highest emphasis on MY with very little gains in non-market traits but had the highest returns on investment. For desired gains objective, maximal achievable gains in PLT, CI and FY were lower than the indicated desired gains. The non-market value objective achieved the best compromise between gains in MY and other traits. We conclude that non-market value objectives can be applied to direct selection towards more robust genotypes but with loss in monetary gain. Breeding robust genotypes can contribute to sustainable intensification in developing small-holder dairy systems. However, for such objectives to be satisfactory, a sound criterion is required to determine declines in genetic gains for market traits that are acceptable by producers.

Progress in water footprint assessment: Towards collective action in water governance
Hoekstra, Arjen Y. ; Chapagain, Ashok K. ; Oel, Pieter R. van - \ 2019
Water 11 (2019)5. - ISSN 2073-4441
Consumption - International trade - Multi-level governance - River basin management - Sustainability - Value chain - Water accounting - Water footprint assessment - Water footprint benchmarks - Water productivity

We introduce ten studies in the field of water footprint assessment (WFA) that are representative of the type of papers currently being published in this broad interdisciplinary field. WFA is the study of freshwater use, scarcity, and pollution in relation to consumption, production, and trade patterns. The reliable availability of sufficient and clean water is critical in sustaining the supply of food, energy, and various manufactured goods. Collective and coordinated action at different levels and along all stages of commodity supply chains is necessary to bring about more sustainable, efficient, and equitable water use. In order to position the papers of this volume, we introduce a spectrum for collective action that can give insight in the various ways different actors can contribute to the reduction of the water footprint of human activities. The papers cover different niches in this large spectrum, focusing on different scales of governance and different stages in the supply chain of products. As for future research, we conclude that more research is needed on how actions at different spatial levels and how the different players along supply chains can create the best synergies to make the water footprint of our production and consumption patterns more sustainable.

Phytosociological study to define restoration measures in a mined area in Minas Gerais, Brazil
Balestrin, Diego ; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio ; Schoorl, Jeroen Machiel ; Teixeira Lopes, Aldo ; Fonseca de Andrade, Christian - \ 2019
Ecological Engineering 135 (2019). - ISSN 0925-8574 - p. 8 - 16.
Environmental restoration - Mining - Sustainability

In this study we describe a case study to evaluate the floristic diversity and the soil conditions of post mined area, currently under 14-years of restoration. The study area is located in the municipality of Descoberto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and has one hectare in the process of restoration through the planting of seedlings. The forest inventory of all individuals with Circumference at Breast Height (CBH) ≥15 cm was carried out and the phytosociological parameters were evaluated. The study area shows a high floristic diversity H′ = 3.258 as well as equability (J′ = 0.783), evidencing that the study area is floristically heterogeneous and has low ecological dominance. In addition, this area presented floristic similarity to other restored areas that were already in a more advanced restoration process. Considering soil quality, the restored study area shows higher levels of cation exchange capacity (t), approximate sum base values (SB) and base saturation (V) than those verified in nearby areas. Evaluating the successional characteristics (greater presence of individuals of secondary succession) and the domain of species with dispersion by animals, we can infer that the area is in an advanced stage of restoration, as well as performing its environmental and social functions. Thus, we can conclude that the restoration of mined areas is feasible when the restoration techniques are applied correctly. Furthermore, we can say that these successful restoration measures are improving the environmental sustainability and helping considerably the recovery of losses caused by mining.

Meat alternatives: an integrative comparison
Weele, Cor van der; Feindt, Peter ; Jan van der Goot, Atze ; Mierlo, Barbara van; Boekel, Martinus van - \ 2019
Trends in Food Science and Technology 88 (2019). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 505 - 512.
Algae - Cultured meat - Innovation - Insects - Plant-based meat alternatives - Protein transition - Pulses - Sustainability

Background: Meat, an important source of protein and other nutrients in human diets, is one of the major drivers of global environmental change in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use, animal welfare, human health and directions of breeding. Novel alternatives, including novel meat proxies (cultured meat, plant-based meat alternatives), insects and novel protein sources (like algae)receive increasing attention. But plausible socio-technological pathways for their further development have not yet been compared in an integrative, interdisciplinary perspective. Scope and approach: This paper applies an integrated conceptual framework – the Reflexive Integrative Comparative Heuristic (RICH)– to comparatively assess the nutritional implications, potential sustainability gains and required technological and social-institutional change of five meat alternatives. We formulate plausible pathways for each alternative and identify their pre-conditions and implications. Key findings and conclusions: High levels of transformation and processing limit the environmental sustainability gains of cultured meat, highly processed plant-based meat alternatives, algae- and insect-based food. At the same time, a high degree of societal coordination is needed to enable the potentially disruptive level of technological, organisational and institutional innovations needed to make these novel alternatives viable. Widespread expectations that solutions require break-through novelties or high-tech alternatives imply a neglect of existing and viable alternatives. Our integrative analysis suggests that the priority given to meat alternatives with limited sustainability potential does not just raise questions of technological optimisation of production systems, but is also a second-order problem of the framing of search directions.

Towards a framework for designing and assessing game-based approaches for sustainable water governance
Aubert, Alice H. ; Medema, Wietske ; Wals, Arjen E.J. - \ 2019
Water 11 (2019)4. - ISSN 2073-4441
Gamification - Serious games - Stakeholder participation - Sustainability - Water governance

Most of the literature on serious games and gamification calls for a shift from evaluating practices to using theories to assess them. While the former is necessary to justify using game-based approaches, the latter enables understanding "why" game-based approaches are beneficial (or not). Based on earlier review papers and the papers in this special issue of Water entitled "Understanding game-based approaches for improving sustainable water governance: the potential of serious games to solve water problems", we show that game-based approaches in a water governance context are relatively diverse. In particular, the expected aims, targeted audience, and spatial and temporal scales are factors that differentiate game-based approaches. These factors also strongly influence the design of game-based approaches and the research developed to assess them. We developed a framework to guide and reflect on the design and assessment of game-based approaches, and we suggest opportunities for future research. In particular, we highlight the lack of game-based approaches that can support "society-driven" sustainable water governance.

Emerging trends in aquaculture value chain research
Bush, S.R. ; Belton, Ben ; Little, D.C. ; Islam, Saidul - \ 2019
Aquaculture 498 (2019). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 428 - 434.
Value chains - Development - Governance - Trade - Global South - Innovation - Sustainability
This paper introduces a special issue of Aquaculture that brings together the largest collection of research on aquaculture value chains compiled to date, comprising 19 individual papers and this introductory review. The introduction identifies five themes emerging from research on aquaculture value chains in the special issue, namely: multi-polarity, diversity and scale, dynamics of transformation, performance and equity, and technical and institutional innovation. Contrary to much research to date, the papers addressing these themes show how the expansion of aquaculture has resulted highly diverse configurations of production for consumption in the global South. Collectively, the papers highlight the need for greater attention to neglected value chain segments and categories of actor, modes of production, regulation, and innovation, and patterns of access to benefits. The papers synthesized also affirm the need for more rigorous and diverse future value chain research to illuminate the aquaculture sector's ongoing development, and contribute to the sustainable expansion as an increasingly important component of the global food system.
Too ugly, but I love its shape : Reducing food waste of suboptimal products with authenticity (and sustainability) positioning
Giesen, Roxanne I. van; Hooge, Ilona E. de - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 75 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 249 - 259.
Authenticity - Food waste - Marketing strategies - Pricing - Suboptimal products - Sustainability

In the societal change towards a more sustainable future, reducing food waste is one of the mostly discussed topics. One significant source of food waste is the reluctance of supply chains and consumers to sell, purchase, or consume products that deviate from optimal products on the basis of only cosmetic specifications. Yet, it is currently unclear how consumers can be motivated to purchase such suboptimal products. The present research suggests that presenting suboptimal products with a sustainability positioning or with an authenticity positioning can positively affect consumers’ purchase intentions and quality perceptions of suboptimal products. Two studies (total N = 1804) presenting suboptimal products with a sustainability positioning, an authenticity positioning, or no positioning under varying price levels reveal that especially authenticity positioning can increase purchase intentions for and quality perceptions of suboptimal products independent of the prices of suboptimal products. A sustainability positioning appears to work best when combined with a moderate price discount. Moreover, the findings show that respondents have lower intentions to waste suboptimal foods when a clear positioning is provided compared to when this is not provided. Together, these findings provide a constructive first step towards a more sustainable solution for the suboptimal product waste problem.

Think outside the European box: Identifying sustainability competencies for a base of the pyramid context
Demssie, Yared Nigussie ; Wesselink, Renate ; Biemans, Harm J.A. ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 221 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 828 - 838.
Base of the pyramid - Corporate social responsibility - Delphi - Sustainability - Sustainability competence - Sustainable development

The complex and global nature of unsustainability requires concerted efforts of sustainability change agents from developed and developing countries all over the world. Various attempts have been made to define competencies needed for change agents to effectively contribute to sustainable development. However, most of the studies on sustainability competencies are Eurocentric in focus. Therefore, it is unclear if a base of the pyramid context would require a different set of competencies. This context is characterized by low per capita income, limited infrastructure, and rural population. To fill this gap, we conducted a Delphi study in two rounds in Ethiopia, as a country at the base of the pyramid. Experts (n = 33) from academia and the industry rated and confirmed seven competencies from the literature as being generally important for sustainable development. Additionally, they identified eight sustainability y competencies specifically important for the Ethiopian context, and thus potentially for other countries with the features of base of the pyramid context. Systems thinking and transdisciplinary competence gained the highest ratings. A subsequent specific literature search revealed that previous studies in contexts other than the base of the pyramid context also identified some of the eight additional sustainability competencies. This is important for future studies regarding the universal nature of certain sustainability competencies. The study brought together three fields of research: sustainability, competence, and base of the pyramid context. Our findings contribute to the theory of professional competence by showing that certain sustainability competencies can be of generic nature, independent of socioeconomic context, whereas others are context-specific. In addition, the sustainability competencies may serve as intended learning outcomes of education and training and development programs for sustainability.

Do field-level practices of Cambodian farmers prompt a pesticide lock-in?
Flor, Rica Joy ; Maat, Harro ; Hadi, Buyung Asmara Ratna ; Kumar, Virender ; Castilla, Nancy - \ 2019
Field Crops Research 235 (2019). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 68 - 78.
Agronomic practices - Integrated Pest Management - Mekong Delta - Pesticide lock-in - Sustainability

Agronomic practices such as fertilizer application or seed rates have been known to affect rice pests and damage, but the evidence is often blurred in studies on pest management decisions and invisible in studies on pesticide lock-in. Combined agronomic practices and pesticide use may create technological lock-in, occurring when the combination has accumulated advantages over time which encourages its continued use, even if better options are available. We present results from a survey among farmers (N = 400) from five provinces in Cambodia. We asked about field-level, agronomic practices and applied a regression analysis to determine whether these practices affect pesticide application. Farmers from the selected provinces produce rice intensively, particularly those in provinces in the Mekong Delta where a percentage of farmers would aim for three crops per year. Cambodian farmers in the five sampled provinces rely on pesticides for pest control with an average of 2–5 applications each for herbicide and insecticide, and 1–6 applications of fungicide per season. Farmers from the Mekong Delta, particularly Prey Veng Province, made more pesticide applications. Interestingly, of nine agronomic practices tested, six were found to significantly correlate with no applications as in organic management recommendations, as well as misuse of pesticides. Varied combinations of agronomic practices including seed rate, crop establishment method, seed treatment, cultivating larger landholdings, irrigation through gravity irrigation system, and number of fertilizer applications predicted herbicide, insecticide and fungicide application. Interactions varied across wet and dry season. Pesticide use makes sense to farmers given a specific combination of agronomic practices. Therefore we argue that field-level agronomic practices contribute to pesticide lock-in as much as wider innovation system conditions such as trade and regulation of pesticides. These findings imply that addressing the pesticide lock-in to facilitate a shift to more sustainable practices, such as Integrated Pest Management, should not only aim at broader innovation systems or industry level changes. There are adjustments and fine-tuning of agronomic practices that also need to be made to wean farmers from pesticide reliance.

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