Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Motivations for the use of sustainable intensification practices among smallholder farmers in Tanzania and Malawi
Jambo, Isaac Jonathan ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Bekunda, Mateete ; Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2019
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 89 (2019). - ISSN 1573-5214
External drivers - Farming constraints - Farming systems - Self determination theory - Sustainable development - Technology adoption

Agricultural techniques and technologies that could foster sustainable intensification of farming (hereafter: SI practices) can originate from existing farm practices, from the adoption of externally suggested new practices, or from an adaptation of existing or new practices. The rate at which farmers use SI practices is often low and influenced by on-farm biophysical and socio-economic conditions. There is a narrow understanding of the role of motivations and the balance between external incentives and intrinsic motivations for use of SI practices. We analysed the role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 246 sampled households alongside the perceived benefits and constraints from SI practices in five districts of Malawi and Tanzania. Our results showed that farmer decisions were not exclusively dependent on external incentives, but also on intrinsic values which farmers attach to their production resources and farming practices. Despite various benefits perceived, farmers highlighted the lack of financial resources as a major constraint to the use of externally proposed SI practices. While we hypothesized that intrinsic motivation would be much stronger than extrinsic in influencing decisions to use SI practices, our results demonstrated equal importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in influencing the number of SI practices which smallholder farmers used. We suggest explicitly addressing both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in further research in combination with socio-economic and biophysical variables to give a better reflection of what drives farmers’ decisions to use more sustainable farming practices. We argue that the design of SI research programs should support motivations of diversified farmers to participate in such programs. Emphasising farmers’ autonomy, a key to intrinsic motivation, can stimulate ownership of SI projects and smoothen the process of adoption, adaptation and use of SI practices by farmers, and is expected to reduce the mismatch between proposed practices and farmers’ expectations.

Strengthening the socio-ethical foundations of the circular economy: Lessons from responsible research and innovation
Inigo, Edurne A. ; Blok, Vincent - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 233 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 280 - 291.
Circular economy - Responsible innovation - Sustainable development

The circular economy (CE) framework has captured the attention of industry and academia and received strong policy support. It is currently deemed as a powerful solution for sustainability, despite ongoing criticism on its oversimplification and lack of consideration of socio-ethical issues. In parallel, the concept of RRI has emerged strongly with a strong focus on the integration of social desirability in innovation under transparency, democracy and mutual responsiveness principles. In this paper, we critically examine the literature on the CE and RRI in order to find out how the different focus of RRI may provide an innovation governance framework to strengthen the CE framework. There are two main ways in which RRI could further the CE: first, anticipating unexpected consequences, helping to break disciplinary barriers and acknowledging systemic limits that are not currently taken into consideration; and second, the integration of socio-ethical issues in the CE, and addressing the social implications of the CE through stakeholder participation. However, future research should look at remaining blind spots of CE and RRI, such as non-technological innovation, the demand-side of innovation and the development of business models. With that objective, we suggest a research agenda for common development of the frameworks.

Think outside the European box: Identifying sustainability competencies for a base of the pyramid context
Demssie, Yared Nigussie ; Wesselink, Renate ; Biemans, Harm J.A. ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production 221 (2019). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 828 - 838.
Base of the pyramid - Corporate social responsibility - Delphi - Sustainability - Sustainability competence - Sustainable development

The complex and global nature of unsustainability requires concerted efforts of sustainability change agents from developed and developing countries all over the world. Various attempts have been made to define competencies needed for change agents to effectively contribute to sustainable development. However, most of the studies on sustainability competencies are Eurocentric in focus. Therefore, it is unclear if a base of the pyramid context would require a different set of competencies. This context is characterized by low per capita income, limited infrastructure, and rural population. To fill this gap, we conducted a Delphi study in two rounds in Ethiopia, as a country at the base of the pyramid. Experts (n = 33) from academia and the industry rated and confirmed seven competencies from the literature as being generally important for sustainable development. Additionally, they identified eight sustainability y competencies specifically important for the Ethiopian context, and thus potentially for other countries with the features of base of the pyramid context. Systems thinking and transdisciplinary competence gained the highest ratings. A subsequent specific literature search revealed that previous studies in contexts other than the base of the pyramid context also identified some of the eight additional sustainability competencies. This is important for future studies regarding the universal nature of certain sustainability competencies. The study brought together three fields of research: sustainability, competence, and base of the pyramid context. Our findings contribute to the theory of professional competence by showing that certain sustainability competencies can be of generic nature, independent of socioeconomic context, whereas others are context-specific. In addition, the sustainability competencies may serve as intended learning outcomes of education and training and development programs for sustainability.

Food systems for sustainable development : proposals for a profound four-part transformation
Caron, Patrick ; Ferrero y de Loma-Osorio, Gabriel ; Nabarro, David ; Hainzelin, Etienne ; Guillou, Marion ; Andersen, Inger ; Arnold, Tom ; Astralaga, Margarita ; Beukeboom, Marcel ; Bickersteth, Sam ; Bwalya, Martin ; Caballero, Paula ; Campbell, Bruce M. ; Divine, Ntiokam ; Fan, Shenggen ; Frick, Martin ; Friis, Anette ; Gallagher, Martin ; Halkin, Jean Pierre ; Hanson, Craig ; Lasbennes, Florence ; Ribera, Teresa ; Rockstrom, Johan ; Schuepbach, Marlen ; Steer, Andrew ; Tutwiler, Ann ; Verburg, Gerda - \ 2018
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 38 (2018)4. - ISSN 1774-0746
Agriculture - Climate change - Food systems - Koronivia - Nexus - Sustainable development - Transformation

Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative. Our starting point is that agriculture and food systems’ policies should be aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This calls for deep changes in comparison with the paradigms that prevailed when steering the agricultural change in the XXth century. We identify the comprehensive food systems transformation that is needed. It has four parts: first, food systems should enable all people to benefit from nutritious and healthy food. Second, they should reflect sustainable agricultural production and food value chains. Third, they should mitigate climate change and build resilience. Fourth, they should encourage a renaissance of rural territories. The implementation of the transformation relies on (i) suitable metrics to aid decision-making, (ii) synergy of policies through convergence of local and global priorities, and (iii) enhancement of development approaches that focus on territories. We build on the work of the “Milano Group,” an informal group of experts convened by the UN Secretary General in Milan in 2015. Backed by a literature review, what emerges is a strategic narrative linking climate, agriculture and food, and calling for a deep transformation of food systems at scale. This is critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. The narrative highlights the needed consistency between global actions for sustainable development and numerous local-level innovations. It emphasizes the challenge of designing differentiated paths for food systems transformation responding to local and national expectations. Scientific and operational challenges are associated with the alignment and arbitration of local action within the context of global priorities.

Does organic farming provide a viable alternative for smallholder rice farmers in India?
Eyhorn, Frank ; Berg, Marrit van den; Decock, Charlotte ; Maat, Harro ; Srivastava, Ashish - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
Contract farming - Farming systems - Rural livelihoods - Sustainable development - System of rice intensification - Traditional varieties

Smallholder rice farming is characterized by low returns and substantial environmental impact. Conversion to organic management and linking farmers to fair trade markets could offer an alternative. Engaging in certified cash-crop value chains could thereby provide an entry path to simultaneously reduce poverty and improve environmental sustainability. Based on comprehensive data from a representative sample of approximately 80 organic and 80 conventional farms in northern India, we compared yield and profitability of the main rotation crops over a period of five years. Contrary to the widespread belief that yields in organic farming are inevitably lower, our study shows that organic farmers achieved the same yields in cereals and pulses as conventional farmers, with considerably lower external inputs. Due to 45% lower production costs and higher sales prices, organic basmati cultivation was 105% more profitable than cultivating ordinary rice under conventional management. However, since holdings are small and the share of agricultural income of total household income is declining, conversion to organic basmati farming alone will not provide households a sufficiently attractive perspective into the future. We propose that future efforts to enhance the long-term viability of rice-based organic farming systems in this region focus on diversification involving higher value crops.

Incorporating soil ecosystem services into urban planning : status, challenges and opportunities
Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Delden, Hedwig van; Ploeg, Martine van der - \ 2018
Landscape Ecology 33 (2018)7. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1087 - 1102.
Ecosystem services - Integrated planning - Soil - Sustainable development - Urban planning

Context: Traditionally soils have not received much attention in urban planning. For this, tools are needed that can both be understood both by soil scientists and urban planners. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enhance the role of soil knowledge in urban planning practice, through the following objectives: (1) identifying the role soil plays in recent urban plans; (2) analysing the ecosystem services and indicators used in soil science in an urban context; and (3) inferring the main challenges and opportunities to integrate soil into urban planning. Methods: Seven urban plans and reports of world cities that include sustainability goals were analysed using text-mining and qualitative analysis, with a critical view on the inclusion of soil-related concepts. Secondly, the contribution of soil science to urban planning was assessed with an overview of case studies in the past decade that focus on soil-related ecosystem services in urban context. Results: The results show an overall weak attention to soil and soil-related ecosystem services in the implementation and monitoring phases of urban plans. The majority of soil science case studies uses a haphazard approach to measure ecosystem service indicators which may not capture the ecosystem services appropriately and hence lack relevance for urban planning. Conclusions: Even though the most urban plans assessed recognize soil as a key resource, most of them fail to integrate indicators to measure or monitor soil-related functions. There is a need to develop soil-related ecosystem services that can be easily integrated and understood by other fields.

Economics of Sustainable Development and the Bioeconomy
Zilberman, David ; Gordon, Ben ; Hochman, Gal ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2018
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 40 (2018)1. - ISSN 2040-5790 - p. 22 - 37.
Sustainable development - bioeconomy - dynamics - heterogeneity - adoption - renewable resources
Sustainable development can be attained by policies that are derived by analyses that integrate biophysical considerations into economic models. We show that policies and incentives that correct market failure can attain sustainable resources, and development of the bioeconomy, which relies on biological processes and feed-stock to produce renewable products. The design of sustainable development policies and analysis of the bioeconomy pose new challenges to applied economists, who are uniquely qualified to integrate economic analysis with biophysical considerations.
Barriers for the ecosystem services concept in European water and nature conservation law
Kistenkas, Frederik H. ; Bouwma, Irene M. - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt B. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 223 - 227.
Ecosystem services - EU law - Governance modes - Sustainable development - Water Framework Directive - Water law
In the 2015 River Weser case the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) appears to demand a rather strict one-dimensional protection of water quality under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Article 4 WFD, the very essence of this EU directive, should then be read as a strict water quality assessment on good ecological potential and other ecological WFD criteria. This jurisprudence could surely be welcomed as it secures blue environmental interests, but it may at the same time easily be encountered and criticized as a contradiction of modern EU policy documents on sustainable development and green or blue growth, as it may de iure subordinate socio-economic interests. It also may exclude clusters of ecosystem services; not only provisioning and cultural services, but also other not legally protected regulating services. Here, a CJEU-induced limited testing on only a few limited ecological criteria of Article 4 WFD might tend to resemble the one-criterion testing of the Natura 2000 habitats assessment and its possible shortcomings in terms of sustainable multi-functionality. In the derogation regimes of both WFD and Habitats Directive only overriding public interests may outweigh environmental objectives. In a recent 2016 case on hydropower the CJEU makes it clear renewable energy production can be such an overriding public interest, but still not all interests or ecosystem services do qualify to be part of a weighing process in the derogation stage. We should be aware this may contrast with current EU environmental policy documents like Green Infrastructure and Blue Growth. It would help if EU policy documents could be more explicit that sustainable development might be the default throughout Europe, but not necessarily in WFD waters and Natura 2000 sites.
Coping with Climate Change in A densely Populated Delta : A Paradigm Shift in Flood And Water Management in The Netherlands
Ritzema, H.P. ; Loon-Steensma, J.M. Van - \ 2018
Irrigation and Drainage 67 (2018)s1. - ISSN 1531-0353 - p. 52 - 65.
Coastal lowland development - Drainage - Flood protection - Land use - Sustainable development - Water management
The expected effects of climate change and economic and population growth have motivated the Netherlands government to reformulate its policies on flood protection and water management. Flood protection and drainage are needed to make this low-lying country habitable and suitable for agriculture and other land uses: more than 65% of the Netherlands is protected by dykes against flooding. The likely impacts of climate change in combination with socio-economic developments call for proactive and innovative plans. The new policies and standards are based on an innovative approach: instead of focusing only on prevention, the new standards take into account both the probability of flooding as well as the potential impacts and risks of flooding, for example the individual risk of being hit by a flood. Based on these new standards, conservation, adaptation and mitigation actions are used to create a multi-layer safety approach that focuses on the water management system as well as spatial planning. Examples are presented of changes in perspectives and how flood protection, water management and spatial planning are being combined. These examples can be a basis for further adaptation measures in both the Netherlands as well as in other low-lying countries worldwide.
Energy, land-use and greenhouse gas emissions trajectories under a green growth paradigm
Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Stehfest, Elke ; Gernaat, David E.H.J. ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Berg, Maarten van den; Harmsen, Mathijs ; Boer, Harmen Sytze de; Bouwman, Lex F. ; Daioglou, Vassilis ; Edelenbosch, Oreane Y. ; Girod, Bastien ; Kram, Tom ; Lassaletta, Luis ; Lucas, Paul L. ; Meijl, Hans van; Müller, Christoph ; Ruijven, Bas J. van; Sluis, Sietske van der; Tabeau, Andrzej - \ 2017
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 42 (2017). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 237 - 250.
Climate change research - Integrated assessment - Scenarios - Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) - Sustainable development

This paper describes the possible developments in global energy use and production, land use, emissions and climate changes following the SSP1 storyline, a development consistent with the green growth (or sustainable development) paradigm (a more inclusive development respecting environmental boundaries). The results are based on the implementation using the IMAGE 3.0 integrated assessment model and are compared with a) other IMAGE implementations of the SSPs (SSP2 and SSP3) and b) the SSP1 implementation of other integrated assessment models. The results show that a combination of resource efficiency, preferences for sustainable production methods and investment in human development could lead to a strong transition towards a more renewable energy supply, less land use and lower anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2100 than in 2010, even in the absence of explicit climate policies. At the same time, climate policy would still be needed to reduce emissions further, in order to reduce the projected increase of global mean temperature from 3 °C (SSP1 reference scenario) to 2 or 1.5 °C (in line with current policy targets). The SSP1 storyline could be a basis for further discussions on how climate policy can be combined with achieving other societal goals.

Designing and evaluating sustainable development pathways for semi-subsistence crop–livestock systems : lessons from Kenya
Valdivia, Roberto O. ; Antle, John M. ; Stoorvogel, Jetse J. - \ 2017
Agricultural Economics 48 (2017). - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 11 - 26.
Agricultural pathways - C5 - Kenya - O3 - Q1 - Q5 - Semi-subsistence crop–livestock systems - Sub-Saharan Africa - Sustainable development - Trade-off analysis
Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in African agriculture requires a better understanding why high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture despite decades of policy interventions and development projects. In this article, we hypothesize that policies need to account for the key features of the semi-subsistence crop–livestock systems (CLS) in the region to become effective. The semi-subsistence CLS are characterized by a high degree of biophysical and economic heterogeneity and a complex, diversified production system involving a combination of subsistence and cash crops with livestock. We investigated the potential for interventions proposed by the Government of Kenya to meet the SDGs by 2030. The analysis uses an integrated modeling approach designed to deal with the key features of these systems. A strategy that stimulates rural development, increases farm size to a sustainable level, and reduces distortions and inefficiencies in input and output markets could lead to a sustainable development pathway and achieve the SDGs for rural households dependent on CLS.
Refocusing ecosystem services towards sustainability
Schroter, Matthias ; Stumpf, Klara H. ; Loos, Jacqueline ; Oudenhoven, Alexander P.E. van; Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne ; Abson, David J. - \ 2017
Ecosystem Services 25 (2017). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 35 - 43.
Distributive justice - Intergenerational justice - Intragenerational justice - Procedural justice - Sustainable development

Ecosystem services and sustainability have become prominent concepts in international policy and research agendas. However, a common conceptual ground between these concepts is currently underdeveloped. In particular, a vision is missing on how to align ecosystem services with overarching sustainability goals. Originally, the ecosystem service concept focused on sustaining human well-being through biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, studies within the field also consider appropriation beyond carrying capacities, and natural resource management that involves environmentally damaging inputs as ecosystem service provision. This brings the ecosystem service concept into conflict with the core goal of sustainability, i.e. achieving justice within ecological limits over the long term. Here, we link the ecosystem service concept to sustainability outcomes operationalized in terms of justice. Our framing positions sustainability as an overarching goal which can be achieved through seven key strategies: equitable (1) intergenerational and (2) intragenerational distribution, (3) interspecies distribution, (4) fair procedures, recognition and participation, (5) sufficiency, (6) efficiency, and (7) persistence. Applying these strategies has the potential to re-focus the ecosystem service concept towards the normative goal of sustainability. We identify research needs for each strategy and further discuss questions regarding operationalization of the strategies.

E-participation for environmental sustainability in transitional urban China
He, Guizhen ; Boas, Ingrid ; Mol, Arthur P.J. ; Lu, Yonglong - \ 2017
Sustainability Science 12 (2017)2. - ISSN 1862-4065 - p. 187 - 202.
China - E-participation - Environmental movement - Information and communication technologies - Sustainable development

Using information and communication technologies (ICTs), e-participation is a tool that promotes the inclusion of the public in participative and deliberative decision-making processes, thus contributing to a transformation of the interaction between government and citizens in environmental governance and sustainable development. In a number of Chinese cities, citizens increasingly draw on ICTs to promote environmental sustainability and to encourage community-based actions aimed to address various environmental concerns. The potential success of e-participation and the role of ICTs in China has, however, not been well explored. The objective of this study is to understand the role that ICTs can play in promoting public participation about environmental sustainability issues in urban China. Based on an online survey with 630 respondents, the study aims to: (1) analyze what public motivations, perception/attitudes and actions drive environmental e-participation; (2) identify barriers to e-participation, and (3) assess the different applications and functions of ICT for citizen participation in environmental sustainability. The analysis illustrates how ICTs have helped the public to obtain sensitive information about sustainability issues, to mobilize people and to gain media coverage for their actions. The central finding is that new technologies have taken citizen engagement to new heights online. More specifically, the age of ICTs has unleashed a stronger public voice on environmental governance and sustainability issues in urban China, which does not go unnoticed by the Chinese state authorities.

Governance of the Wadden Sea
Slob, Adriaan F.L. ; Geerdink, T.R.A. ; Rockmann, Christine ; Vöge, S. - \ 2016
Marine Policy 71 (2016). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 325 - 333.
Governance - International cooperation - Marine spatial planning - Sustainable development - Wadden Sea

The Wadden Sea is a unique area from ecological, geological and cultural perspectives and lies in the territories of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The trilateral cooperation on the protection of the Wadden Sea can be marked to start in 1978, although the countries already cooperated before that date. This article describes the evolution of the governance of the Wadden Sea during the more than 35 years of existence of the trilateral cooperation and shows the co-evolvement of issues and institutional arrangements over that period. The trilateral cooperation is built upon concerns from the 1960s and 70s about the ecological status of the Wadden Sea and has a focus on nature conservation, while later the sustainability paradigm came up which is covered by the Wadden Sea Forum. The latest development is the inscription of the Wadden Sea as UNESCO World Heritage Site, which gives an extra boost to the trilateral cooperation. This article describes several aspects that are important for the governance of the Wadden Sea, such as the levels of coordination, conflict regulating mechanisms, the role of science and scientific information, stakeholder participation, and juridical arrangements.

Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community
Bets, L.K.J. van; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2016
Marine Policy 69 (2016). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 52 - 61.
Coalitions - Marine community - Small Island Developing State - Sustainable development - Hammerfest
Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest, which opened up the Barents Sea for oil and gas drilling. Although environmental organisations, Sámi indigenous people, fisheries and local inhabitants of Hammerfest try to strive for environmental and community development in relation to liquefied natural gas production by engaging in negotiations with Statoil and the Norwegian government, they are overshadowed by economic growth, implemented by a strong coalition between Statoil and the Norwegian State. Sustainable development of liquefied natural gas production is therefore constrained by centralized decision-making by the institutional coalition. Statoil’s concessions on environmental and community development were rather based on cost-efficient and short-term means. This is strengthened by the fact that contact with stakeholders faded away once the social license to operate was achieved. This article will analyse why current governance of liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest did not move beyond economic development.
Involving the animal as a contributor in design to overcome animal welfare related trade-offs : The dust bath unit as an example
Weeghel, Ellen van; Bos, Bram ; Spoelstra, Sierk ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. - \ 2016
Biosystems Engineering 145 (2016). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 76 - 92.
Animal behaviour - Animal production systems - Engineering design - Reflexive Interactive Design (RIO) - Sustainable development - Trade-offs

Allowing farm animals to have active control and influence over their environment through the expression of intrinsically motivated behaviours contributes to their (positive)welfare. However, farm animals are predominantly seen as passive receivers of what husbandry systems should provide for them. Additionally, designers and engineers of farming systems neglect the animals' potential in the design of husbandry systems, resulting in disadvantageous trade-offs between animal welfare and economic and environmental sustainability aspects. This paper describes, through the application of an interactive structured design approach, how laying hens can actively contribute to the functioning of the husbandry system by exercising their own goals. The ambition of this research was to allow animals to contribute to creating opportunities that might overcome existing trade-offs between animal welfare and other sustainability goals. The Reflexive Interactive Design approach was applied to achieve this ambition. This paper presents the methodological steps of the design process to contribute to the reduction of the (fine) dust problem in laying hen husbandry using the dust bath unit as an example. Also, this paper describes how we incorporated the laying hen as a contributor in the design process. We show that facilitating intrinsically motivated laying hen dust bathing behaviour can simultaneously resolve the environmental dust problem experienced in loose housing systems.

Eco-cities, governance and sustainable lifestyles : The case of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City
Flynn, Andrew ; Yu, Li ; Feindt, Peter ; Chen, Chun - \ 2016
Habitat International 53 (2016). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 78 - 86.
Governance - Lifestyle - Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City - Sustainable development

In this paper we argue that to analyse the eco-development process we need to explore it as a whole, from design, through delivery and then to how these developments influence the behaviour of the people who live and work in eco-developments. At each stage of the development process it is important to analyse and understand what key actors understand by the term 'eco' (resource efficiency of land and materials), how they understand the institutional, economic, social and communicative mechanisms to effectively produce 'eco' developments and 'green economy', and what learning opportunities exist to promote positive ecological and competitiveness ideas. Perhaps, because so little is known, the greatest need of all is to analyse how the new residents of eco-cities are living their lives and whether or not they are more environmentally friendly than before. In this paper we provide empirical data on those who have moved to the most profile eco-development in China, the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. The data reveals that whilst the habits of some residents are sympathetic to the environment, other parts of their lifestyle - linked to comfort and convenience - are not. Moreover, the aspirations of the residents for an increasingly middle class lifestyle mean that resource use could be even higher in the future. This is a highly significant finding both for those engaged in academic debates on eco-development and for policy makers and practitioners involved in the development of eco-cities.

Sustainable Development: New Thoughts, New Policy, New Law?
Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2016
In: Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development / Mauerhofer , Volker, Zwitserland : Springer - ISBN 9783319260198 - p. 535 - 548.
Ecosystem services - EU law - European nature conservation law - Spatial planning law - Policy - Sustainable development
New thoughts and new policy on sustainable development have been brought forward and widely discussed and accepted, but law is still lagging behind. This paper aims to fill up that gap and tries to put some new light on how legislation and jurisprudence could meet up with modern sustainability insights. Much nature and planning legislation predates our common understandings of sustainability and might be able to obstruct sustainable development. However, sustainable growth, usually seen in terms of development for which assets and impacts for ecology, economy and society are brought in balance, should be facilitated by future law rather than being obstructed. The paper will focus on European and domestic nature and planning law and their shortcomings and possibilities in terms of sustainable development. The concept of ecosystem services will show the likely obstructions of current law and will help to alter these law provisions as some new improvement directions will be presented.
Industrial symbiosis as sustainable development strategy : Adding a change perspective
Verguts, Veerle ; Dessein, Joost ; Dewulf, Art ; Lauwers, Ludwig ; Werkman, Renate ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2016
International Journal of Sustainable Development 19 (2016)1. - ISSN 0960-1406 - p. 15 - 35.
Change perspective - Change process - Continuous change - Dual-perspective framework - Eco-industrial development - Episodic change - Greenhouse parks - Industrial ecology - Industrial symbiosis - Intervention - Sustainability - Sustainable development

Industrial symbiosis (IS) is the coordination of energy and material flows among geographically proximate firms to increase economic performance while reducing environmental impact. Although IS is gaining popularity as a sustainability strategy, implementation is proving difficult. In an attempt to understand these roadblocks to implementation, we analyse the development and realisation of IS systems as complex change processes. Based on insights from organisational change literature we introduce the dual-perspective framework as an additional way to look at these IS change processes. Our framework combines two different but complementary perspectives to analyse IS: episodic change, meaning occasional and radical change driven by exogenous factors or interventions; and continuous change, meaning ongoing changes resulting from constant micro-adaptations. By adding insights on the nature of change, this framework extends the analytical reach and identifies situation-adapted intervention strategies. The framework is applied to a case of Flemish (Belgian) eco-industrial greenhouse park development.

The role(s) of universities in dealing with global wicked problems through multi-stakeholder initiatives
Dentoni, D. ; Bitzer, V.C. - \ 2015
Journal of Cleaner Production 106 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 68 - 78.
Universities - Multi-stakeholder initiatives - Cross-sector collaboration - Sustainable development - Wicked problems
Multi-stakeholder initiatives have emerged as collaborative partnerships to deal with wicked problems, particularly in the global food system. This article analyzes the role that academics play in these initiatives at a global level, and the nature of their participation. Based on a qualitative analysis supported by a database of 41 multi-stakeholder initiatives in the global agriculture and food sector and 51 interviews with their participants, this research identifies five key roles that academics play in multi-stakeholder initiatives and in communities of practice around them. In multi-stakeholder initiatives, academics act as knowledge experts, agenda-setting advisors and facilitators. In communities of practice, academics develop new knowledge on multi-stakeholder initiatives by theorizing from their observation and reflection and they build international bridges between students and multi-stakeholder initiatives. The results imply that academics engaging in multi-stakeholder initiatives that deal with global wicked problems can choose multiple paths to align their societal mission of co-creating sustainability with the broader organizational goals of their universities.
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