Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effects of LED lighting recipes on postharvest quality of leafy vegetables grown in a vertical farm
    Nicole, C.C.S. ; Mooren, J. ; Pereira Terra, A.T. ; Larsen, D.H. ; Woltering, E.J. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. ; Verdonk, J. ; Schouten, R. ; Troost, F. - \ 2019
    Acta Horticulturae 1256 (2019). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 481 - 488.
    LED lighting - Nitrate - Shelf life - Taste - Vertical farming - Vitamin C - Vitamin K

    Vertical farming is a technology that controls climate, water, nutrients and light to grow food in a closed environment. This allows vegetables to grow pesticide free and without other contaminants. We investigated how to influence the postharvest quality by controlling the preharvest growth conditions while keeping a high production rate. Several standard LED lighting recipes (red/blue or red/white either with or without far red) are in use in commercial farms. For this research we used lettuce, baby leaf spinach, rocket and basil from various cultivars all grown in a vertical farm research facility. We used the standard red white LED light recipe as control, while we changed the spectrum with higher blue and/or higher far-red or apply few days of continuous light stimulation just before the harvest (preharvest). Quality at harvest and quality loss during postharvest storage was monitored. We observed that light quality affects shelf life of baby leaf spinach and rocket by several days. The best light recipe for shelf life had a high blue content (35%) while the worst was with a high far red (25%). In addition, contents of vitamin C, K, nitrate, chlorophyll and flavonols were different under various light quality. Nitrate (in lettuce, rocket and spinach) and vitamin C in rocket were strongly affected by preharvest continuous light, offering a way to reduce the nitrate and improve the antioxidant level. In addition, taste was also found to change as a function of light quality but magnitude of this change is shown to be strongly cultivar dependent.

    Taste profiles of diets high and low in environmental sustainability and health
    Bussel, L.M. van; Kuijsten, A. ; Mars, M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - 8 p.
    Environmental sustainability - Health - Taste

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, we need to shift towards a more sustainable and healthier diet. This presumably affects the taste and texture of the diet. We assessed the taste profiles of current diets, of healthier and more sustainable diets and of less healthy and less sustainable diets in a Dutch adult population (n = 1380) in the Nutritional Questionnaire Plus study. The Dutch Healthy Diet index and the pReCiPe-score were used to create tertiles by healthiness and sustainability of diets respectively. Based on the lowest and highest tertiles of these two indicators we constructed four subgroups. For each participant, we calculated the proportional contribution of taste clusters (n = 6) to the total daily energy intake (en%) and the total amount consumed (gram%) using a taste database including ∼469 foods. The six taste clusters consisted of 1) neutral, 2) salt, umami, fat, 3) sweet, sour, 4) sweet, fat, 5) fat and 6) bitter tasting foods. ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences between subjects in the extreme tertiles. Results show that participants who have a healthier and more sustainable diet consumed less food products from the taste cluster ‘umami, salt, fat’ (16.1 en%) and ‘bitter’ (17.1 g%) and more products from the taste cluster ‘neutral’ (41.9 en%) compared to participants that have a less healthy and less sustainable diet (umami, salt, fat: 25.6 en%; bitter: 29.0 g%; neutral: 33.0 en%). Therefore, taste profiles should be taken into account when proposing menus and diets that are healthier and more sustainable.

    Combinations of vegetables can be more accepted than individual vegetables
    Stokkom, V.L. van; Graaf, C. de; Wang, S. ; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 72 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 147 - 158.
    Acceptance - Bitterness - Sweetness - Taste - Variety - Vegetables

    Enhancing sweetness of vegetables by addition of sucrose or sweeteners can increase acceptance but is not necessarily desirable. An alternative strategy could be to combine vegetables with other vegetables. By offering combinations of vegetables it might be possible to suppress bitterness, enhance sweetness and provide texture variety leading to increased acceptance. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of combining vegetables with other vegetables on sensory properties and acceptance. Carrot (sweet), cucumber (neutral), green bell pepper (bitter) and red bell pepper (sour) were assessed individually and in combination with the other three vegetables in two mixing ratios (1:2 and 2:1). Additionally, four combinations of three vegetables (mixing ratio 1:1:1) were assessed. A trained panel (n = 24) evaluated taste, flavour and texture and a consumer panel (n = 83) evaluated acceptance of all vegetables and combinations. Combining green bell pepper with carrot (1:2 and 2:1) increased sweetness and decreased bitterness. Combining cucumber, carrot or red bell pepper with green bell pepper (1:2) increased bitterness. Mainly sweetness and bitterness were associated with acceptance whereas texture (crunchiness, firmness and juiciness) did not strongly influence acceptance. Cucumber was the most accepted vegetable followed by carrot, red bell pepper and green bell pepper. Acceptance of vegetable combinations can differ from acceptance of individual vegetables depending on vegetable type and mixing ratio. Only 3 of 16 vegetable combinations had higher acceptance compared to the least accepted vegetable in the combination and similar acceptance as the more accepted vegetable in the combination. For 13 of 16 vegetable combinations acceptance did not increase compared to acceptance of individual vegetables. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at increasing vegetable consumption can be devised using specific combinations of vegetables.

    Low reported taste function is associated with low preference for high protein products in advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy
    Vries, Y.C. de; Boesveldt, S. ; Kampman, E. ; Graaf, C. de; Winkels, R.M. ; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van - \ 2019
    Clinical Nutrition 38 (2019)1. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 472 - 475.
    Cancer - Chemotherapy - Food preferences - Smell - Taste
    Background & aims: Cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy can experience a variety of chemosensory and food preference changes which may impact their nutritional status and quality of life. However, evidence of these changes in oesophagogastric cancer (OGC) patients is currently mostly qualitative and not supported by quantitative data. The aim of this study was to assess how self-reported and objective taste and smell function and food preferences change over time during chemotherapy in OGC patients. Methods: This observational study included 15 advanced OGC patients planned for first line treatment with capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Participants completed two test sessions scheduled before start of cytotoxic treatment and after two cycles. Self-reported and objective taste and smell function and the macronutrient and taste preference ranking task were conducted at each test session. Results: Self-reported taste and smell did not change upon chemotherapy. Objective taste function decreased during chemotherapy, although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.06), objective smell function did not change. Before and during chemotherapy, high protein foods were preferred over high carbohydrate and over low energy products, but food preferences did not change over time. A lower self-reported taste function correlated with a lower preference for high-protein products (ρ = 0.526, p = 0.003). Conclusion: This study suggests that objective taste function decreases during chemotherapy in OGC patients, but not smell function. A low reported taste function was related to a lower preference for high-protein products.
    Preference and perception of fat in salty and sweet foods
    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P. ; Costanzo, Andrew ; Keast, Russell S.J. - \ 2018
    Food Quality and Preference 64 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 131 - 137.
    Fat - Preference - Salt - Saltiness - Sugar - Sweetness - Taste

    Introduction Higher liking for fat is a risk factor for obesity. Fat in food is often combined with a sweet or salty taste. This study aims to investigate the role of fat on pleasantness and perception in both a salty and a sweet liquid food product. Methods In a complete factorial design, 47 participants (23 males) tasted creamy tomato soup and custard in four fat concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30%), combined with four salt concentrations (0.04, 0.35, 0.7, 1.5%) in soup, and four sugar concentrations (0.56, 4.5, 9, 18%) in custard. Participants rated pleasantness, saltiness intensity, sweetness intensity and fattiness intensity. The preferred fat concentrations were determined by hedonic ranking. Results Fat and salt separately affected pleasantness in soup (P <.01). Fat, sugar and their interaction affected pleasantness in custard (P <.001). Sugar and salt were a stronger influencer of pleasantness than fat. Preference for fat in soup was variable, whereas the highest concentration of 30% fat was preferred in custard (P <.001). Ratings of fattiness intensity were more responsive to fat concentrations in soup than in custard (P-interaction fat × food base <.001). Conclusion Salt and sugar are stronger influencers on food liking than fat. Across foods, there is no consistent effect of fat on perception or on liking, therefore the attractiveness of fat in foods cannot be generalised. The attraction to high fat levels in custard, while hardly perceiving differences in fat concentrations, remains unclear and needs further investigation.

    Sweetness but not sourness enhancement increases acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in children
    Stokkom, V.L. van; Poelman, A.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
    Appetite 131 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 100 - 107.
    Acceptance - Children - Sourness - Sweetness - Taste - Vegetables

    For children it is important to consume enough vegetables to establish healthy dietary patterns. Taste acceptance is an important factor contributing to food choice and consumption. Sweetness and sourness enhancement can increase acceptance of specific foods in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sweetness and sourness enhancement on acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in 5-6-year-old children. Three concentrations of sucrose (2, 5 and 10%) and citric acid (0.05, 0.08 and 0.15%) were added to cucumber and green capsicum purees. Children (n = 70, 5.7 ± 0.5 yrs) assessed acceptance of the vegetable purees using a 5-point hedonic facial scale. Sweetness enhancement significantly increased acceptance of cucumber purees (5 and 10% sucrose) and green capsicum purees (2 and 10% sucrose) compared to unmodified purees. Sourness enhancement (0.05, 0.08 and 0.15% citric acid) did not significantly influence acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees compared to unmodified purees. Children differed in acceptance of vegetable purees with added sucrose and citric acid. Sweetness likers (cucumber 77.1%, green capsicum 58.6%) accepted sucrose concentrations better than sweetness non-likers in both vegetables. Sourness likers (cucumber 50.0%, green capsicum 44.3%) accepted medium and high concentrations of citric acid better than sourness non-likers in cucumber and all citric acid concentrations in green capsicum. We conclude that enhancement of sweetness increases acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in most children whereas enhancement of sourness is better accepted by only a few children. This study highlights the challenge to get children to better accept vegetables, since only sweetness enhancement improved acceptance while addition of sucrose is undesirable. For a small subset of children enhancing sourness might be an alternative strategy to increase acceptance of vegetables.

    Exacting responses: lack of endocrine cephalic phase responses upon oro-sensory exposure
    Lasschuijt, Marlou P. ; Mars, Monica ; Graaf, Cees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-2392
    Ghrelin - Insulin - Pancreatic polypeptide - Taste - Texture
    Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) to food plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. One proposed underlying mechanism is the occurrence of cephalic phase responses (CPRs). CPRs include the pre-digestive endocrine responses induced by food-related sensory input. Yet, whether OSE duration or sweetness intensity affects CPRs is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the independent and interactive effects of oro-sensory duration (chewing) and stimulation intensity (sweetness) on endocrine CPRs and satiation. Eighteen males (22 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 2 kg/m2) participated in a 2 × 2 randomized study with a control condition. Each session participants performed modified sham feeding (MSF) with one of the four gel-based model foods. During the control session no MSF was performed. Model foods differed in chewing duration (hard or soft texture) and sweetness (low or high intensity). During each session, eight blood samples were collected up till 25 min after MSF onset. Subsequently, food intake from an ad libitum lunch was measured. No typical CPR was found for insulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and ghrelin. However, the overall PP response was 1.1 times greater for the hard sweet MSF condition compared to control (p = 0.02). Overall ghrelin responses were 1.1 times greater for the hard model food compared to the soft model food conditions (p = 0.003). These differences in endocrine response were not associated with differences in food intake at the subsequent meal. Exploratory sub-analysis of the responsive insulin curves showed that after 2.5 min of MSF the hard texture model foods insulin concentrations were 1.2 greater compared to the soft texture. These findings indicate that texture hardness and sweetness increase the overall PP response and that MSF on hard texture increases the overall ghrelin response compared to soft texture model foods. However, MSF on model foods does not lead to a typical CPR. This study, among others, shows that there are major dissimilarities in the endocrine responses to food stimulation between individuals. This emphasizes the importance of considering cephalic responders and non-responders. More research is needed to understand CPRs in relation to food texture and taste properties.
    Taste and smell perception and quality of life during and after systemic therapy for breast cancer
    Vries, Y.C. de; Boesveldt, S. ; Kelfkens, C.S. ; Posthuma, E.E. ; Den Berg, M.M.G.A. van; Kruif, J.T.C.M. de; Haringhuizen, A. ; Sommeijer, D.W. ; Buist, N. ; Grosfeld, S. ; Graaf, C. de; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Kampman, E. ; Winkels, R.M. - \ 2018
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 170 (2018)1. - ISSN 0167-6806 - p. 27 - 34.
    Breast cancer - Chemotherapy - Dysgeusia - Herceptin - Quality of life - Smell - Taste - Taste loss - Trastuzumab
    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess self-reported taste and smell perception after chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and to assess whether taste and smell perception is associated with quality of life after the end of chemotherapy. Methods: We included 135 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who completed chemotherapy and 114 women without cancer. Questionnaires on taste, smell, and quality of life were completed shortly after and 6 months after chemotherapy (patients) or at two moments with 6 months’ time window in between (comparisons). Results: Self-reported taste and smell perception were significantly lower in patients shortly after chemotherapy compared to the comparison group. Most patients recovered 6 months after chemotherapy, although patients who were still receiving trastuzumab then reported a lower taste and smell perception compared to patients who were not. A lower self-reported taste and smell were statistically significantly associated with a worse quality of life, social, emotional, and role functioning shortly after chemotherapy. Six months after chemotherapy, taste and smell were statistically significantly associated with quality of life, social and role functioning, but only in patients receiving trastuzumab. Conclusions: Most taste and smell alterations recovered within 6 months after the end of chemotherapy for breast cancer, but not for patients receiving trastuzumab. These results highlight the importance of monitoring taste and smell alterations during and after treatment with chemotherapy and trastuzumab, as they may impact quality of life.
    Exploring the framing of animal farming and meat consumption : On the diversity of topics used and qualitative patterns in selected demographic contexts
    Nijland, Hanneke J. ; Aarts, Noelle ; Woerkum, Cees M.J. Van - \ 2018
    Animals 8 (2018)2. - ISSN 2076-2615
    Animal farming - Animal welfare - Complexity - Contextual influence - Environmental impact - Framing - Human health - Meat consumption - Taste - Topics
    In various contexts, people talk about animal farming andmeat consumption using different arguments to construct and justify their (non-)acceptability. This article presents the results of an in-depth qualitative inquiry into the content of and contextual patterns in the everyday-life framing regarding this issue, performed among consumers in various settings in two extremes in the European sphere: The Netherlands and Turkey. We describe themethodological steps of collecting, coding, and organizing the variety of encountered framing topics, as well as our search for symbolic convergence in groups of consumers from different selected demographic contexts (country, urban-rural areas, gender, age, and education level). The framing of animal farming and meat consumption in everyday-life is not a simple one-issue rational display of facts, people referred to a vast range of topics in the categories knowledge, convictions, pronounced behaviour, values, norms, interests, and feelings. Looking at framing in relation to the researched demographic contexts, most patterns were found on the level of topics, symbolic convergence in lines of reasoning and composite framing was less prominent in groups based on single demographic contexts than anticipated. An explanation for this lies in the complexity of frame construction, happening in relation withmultiple interdependent contextual features.
    Heart rate and skin conductance responses to taste, taste novelty, and the (dis)confirmation of expectations
    Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2018
    Food Quality and Preference 65 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 9.
    Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Novelty - Skin conductance - Taste
    It is unclear whether the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can measure how people respond to food. Results focused on emotional responses are contradictory; therefore, the focus has shifted to other components of emotion, such as appraisals. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the differences in ANS responses related to appraisals; particularly taste novelty, valence, and the disconfirmation of expectations.A hundred and fifty-five participants joined this study. They tasted samples of different valence (sweet and bitter) twice: the first time without knowing the taste and the second while being informed of the taste. After this first block, participants tasted two additional samples: one that confirmed expectations and one that disconfirmed them. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Results show that the second experience with a taste led to cardiac deceleration. Heart rate changes were only related to valence when participants' expectations were (dis)confirmed. Heart rate decreased for those tastes that disconfirmed expectations and increased for those that confirmed them and the sweet sample had larger increases in heart rate than the bitter. Skin conductance changed in regards to novelty and valence but not to the disconfirmation of expectations. It increased for the bitter sample, decreased for the sweet, and was always higher during the first experience than during the second. In conclusion, the results suggest that cardiac responses are more sensitive to novelty and the disconfirmation of expectations while skin conductance responses capture novelty and valence.
    The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables
    Stokkom, V.L. van; Blok, A.E. ; Kooten, O. van; Graaf, C. de; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
    Appetite 121 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 69 - 76.
    Flavour - Identification - Smell - Taste - Texture - Vegetables
    It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of ten vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands (broccoli, cauliflower, French bean, leek, bell pepper, carrot, cucumber, iceberg lettuce, onion and tomato). Subjects (n = 194) were randomly assigned to one of four test conditions which differed in the sensory cues available for vegetable identification: taste, smell (orthonasal), flavour (taste and smell) and flavour-texture (taste, smell and texture). Blindfolded subjects were asked to identify the vegetable from a list of 24 vegetables. Identification was the highest in the flavour-texture condition (87.5%). Identification was significantly lower in the flavour condition (62.8%). Identification was the lowest when only taste cues (38.3%) or only smell cues (39.4%) were provided. For four raw vegetables (carrot, cucumber, onion and tomato) providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues did not significantly change identification suggesting that flavour cues were sufficient to identify these vegetables. Identification frequency increased for all vegetables when perceived intensity of the smell, taste or flavour cue increased. We conclude that providing flavour cues (taste and smell) increases identification compared to only taste or only smell cues, combined flavour and texture cues are needed for the identification of many vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands.
    Altered food preferences and chemosensory perception during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients : A longitudinal comparison with healthy controls
    Vries, Y.C. de; Winkels, R.M. ; Berg, M.M.G.A. van den; Graaf, C. de; Kelfkens, C.S. ; Kruif, J.T.C.M. de; Göker, E. ; Grosfeld, S. ; Sommeijer, D.W. ; Laarhoven, H.W.M. Van; Kampman, E. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2018
    Food Quality and Preference 63 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 135 - 143.
    Cancer - Chemotherapy - Food preferences - Smell - Taste
    Changes in food preferences and chemosensory function are frequently reported during chemotherapy, but the nature of these changes are largely unknown. We followed and characterized food preferences, taste and smell function over chemotherapy treatment in breast cancer patients and compared to women without cancer. Furthermore, we assessed associations between taste and smell function and food preferences in breast cancer patients. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (n = 28) completed test sessions before, halfway, shortly after, and six months after chemotherapy. Twenty-eight women without cancer were tested at similar time points as control. During test sessions, food preferences were assessed with the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task. Self-reported taste and smell function were tested on a visual analogue scale. Objective taste and smell function were assessed with Taste Strips and Sniffin’ Sticks. Breast cancer patients liked high-protein, high-fat, sweet, and savoury products less during chemotherapy, which returned to baseline six months after chemotherapy, while the control group was stable over time. Chemotherapy led to a decreased taste and smell function which recovered six months after chemotherapy. A better self-reported taste was associated with higher liking of high-protein, low-energy, savoury and sweet products. Breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy have altered food preferences for certain macronutrients, but not specifically for sweet or savoury tastes. Chemotherapy has a transient influence on food preferences and chemosensory function, of which patients should be informed prior to treatment, and which should be monitored during treatment due to the consequences for nutritional intake and quality of life.
    It’s in the eye of the beholder : selective attention to drink properties during tasting influences brain activation in gustatory and reward regions
    Rijn, Inge van; Graaf, Kees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2018
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 12 (2018)2. - ISSN 1931-7557 - p. 425 - 436.
    Calories - Functional magnetic resonance imaging - Intensity - Pleasantness - Selective attention - Taste

    Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on hedonics, intensity and caloric content on brain responses during tasting drinks. Using functional MRI brain responses of 27 women were measured while they paid attention to the intensity, pleasantness or caloric content of fruit juice, tomato juice and water. Brain activation during tasting largely overlapped between the three selective attention conditions and was found in the rolandic operculum, insula and overlying frontal operculum, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Brain activation was higher during selective attention to taste intensity compared to calories in the right middle OFC and during selective attention to pleasantness compared to intensity in the right putamen, right ACC and bilateral middle insula. Intensity ratings correlated with brain activation during selective attention to taste intensity in the anterior insula and lateral OFC. Our data suggest that not only the anterior insula but also the middle and lateral OFC are involved in evaluating taste intensity. Furthermore, selective attention to pleasantness engaged regions associated with food reward. Overall, our results indicate that selective attention to food properties can alter the activation of gustatory and reward regions. This may underlie effects of food labels on the consumption experience of consumers.

    Changes in taste and smell function, dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy
    IJpma, Irene ; Renken, Remco J. ; Gietema, Jourik A. ; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. ; Mensink, Manon G.J. ; Lefrandt, Joop D. ; Horst, Gert J. Ter; Reyners, Anna K.L. - \ 2017
    Clinical Nutrition 36 (2017)6. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 1642 - 1648.
    Body composition - Cisplatin chemotherapy - Food - Smell - Taste - Testicular cancer

    Background & aims: Taste and smell changes due to chemotherapy may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight in testicular cancer patients (TCPs). This study investigates the taste and smell function, dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCPs before, during, and up to 1 year after cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Methods: Twenty-one consecutive TCPs participated. At baseline TCPs were compared to healthy controls (N = 48). Taste strips and ‘Sniffin’ Sticks’ were used to determine psychophysical taste and smell function. Subjective taste, smell, appetite, and hunger were assessed using a questionnaire. Dietary intake was analyzed using a food frequency questionnaire. Food preference was assessed using food pictures varying in taste (sweet/savoury) and fat or protein content. A Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was performed to measure whole body composition. Results: Compared to controls, TCPs had a lower smell threshold (P = 0.045) and lower preference for high fat sweet foods at baseline (P = 0.024). Over time, intra-individual psychophysical taste and smell function was highly variable. The salty taste threshold increased at completion of chemotherapy compared to baseline (P = 0.006). A transient decrease of subjective taste, appetite, and hunger feelings was observed per chemotherapy cycle. The percentage of fat mass increased during chemotherapy compared to baseline, while the lean mass and bone density decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Coping strategies regarding subjective taste impairment should especially be provided during the first week of each chemotherapy cycle. Since the body composition of TCPs already had changed at completion of chemotherapy, intervention strategies to limit the impact of cardiovascular risk factors should probably start during treatment.

    Sensory expectation, perception, and autonomic nervous system responses to package colours and product popularity
    Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia ; Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Goedegebure, Robert P.G. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Betina ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2017
    Food Quality and Preference 62 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 60 - 70.
    Autonomic nervous system - Descriptive social norm - Heart rate - Packaging - Skin conductance - Taste

    Consumers’ perception of, and behaviour towards, products are influenced by extrinsic cues, including packaging and social norms. However, the understanding of this process is unsatisfactorily captured by questionnaires. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses can be used to measure implicit consumer responses. The aim of this work was to assess how packaging cues and social norms influence product expectation, product perception, and ANS responses. Ninety-eight adults (age: 23.3 ± 3.2 years; BMI: 21.3 ± 2.2 kg/m2) first viewed four images of a yogurt package modified in hue (blue/red), brightness (high/low), and saturation (high/low) and two dummies alongside a fictitious product popularity score. After each image presentation, participants rated their expectations of the yogurt, tasted, and rated their perception of it. Expectations and the perception of liking, healthiness, sweetness, and flavour intensity were rated on 100-unit VAS scales. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance response (SCR) to the image and tasting were measured. The darker, saturated red package elicited the lowest expectation of healthiness and the highest expectation of flavour intensity and sweetness. Red packages increased SCR while blue packages decreased them. During yogurt tasting, low product popularity was associated with a stronger decrease in SCR than a high popularity. Overall, the measured ANS responses were small. In conclusion, this study was the first to look at the effect of expectations elicited by a product's packaging colour and popularity on explicit ratings and ANS responses. We found differences in SCR to package colour and product popularity, suggesting their importance in affecting consumer responses.

    The differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior
    Boesveldt, Sanne ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
    Perception 46 (2017)3-4. - ISSN 0301-0066 - p. 307 - 319.
    Appetite - Eating behavior - Olfaction - Satiation - Taste - Texture

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food. However, the influence of odors on food choice and intake is less clear, and may also depend on awareness or intensity of the odors, or personality traits of the participants. Taste on the other hand, has a clear role as a (macro)nutrient sensing system, during consumption. Together with texture, taste is responsible for eating rate, and thus in determining the oral exposure duration of food in the mouth, thereby contributing to satiation. Results from these experimental studies should be taken to real-life situations, to assess longerterm effects on energy intake. With this knowledge, it will be possible to steer people’s eating behavior, as well as food product development, toward a less obesogenic society.

    How do health information and sensory attributes influence consumer choice for dairy products? Evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia
    Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba ; Beuving, Joost ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2017
    International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 34 (2017)5. - ISSN 0265-671X - p. 667 - 683.
    Consumer choice - Ethiopia - Experimental auction - Health information - Milk quality - Taste

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of health information and sensory attributes on consumer’s propensity to upgrade and their willingness to pay (WTP) for pasteurized milk in Ethiopia. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a framed market experiment with 160 participants in 14 central locations in urban Ethiopia. The authors used a double hurdle model to analyze consumer willingness to shift to pasteurized milk and their WTP for quality attributes in pasteurized milk. Findings: Consumers are willing to pay a 4 percent premium for quality attributes in pasteurized milk. Male and employed participants are willing to shift and pay a premium for pasteurized milk. Conversely, consumers with more children, higher income, and higher raw milk consumption are less likely to shift to pasteurized milk. These results also show that taste is negatively related to consumer propensity to upgrade to pasteurized milk. Further, about half of the consumers who were provided with health information are willing to pay a premium of 11 percent for pasteurized milk, whereas others would pay only 6 percent. After providing the treatment group with health information, those consumers with higher income, old people and consumers with children are less likely to shift to pasteurized milk. Overall, consumer preference for raw milk is the result of taste, perceived nutrition and perceived health benefits. The study points at a segmented milk market and the consequent need for the provision of a targeted milk market promotion. Research limitations/implications: The application of experimental auctions in developing countries requires an extensive learning exercise for participants. Originality/value: The authors used a non-hypothetical valuation mechanism to unravel the effect of subjective and intrinsic milk attributes in fluid milk choice decisions and its variation across socio-economic groups in a developing country context.

    Comparison of oro-sensory exposure duration and intensity manipulations on satiation
    Lasschuijt, M.P. ; Mars, M. ; Stieger, M. ; Miquel-Kergoat, S. ; Graaf, Kees de; Smeets, Paul - \ 2017
    Physiology and Behavior 176 (2017). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 76 - 83.
    Food intake - Meal size - Oro-sensory exposure - Satiation - Taste - Texture
    Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) is an important factor in the regulation of food intake with increasing OSE leading to lower food intake. Oral processing time and taste intensity both play an important role in OSE but their individual contribution to satiation is unknown. We aimed to determine the independent and combined effects of oral processing time and taste intensity on satiation.Fifty eight participants (23±9y, BMI 22±2kg/m2) participated in a 2×2 factorial randomized crossover study in which they consumed one of four gel-based model foods until satiation during four sessions. Model foods were offered ad libitum and differed in texture (soft or hard texture, yielding shorter and longer oral processing time) and sweetness (low or high intensity). Model foods were isocaloric and were matched for flavor and palatability. Outcome measures were intake of the model food and the microstructure of eating behavior, such as number of chews and eating rate.There was an overall significant effect of texture (p < 0.001) but not sweetness (p = 0.33) on intake with a 29.2% higher intake of the soft model foods compared to the hard model foods. After correction for palatability the difference in intake between the soft and hard model foods was 21.5% (p < 0.001).The number of chews was significantly lower for the soft (10.1 ± 6.2) than for the hard (26.9 ± 6.2) model foods (p < 0.001), which resulted in a significantly lower eating rate (soft, 26.3 ± 10.2 and hard, 15.3 ± 7.1 g/min, p < 0.001).These results show that increasing texture hardness of gel model foods decreases food intake independent of sweet taste intensity. The higher number of chews and faster eating rate may cause this effect. In conclusion, oro-sensory exposure duration rather than taste intensity appears to be the main determinant of food intake.
    Vegetables and other core food groups : A comparison of key flavour and texture properties
    Poelman, Astrid A.M. ; Delahunty, Conor M. ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
    Food Quality and Preference 56 (2017)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 7.
    Children - Sensory properties of diets - Taste - Texture - Vegetables

    Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n = 34) were compared to fruit (n = 26), dairy (n = 28), meat/fish (n = 28) and grains (n = 38); these foods were representative of the diet of Australian children and profiled by a trained sensory panel on 10 key taste and texture attributes as part of a larger study (Lease, Hendrie, Poelman, Delahunty, & Cox, 2016). Mean intensities were analysed using ANOVA. Vegetables were more bitter in taste than the other food categories and amongst the hardest. They were the lowest, or amongst the lowest, in all other flavour properties. Other core food categories had sensory properties known to be drivers of food liking: sweet and sour for fruit, sour, salty and fatty for dairy, salty, umami and fatty for meat/fish, and salty for grains. No food category other than vegetables had a bitter taste, a known driver of dislike. This research shows that vegetables, relative to other food groups, have sensory properties that are known to predispose to low acceptance based on innate likes and dislikes or preferences acquired within the first few months of life. High hardness of vegetables implicates a slow eating rate, which is generally beneficial from a public health perspective, but may make it difficult to meet recommended vegetable intake. To increase children's acceptance and intake for vegetables, either vegetable sensory properties can be modified, or children's acceptance for vegetables can be modified through sensory learning strategies.

    Development and distribution of quality related compounds in apples during growth
    Sadar, N. ; Urbanek Krajnc, A. ; Tojnko, S. ; Tijskens, L.M.M. ; Schouten, R.E. ; Unuk, T. - \ 2016
    Scientia Horticulturae 213 (2016). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 222 - 231.
    Apple - Biopsy sampling - Colour - Modeling - Organic acids - Sugars - Taste

    Colour and taste are important attributes of apple fruit quality and have therefore been widely studied. Nevertheless, because of the destructive sampling methods commonly used to obtain the data, and of the subsequent traditional analyses, ignoring the effects of biological variation, the knowledge on the kinetic mechanisms of synthesis and degradation of individual quality components during fruit development and growth is still lacking. Spatio-temporal changes of taste components (sugars: fructose, sucrose, glucose, organic acids: malic, citric, shikimic and fumaric acid) and colour aspects (a) in individual apple fruits were monitored to assess the dynamics and mechanisms of change during development and ripening with respect to location within fruit as a factor and the variation between individual apples. Data were analysed with non-linear indexed regression based on either a logistic or an exponential process oriented model assessing the technical variation simultaneously. The rate constants for colour or taste component were roughly similar between cultivars, suggesting a similar mechanism of development and confirming the generic nature of the model. There was a very large biological variation in individual quality components observed in the raw data (the biological variation), which can be almost exclusively explained by the difference in the maturity stage between individual fruit. The explained parts (R2 adj) were, with one exception, higher than 0.90. The major contribution of this study is the fact that all the herein monitored taste defining components can be analysed and described with the same process-oriented model.

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