Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Trichome Independent Resistance against Western Flower Thrips in Tomato
Bac-Molenaar, Johanna A. ; Mol, Selena ; Verlaan, Maarten G. ; Elven, Joke van; Kim, Hye Kyong ; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L. ; Leiss, Kirsten A. ; Vrieling, Klaas - \ 2019
Plant and Cell Physiology 60 (2019)5. - ISSN 0032-0781 - p. 1011 - 1024.
Insect resistance - Metabolite profiles - QTL mapping - Tomato - Trichome-derived volatiles - α-Tomatine

Western flower thrips (WFT) are a major pest on many crops, including tomato. Thrips cause yield losses, not only through feeding damage, but also by the transmission of viruses of which the Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus is the most important one. In cultivated tomato, genetic diversity is extremely low, and all commercial lines are susceptible to WFT. Several wild relatives are WFT resistant and these resistances are based on glandular trichome-derived traits. Introgression of these traits in cultivated lines did not lead to WFT resistant commercial varieties so far. In this study, we investigated WFT resistance in cultivated tomato using a F2 population derived from a cross between a WFT susceptible and a WFT resistant cultivated tomato line. We discovered that this WFT resistance is independent of glandular trichome density or trichome-derived volatile profiles and is associated with three QTLs on chromosomes 4, 5 and 10. Foliar metabolic profiles of F3 families with low and high WFT feeding damage were clearly different. We identified α-tomatine and a phenolic compound as potential defensive compounds. Their causality and interaction need further investigation. Because this study is based on cultivated tomato lines, our findings can directly be used in nowadays breeding programs.

Airborne host–plant manipulation by whiteflies via an inducible blend of plant volatiles
Zhang, Peng Jun ; Wei, Jia Ning ; Zhao, Chan ; Zhang, Ya Fen ; Li, Chuan You ; Liu, Shu Sheng ; Dicke, Marcel ; Yu, Xiao Ping ; Turlings, Ted C.J. - \ 2019
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)15. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 7387 - 7396.
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles - Jasmonic acid - Salicylic acid - Tomato - Whiteflies

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the world’s most important invasive crop pests, possibly because it manipulates plant defense signaling. Upon infestation by whiteflies, plants mobilize salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defenses, which mainly target pathogens. In contrast, jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent defenses are gradually suppressed in whitefly-infested plants. The down-regulation of JA defenses make plants more susceptible to insects, including whiteflies. Here, we report that this host–plant manipulation extends to neighboring plants via airborne signals. Plants respond to insect attack with the release of a blend of inducible volatiles. Perception of these volatiles by neighboring plants usually primes them to prepare for an imminent attack. Here, however, we show that whitefly-induced tomato plant volatiles prime SA-dependent defenses and suppress JA-dependent defenses, thus rendering neighboring tomato plants more susceptible to whiteflies. Experiments with volatiles from caterpillar-damaged and pathogen-infected plants, as well as with synthetic volatiles, confirm that whiteflies modify the quality of neighboring plants for their offspring via whitefly-inducible plant volatiles.

Effects of continuous or end-of-day far-red light on tomato plant growth, morphology, light absorption, and fruit production
Kalaitzoglou, Pavlos ; Ieperen, Wim van; Harbinson, Jeremy ; Meer, Maarten van der; Martinakos, Stavros ; Weerheim, Kees ; Nicole, Celine C.S. ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Far-red - LED - Light absorption - Photomorphogenesis - Shade avoidance - Tomato

Shading by sunlit leaves causes a low red (R) to far-red (FR) ratio that results in a low phytochrome stationary state (PSS). A low PSS induces an array of shade avoidance responses that influence plant architecture and development. It has often been suggested that this architectural response is advantageous for plant growth due to its positive effect on light interception. In contrast to sunlight, artificial light sources such as LEDs often lack FR, resulting in a PSS value higher than solar light (∼0.70). The aim of this study was to investigate how PSS values higher than solar radiation influence the growth and development of tomato plants. Additionally, we investigated whether a short period of FR at the end of the day (EOD-FR) could counteract any potentially negative effects caused by a lack of FR during the day. Tomato plants were grown at four PSS levels (0.70, 0.73, 0.80, and 0.88), or with a 15-min end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) application (PSS 0.10). Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR; 150 μmol m -2 s -1 ) was supplied using red and blue (95/5%) LEDs. In an additional experiment, the same treatments were applied to plants receiving supplementary low-intensity solar light. Increasing PSS above solar PSS resulted in increased plant height. Leaf area and plant dry mass were lower in the treatments completely lacking FR than treatments with FR. EOD-FR-treated plants responded almost similarly to plants grown without FR, except for plant height, which was increased. Simulations with a 3D-model for light absorption revealed that the increase in dry mass was mainly related to an increase in light absorption due to a higher total leaf area. Increased petiole angle and internode length had a negative influence on total light absorption. Additionally, the treatments without FR and the EOD-FR showed strongly reduced fruit production due to reduced fruit growth associated with reduced source strength and delayed flowering. We conclude that growing tomato plants under artificial light without FR during the light period causes a range of inverse shade avoidance responses, which result in reduced plant source strength and reduced fruit production, which cannot be compensated by a simple EOD-FR treatment.

Identification and characterization of metabolite quantitative trait loci in tomato leaves and comparison with those reported for fruits and seeds
Nunes-Nesi, Adriano ; Alseekh, Saleh ; Oliveira Silva, Franklin Magnum de; Omranian, Nooshin ; Lichtenstein, Gabriel ; Mirnezhad, Mohammad ; González, Roman R.R. ; y Garcia, Julia Sabio ; Conte, Mariana ; Leiss, Kirsten A. ; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L. ; Nikoloski, Zoran ; Carrari, Fernando ; Fernie, Alisdair R. - \ 2019
Metabolomics 15 (2019)4. - ISSN 1573-3882
Leaf metabolism - Metabolite network - Metabolite QTL - Tomato

Introduction: To date, most studies of natural variation and metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL) in tomato have focused on fruit metabolism, leaving aside the identification of genomic regions involved in the regulation of leaf metabolism. Objective: This study was conducted to identify leaf mQTL in tomato and to assess the association of leaf metabolites and physiological traits with the metabolite levels from other tissues. Methods: The analysis of components of leaf metabolism was performed by phenotypying 76 tomato ILs with chromosome segments of the wild species Solanum pennellii in the genetic background of a cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum) variety M82. The plants were cultivated in two different environments in independent years and samples were harvested from mature leaves of non-flowering plants at the middle of the light period. The non-targeted metabolite profiling was obtained by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). With the data set obtained in this study and already published metabolomics data from seed and fruit, we performed QTL mapping, heritability and correlation analyses. Results: Changes in metabolite contents were evident in the ILs that are potentially important with respect to stress responses and plant physiology. By analyzing the obtained data, we identified 42 positive and 76 negative mQTL involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Conclusions: Overall, these findings allowed the identification of S. lycopersicum genome regions involved in the regulation of leaf primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as the association of leaf metabolites with metabolites from seeds and fruits.

Phytochrome a protects tomato plants from injuries induced by continuous light
Velez-Ramirez, Aaron I. ; Vreugdenhil, Dick ; Millenaar, Frank F. ; Ieperen, Wim van - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Continuous light - Far-red light - Photosynthesis down-regulation - Phytochrome - Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato

Plants perceive and transduce information about light quantity, quality, direction and photoperiod via several photoreceptors and use it to adjust their growth and development. A role for photoreceptors has been hypothesized in the injuries that tomato plants develop when exposed to continuous light as the light spectral distribution influences the injury severity. Up to now, however, only indirect clues suggested that phytochromes (PHY), red/far-red photoreceptors, are involved in the continuous-light-induced injuries in tomato. In this study, therefore, we exposed mutant and transgenic tomato plants lacking or over-expressing phytochromes to continuous light, with and without far-red light enrichment. The results show that PHYA over-expression confers complete tolerance to continuous light regardless the light spectrum. Under continuous light with low far-red content, PHYB1 and PHYB2 diminished and enhanced the injury, respectively, yet the effects were small. These results confirm that phytochrome signaling networks are involved in the induction of injury under continuous light. HIGHLIGHTS-PHYA over-expression confers tolerance to continuous light regardless the light spectrum.-In the absence of far-red light, PHYB1 slightly diminishes the continuous light-induced injury.-Continuous light down-regulates photosynthesis genes in sensitive tomato lines.

The effect of isolation methods of tomato pollen on the results of metabolic profiling
Paupière, Marine J. ; Tikunov, Yury M. ; Firon, Nurit ; Vos, Ric C.H. de; Maliepaard, Chris ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Bovy, Arnaud G. - \ 2019
Metabolomics 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 1573-3882
Anther - Metabolite - Metabolome - Metabolomics - Pollen - Tomato

Introduction: Untargeted metabolomics is a powerful tool to detect hundreds of metabolites within a given tissue and to compare the metabolite composition of samples in a comprehensive manner. However, with regard to pollen research such comprehensive metabolomics approaches are yet not well developed. To enable isolation of pollen that is tightly enclosed within the anthers of the flower, such as immature pollen, the current pollen isolation protocols require the use of a watery solution. These protocols raise a number of concerns for their suitability in metabolomics analyses, in view of possible metabolic activities in the pollen and contamination with anther metabolites. Objectives: We assessed the effect of different sample preparation procedures currently used for pollen isolation for their suitability to perform metabolomics of tomato pollen. Methods: Pollen were isolated using different methods and the metabolic profiles were analysed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Results: Our results demonstrated that pollen isolation in a watery solution led to (i) rehydration of the pollen grains, inducing marked metabolic changes in flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and amino acids and thus resulting in a metabolite profile that did not reflect the one of mature dry pollen, (ii) hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose during subsequent metabolite extraction, unless the isolated and rehydrated pollen were lyophilized prior to extraction, and (iii) contamination with anther-specific metabolites, such as alkaloids, thus compromising the metabolic purity of the pollen fraction. Conclusion: We conclude that the current practices used to isolate pollen are suboptimal for metabolomics analyses and provide recommendations on how to improve the pollen isolation protocol, in order to obtain the most reliable metabolic profile from pollen tissue.

Approach for designing context-specific, locally owned interventions to reduce postharvest losses : Case study on tomato value chains in Nigeria
Plaisier, Christine ; Sibomana, Milindi ; Waal, Johannes van der; Clercx, Luud ; Wagenberg, Coen P.A. van; Dijkxhoorn, Youri - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 16 p.
Behavioural change - Context-specific interventions - Nigeria - Participatory approach - Plastic crate - Postharvest losses - Raffia basket - Supply chain - Tomato - Value chain development

Development projects on interventions to reduce postharvest losses (PHL) are often implemented largely independently of the specific context and without sufficient adaptation to the needs of people who are supposed to use them. An approach is needed for the design and implementation of specific, locally owned interventions in development projects. Our approach is based on Participatory Development and includes Living Lab and World Cafés. We applied the approach in a case study on reducing PHL in tomato value chains in Nigeria. The approach consists of nine steps. After scoping the sector, selected value chain stakeholders (case: farmers, transporters, traders, retailers) were gathered in Living Lab workshops. In the workshop, participants analyzed the product, information, and monetary flows in their own value chain, identified causes for PHL, and selected potential interventions to reduce these (case: plastic crates instead of raffia baskets to transport tomatoes). Selected interventions were implemented, tested, and monitored in pilot projects with the workshop participants. This was followed by an evaluation workshop. At the end of the case study, 89% of participants bought crates to keep using them in their value chain. Our approach resulted in context-specific, locally owned interventions to reduce PHL in the case study on tomato value chains in Nigeria. Its application in other countries, commodities, or interventions is needed to determine the effectiveness of the approach in a broader scope.

Resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato germplasm
Yan, Zhe ; Pérez-de-Castro, Ana ; Díez, Maria J. ; Hutton, Samuel F. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Wolters, Anne-Marie A. ; Bai, Yuling ; Li, Junming - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Begomovirus - Resistance - S. chilense - S. peruvianum - Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato - TYLCV

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a virus species causing epidemics in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) worldwide. Many efforts have been focused on identification of resistance sources by screening wild tomato species. In many cases, the accession numbers were either not provided in publications or not provided in a consistent manner, which led to redundant screenings. In the current study, we summarized efforts on the screenings of wild tomato species for TYLCV resistance from various publications. In addition, we screened 708 accessions from 13 wild tomato species using different inoculation assays (i.e., whitefly natural infection and Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation) from which 138 accessions exhibited no tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) symptoms. These symptomless accessions include 14 accessions from S. arcanum, 43 from S. chilense, 1 from S. chmielewskii, 28 from S. corneliomulleri, 5 from S. habrochaites, 4 from S. huaylasense, 2 from S. neorickii, 1 from S. pennellii, 39 from S. peruvianum, and 1 from S. pimpinellifolium. Most of the screened S. chilense accessions remained symptomless. Many symptomless accessions were also identified in S. arcanum, S. corneliomulleri, and S. peruvianum. A large number of S. pimpinellifolium accessions were screened. However, almost all of the tested accessions showed TYLCD symptoms. Further, we studied allelic variation of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene in few S. chilense accessions by applying virus-induced gene silencing and allele mining, leading to identification of a number of allele-specific polymorphisms. Taken together, we present a comprehensive overview on TYLCV resistance and susceptibility in wild tomato germplasm, and demonstrate how to study allelic variants of the cloned Ty-genes in TYLCV-resistant accessions.

The solubility of primary plant cell wall polysaccharides in LiCl-DMSO
Broxterman, Suzanne E. ; Erven, Gijs van; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2018
Carbohydrate Polymers 200 (2018). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 332 - 340.
Acetylation - Ball milling - Carrot - LiCl-DMSO - Strawberry - Tomato

In order to understand the architecture of the primary plant cell wall, knowledge on its polysaccharides and their interactions is of importance. In this study, further architectural insight was obtained by sequential LiCl-DMSO and buffer extractions after planetary ball milling. After milling, up to 50% of all polysaccharides in the Chelating agent Unextractable Solids (ChUS) from carrot, tomato and strawberry solubilised in LiCl-DMSO without loss of structural information. Approximately 30% of all pectin was LiCl-DMSO insoluble but solubilised in the subsequent buffer extraction, and these populations had higher HG:RG-I ratios than LiCl-DMSO soluble populations. The degree of methyl-esterification (DM) of pure pectins highly determined its solubility in LiCl-DMSO. However, solubility of cell wall pectin was governed by more factors since both soluble and insoluble pectin were substantially methyl-esterified and acetylated. Digestion of LiCl-DMSO soluble and insoluble fractions by pectinases confirmed the presence of acetylated HG-regions for carrot and strawberry pectin.

The Sw-5 gene cluster : Tomato breeding and research toward orthotospovirus disease control
Oliveira, Athos S. de; Boiteux, Leonardo S. ; Kormelink, Richard ; Resende, Renato O. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
NB-LRR - NLR - Orthotospovirus - Resistance - Sw-5 - Sw-5b - Tomato

The Sw-5 gene cluster encodes protein receptors that are potentially able to recognize microbial products and activate signaling pathways that lead to plant cell immunity. Although there are several Sw-5 homologs in the tomato genome, only one of them, named Sw-5b, has been extensively studied due to its functionality against a wide range of (thrips-transmitted) orthotospoviruses. The Sw-5b gene is a dominant resistance gene originally from a wild Peruvian tomato that has been used in tomato breeding programs aiming to develop cultivars with resistance to these viruses. Here, we provide an overview starting from the first reports of Sw-5 resistance, positional cloning and the sequencing of the Sw-5 gene cluster from resistant tomatoes and the validation of Sw-5b as the functional protein that triggers resistance against orthotospoviruses. Moreover, molecular details of this plant–virus interaction are also described, especially concerning the roles of Sw-5b domains in the sensing of orthotospoviruses and in the signaling cascade leading to resistance and hypersensitive response.

Mutations in EID1 and LNK2 caused light-conditional clock deceleration during tomato domestication
Müller, Niels A. ; Zhang, Lei ; Koornneef, Maarten ; Jiménez-Gómez, José M. - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)27. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 7135 - 7140.
Circadian rhythms - Domestication - Light signaling - Phytochrome - Tomato

Circadian period and phase of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were changed during domestication, likely adapting the species to its new agricultural environments. Whereas the delayed circadian phase is mainly caused by allelic variation of EID1, the genetic basis of the long circadian period has remained elusive. Here we show that a partial deletion of the clock gene LNK2 is responsible for the period lengthening in cultivated tomatoes. We use resequencing data to phylogenetically classify hundreds of tomato accessions and investigate the evolution of the eid1 and lnk2 mutations along successive domestication steps. We reveal signatures of selection across the genomic region of LNK2 and different patterns of fixation of the mutant alleles. Strikingly, LNK2 and EID1 are both involved in light input to the circadian clock, indicating that domestication specifically targeted this input pathway. In line with this, we show that the clock deceleration in the cultivated tomato is light-dependent and requires the phytochrome B1 photoreceptor. Such conditional variation in circadian rhythms may be key for latitudinal adaptation in a variety of species, including crop plants and livestock.

Characterisation of pectin-xylan complexes in tomato primary plant cell walls
Broxterman, Suzanne E. ; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2018
Carbohydrate Polymers 197 (2018). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 269 - 276.
Carrot - Cross-link - Planetary ball milling - Primary plant cell wall - Strawberry - Tomato
The primary plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Potential interactions between these polysaccharides were studied for carrot, tomato and strawberry, with a focus on the role of pectin. The Chelating agent Unextractable Solids (ChUS), the residue after water- and EDTA extraction, was ball milled and subsequently water extracted. For tomato and strawberry, pectin and substantial amounts of hemicellulose were solubilised. Anion exchange chromatography (AEC) showed co-elution of pectin and acetylated glucuronoxylan in tomato, representing 18% of solubilised uronic acid and 48% of solubilised xylose by ball milling from ChUS. The existence of a covalently linked pectin-xylan complex was proposed since xylan co-precipitated with pectin under mild alkali conditions. It was proposed that pectin links with xylan through the RG-I region since degradation of HG did not alter AEC elution patterns for RG-I and xylan, suggesting RG-I – xylan interactions.
Interactions between pectin and cellulose in primary plant cell walls
Broxterman, Suzanne E. ; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2018
Carbohydrate Polymers 192 (2018). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 263 - 272.
Carrot - Cross-link - Enzymatic digestion by glucanases - Sequential alkali extraction - Strawberry - Tomato
To understand the architecture of the plant cell wall, it is of importance to understand both structural characteristics of cell wall polysaccharides and interactions between these polysaccharides. Interactions between polysaccharides were studied in the residue after water and chelating agent extraction by sequential extractions with H2O and alkali. The 6 M alkali residue still represented 31%, 11% and 5% of all GalA present in carrot, tomato and strawberry, respectively, and these pectin populations were assumed to strongly interact with cellulose. Digestion of the carrot 6 M alkali residue by glucanases released ∼27% of the 6 M residue, mainly representing pectin. In tomato and strawberry alkali residues, glucanases were not able to release pectin populations. The ability of glucanases to release pectin populations suggests that the carrot cell wall contains unique, covalent interactions between pectin and cellulose.
Short-term salt stress strongly affects dynamic photosynthesis, but not steady-state photosynthesis, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
Zhang, Yuqi ; Kaiser, Elias ; Zhang, Yating ; Yang, Qichang ; Li, Tao - \ 2018
Environmental and Experimental Botany 149 (2018). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 109 - 119.
Dynamic photosynthesis - Fluctuating light - Salt stress - Solanum lycopersicum - Stomatal conductance - Tomato
Salt stress occurs worldwide due to widespread soil salinization. Also, plants are often subjected to rapidly alternating periods of sun and shade (sunflecks). Despite this combined occurrence of salt stress and sunflecks, dynamic photosynthetic responses to sunflecks under salt stress remain unknown. This study addresses this discrepancy by exploring photosynthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, both after dark-light transitions and during artificial light fluctuations (lightflecks and shadeflecks), in salt stressed leaves. Three weeks old growth-chamber grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill ‘Beijing Cherry Tomato’) plants were exposed to 0, 70 or 140 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl), for 7–9 days. Photosynthetic induction after dark-light transitions was strongly inhibited in salt-stressed leaves, due to increased transient stomatal limitation and slower apparent Rubisco activation. During photosynthetic induction, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) were positively correlated with [NaCl]. Under periods of low light (shadeflecks), the longer the shadefleck lasted, the more strongly photosynthesis after re-illumination was downregulated by salt stress, and this downregulation in photosynthesis was positively correlated with the severity of salt stress. Under regularly applied lightflecks, salt stress decreased photosynthesis by 12–42%, which was mainly caused by decreased stomatal conductance. Salt-stressed leaves also displayed significantly lower stomatal pore area and stomatal index. Crucially, salt stress did not affect steady-state photosynthetic capacity as indicated by similar light and CO2 response curves of photosynthesis. We conclude that a short-term salt stress strongly affects dynamic leaf photosynthesis in tomato while its effect on steady state photosynthesis is negligible.
The effect of pulsed electric fields on carotenoids bioaccessibility : The role of tomato matrix
Bot, Francesca ; Verkerk, Ruud ; Mastwijk, Hennie ; Anese, Monica ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Capuano, Edoardo - \ 2018
Food Chemistry 240 (2018). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 415 - 421.
Carotenoids bioaccessibility - Food matrix - Heating - Pulsed electric fields - Structural barriers - Tomato

Tomato fractions were subjected to pulsed electric fields treatment combined or not with heating. Results showed that pulsed electric fields and heating applied in combination or individually induced permeabilization of cell membranes in the tomato fractions. However, no changes in β-carotene and lycopene bioaccessibility were found upon combined and individual pulsed electric fields and heating, except in the following cases: (i) in tissue, a significant decrease in lycopene bioaccessibility upon combined pulsed electric fields and heating and heating only was observed; (ii) in chromoplasts, both β-carotene and lycopene bioaccessibility significantly decreased upon combined pulsed electric fields and heating and pulsed electric fields only. The reduction in carotenoids bioaccessibility was attributed to modification in chromoplasts membrane and carotenoids-protein complexes. Differences in the effects of pulsed electric fields on bioaccessibility among different tomato fractions were related to tomato structure complexity.

Metabolomic analysis of tomato seed germination
Kazmi, Rashid H. ; Willems, Leo A.J. ; Joosen, Ronny V.L. ; Khan, Noorullah ; Ligterink, Wilco ; Hilhorst, Henk W.M. - \ 2017
Metabolomics 13 (2017)12. - ISSN 1573-3882 - 17 p.
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) - GC-TOF/MS - Generalized genetical genomics (GGG) - Metabolomics - mQTL analysis - Seed performance - Solanum lycopersicum - Solanum pimpinellifolium - Tomato

Introduction: Seed germination is inherently related to seed metabolism, which changes throughout its maturation, desiccation and germination processes. The metabolite content of a seed and its ability to germinate are determined by underlying genetic architecture and environmental effects during development. Objective: This study aimed to assess an integrative approach to explore genetics modulating seed metabolism in different developmental stages and the link between seed metabolic- and germination traits. Methods: We have utilized gas chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) metabolite profiling to characterize tomato seeds during dry and imbibed stages. We describe, for the first time in tomato, the use of a so-called generalized genetical genomics (GGG) model to study the interaction between genetics, environment and seed metabolism using 100 tomato recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum pimpinellifolium. Results: QTLs were found for over two-thirds of the metabolites within several QTL hotspots. The transition from dry to 6 h imbibed seeds was associated with programmed metabolic switches. Significant correlations varied among individual metabolites and the obtained clusters were significantly enriched for metabolites involved in specific biochemical pathways. Conclusions: Extensive genetic variation in metabolite abundance was uncovered. Numerous identified genetic regions that coordinate groups of metabolites were detected and these will contain plausible candidate genes. The combined analysis of germination phenotypes and metabolite profiles provides a strong indication for the hypothesis that metabolic composition is related to germination phenotypes and thus to seed performance.

Greenhouse concept with high insulating cover by combination of glass and film : Design and first experimental results
Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Janse, J. ; Hemming, S. - \ 2017
In: International Symposium on New Technologies and Management for Greenhouses - GreenSys2015 International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611665 - p. 469 - 476.
Covering material - Diffuse light - Energy saving - Tomato
Dutch greenhouse horticulture puts a lot of effort in reduction of energy demand. Using (multiple) thermal screens, mainly during night, is the most common way to reduce heat losses in practice. In winter, even during daytime, transparent screens are closed, which saves energy, but results in significant reduction of light at plant level. For additional saving a substantial increment of greenhouse insulation is needed. Double covering materials can reach very high insulation levels, resulting in energy savings of 50% compared to the use of single glass with screens. Drawback of insulating glass panels are high investment and problems with snow accumulation in Northern latitudes. A new greenhouse concept with a new type of covering material has recently been developed. The insulating cover consists of a combination of a high transparent glass panel in combination with a high transparent and durable plastic film (F-Clean). The insulation properties are flexible. By blowing warm air through the split, possible snow accumulation is expected to be avoided. The new greenhouse concept has a new roofing structure including a different type of ventilation for a Venlo greenhouse. In a feasibility study, different combinations of different types of glass with different types of F-Clean have been investigated at Wageningen UR LightLab. Different model calculations have been carried out to study the effects on greenhouse climate and energy consumption. The results of a feasibility study with the search for the best combination of glass and plastic film in terms of transmissivity and light diffusing properties as well as the calculated energy savings of the total greenhouse concept are presented. In summer 2014, this concept was built on a scale of 500 m2 at the research station of Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk. The first results of a tomato experiment, using new crop growing strategies are presented.
Pest management in organic greenhouse horticulture
Messelink, G.J. - \ 2017
Acta Horticulturae 1164 (2017). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 361 - 369.
Aubergine - Biological control - Cucumber - Invasive pests - Sweet pepper - Tomato
The management of pests is one of the major challenges in organic greenhouse cropping systems. In this paper, I summarize the currently most problematic and persistent, as well as the newly emerging pest species in organic tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber and aubergine crops in Europe. Furthermore, I discuss 3 new developments in biological pest control with arthropod natural enemies: 1) the integration of augmentative and conservation biological control, 2) the increased use of omnivorous predators as biological control agents and 3) the presence of other factors that affect directly or indirectly the performance of pests and natural enemies, such as endophytes, plant nutrition, disease control and greenhouse climate management. Finally, I suggest some directions for future research.
Potential of different energy saving strategies in heated greenhouse
Gilli, Celine ; Kempkes, F. ; Munoz, P. ; Montero, J.I. ; Giuffrida, F. ; Baptista, F.J. ; Stepowska, Agnieszka ; Stanghellini, C. - \ 2017
Acta Horticulturae 1164 (2017). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 467 - 474.
Dehumidification - Energy efficiency - Screen - Temperature integration - Tomato
In heated greenhouses, large amounts of energy are used to optimize climate conditions (temperature, humidity). In conventional tomatoes production, the estimated annual energy consumption is 320 kWh m-2 in France, with large differences across regions, 400 kWh m-2 in Brittany and 240 kWh m-2 in the South (ADEME, 2007). In Switzerland, it varies between 245 and 500 kWh m-2 according to the regions. With increasing energy prices and environmental concerns, growers have to find solutions to reduce their energy use and to improve the energy efficiency. Several axes could be used to achieve this goals, one of them is climate management. Within the working group "Energy saving and neutral production" of the Cost Action FA 1105 "BioGreenhouse", a review on the potential for energy saving in heated greenhouse thanks to climate management was done. Basically, there are two ways to reduce energy consumption: related to temperature control and to humidity control. The energy saving potential of lowered day and night temperature set points, temperature integration (TI) and screen management will be presented in relation to the effects on production. In Switzerland, three trials from 2006 to 2008 in tomato crops showed that an energy saving potential of 15 to 30% could be achieved with TI compared to the standard temperature treatment. An energy saving between 23 and 30% with screens management based on external temperature and light intensity compared to a management according to the sunrise was obtained. To reduce energy consumption related to humidity control, dehumidification with heat recovery was studied. A traditional dehumidification (ventilation and heating) was compared with dehumidification with a heat pump in tomatoes crop. In 2013, 15% energy saving was achieved with the dehumidifier and in 2014 reached 25%. No difference in plant growth, yield and fruit quality was measured.
Productivity of a building-integrated roof top greenhouse in a Mediterranean climate
Montero, J.I. ; Baeza Romero, Esteban ; Heuvelink, E. ; Rieradevall, J. ; Muñoz, P. ; Ercilla, M. ; Stanghellini, C. - \ 2017
Agricultural Systems 158 (2017). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 14 - 22.
Food security - Green cities - Radiation use efficiency - Thermal inertia - Tomato - Urban agriculture
Urban Agriculture (UA) is an emerging field of agricultural production aimed to improve food security and the resilience of cities and to improve the environmental, social, and economic sustainability of urban areas. One of the options of UA are roof top greenhouses (RTGs), which are greenhouses built on the roof of a building, typically fitted with soilless culture systems. Further benefits can be achieved if the greenhouse and building are integrated, so that they exchange and optimise energy, water and CO2 flows. Integration is possible if the RTG and the building can exchange air and can collect rain water or use properly treated grey water for irrigation. Such type of integrated RTG is referred to as i-RTG. Both the environmental profile and the social value of i-RTGs have been studied, but information on their productivity is rather scarce. As the economic viability of i-RTGs is given by the value of all services provided, including the yield, the productivity of such systems needs to be maximised. This study attempts this, through the analysis (and discussion) of an i-RTG built in a Mediterranean climate (Barcelona area, Spain), producing beef type tomatoes (“Coeur de boeuf” cultivar). The experimental study showed that the i-RTG had poor light transmission. As a consequence, yield was low and the radiation use efficiency (RUE), referred to the outside radiation, was lower than in standard production (unheated greenhouses) in the same region. Nevertheless, RUE referred to the radiation above crop canopy, was similar in the i-RTG and standard greenhouses. Compared to conventional greenhouses in the area, which are generally unheated, a strong asset of the i-RTG was its improved (night-time) temperature regime, thanks to the thermal connection to the building. This advantage translates into energy savings referred to greenhouses on the ground, in case such greenhouses were heated. In order to discuss possible improvements, we adapted an existing greenhouse tomato production model to simulate this particular type of system. After validation, we quantify and discuss the yield rise that could be achieved by improving transparency of the RTG and by increasing CO2 concentration through daytime connection to the building. We show that there is potential to more than double the yield in comparison with the measured crop yield in the i-RTG. Last but not least, we discuss the option of switching to a cropping pattern more adequate for this growing system, that is: to extend the cropping cycle during the winter months, which is not possible in unheated greenhouses in the area. To our knowledge, this work is the very first attempt to evaluate productivity of roof top greenhouses in mild winter regions and quantify options for improving their agronomic performance.
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