Recognizing peripheral ecosystems in marine protected : A case study of golden jellyfish lakes in Raja Ampat, Indonesia
Maas, Diede L. ; Capriati, Agustin ; Ahmad, Awaludinnoer ; Erdmann, Mark V. ; Lamers, Machiel ; Leeuw, Christiaan A. de; Prins, Luca ; Purwanto, ; Putri, Amanda P. ; Tapilatu, Ricardo F. ; Becking, Leontine E. - \ 2020
Marine Pollution Bulletin 151 (2020). - ISSN 0025-326X
Anchialine ecosystems - Customary tenure - Mastigias papua - Morphometrics - Population genetics - Tourism
Peripheral marine ecosystems can harbor endemic diversity and attract tourism attention, yet are generally not included in conservation management plans due to their remoteness or inland positioning. A case study in Raja Ampat of seven landlocked marine lakes containing golden jellyfish (Mastigias spp.) was conducted to address the lack of fundamental insights into evolutionary, ecological and social contexts of these ecosystems. An interdisciplinary approach was taken towards identifying the jellyfish lakes as distinct management units in order to incorporate them into existing Marine Protected Areas. Mastigias papua populations showed strong genetic (ϕST: 0.30–0.86) and morphological (F = 28.62, p-value = 0.001) structure among lakes, with putative new subspecies. Risks arising from rapid increase in tourism to Raja Ampat (30-fold since 2007) warrant restrictions on jellyfish lake use. Recommendations are provided for adaptive management and science-based conservation policies for jellyfish lakes across Indonesia.
Not tourism-phobia but urban-philia : Understanding stakeholders’ perceptions of urban touristification
Blanco-Romero, Asunción ; Blázquez-Salom, Macià ; Morell, Marc ; Fletcher, Robert - \ 2019
Boletin de la Asociacion de Geografos Espanoles (2019)83. - ISSN 0212-9426
Right to the city - Tourism - Tourism-phobia - Urban struggle - Urban-philia
Tourism development affects prominent city centres worldwide, causing social unrest that has been labelled “tourism-phobia.” This article problematizes the recent appearance of this term by unravelling the links between the materiality of contemporary urban tourism and the response it receives from social movements opposing its expansion. We endeavour to understand the meaning that different actors involved in the city's touristification attach to this term, and in particular the perceptions of citizens’ movements that claim to espouse not tourism-phobia but urban-philia. To analyze these dynamics, we draw on Lefebvre’s discussion of the “right to the city” to highlight the extractive productive relations characterizing the tourism industry and the contestations such relations trigger. Taking the example of two Spanish cities (Barcelona and Palma), our findings indicate that the social malaise found in tourist oversaturation is due to the disruption it causes to everyday life, including price increases and rising rents. Consequently, the discomfort popular mobilisations have generated among the ruling class has led the latter to disqualify and even criminalise the former’s legitimate claims under the label of tourism-phobia. To conclude, we call for a future research agenda in pursuit of social justice and equity around re-touristification, detouristification or even tourist degrowth.
Understanding user needs : a practice-based approach to exploring the role of weather and sea ice services in European Arctic expedition cruising
Lamers, Machiel ; Duske, Paula ; Bets, Linde van - \ 2018
Polar Geography 41 (2018)4. - ISSN 1088-937X - p. 262 - 278.
European Arctic - expedition cruising - practice theory - Tourism - user needs - weather and sea ice services
Climate change has been credited with making the Arctic Ocean more accessible to maritime transport, but those navigating its waters must contend with highly dynamic and unpredictable weather and sea ice conditions. Despite ongoing developments in weather and sea ice services to enable responsible and safe operation and navigation, little is known about what and how these information services are used, and whether the services meet the information needs of maritime sectors. Here we address this gap by providing insights from the expedition cruise tourism sector active in European Arctic ocean areas. By applying a social practice theory perspective and relying on semi-structured interviews we show how weather and sea ice services are currently used by expedition cruise operators in various operational decision-making contexts. We argue that practice theory contributes to understanding user needs in a more contextualized way, which is essential for enhancing and tailoring information services. Our analysis suggests that weather and sea ice are only two elements in a complex socio-material setting. Finally, we argue that weather and sea ice services contribute to the resilience and rationalization of the expedition cruise sector in the European Arctic and beyond.
An environmental risk assessment of three organic UV-filters at Lac Bay, Bonaire, Southern Caribbean
Schaap, Iris ; Slijkerman, Diana M.E. - \ 2018
Marine Pollution Bulletin 135 (2018). - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 490 - 495.
Octocrylene - Oxybenzone - Sunscreen products - Tourism - UV filters
Although organic UV filters (OUVFs) benefit human health by preventing skin burns and cancer, several studies revealed that organic UV filters can induce developmental and reproductive toxicity to aquatic organisms. Discharge of OUVFs occurs predominantly at marine recreational hotspots, such as Lac Bay, Bonaire, and is predicted to increase significantly due to growing tourism worldwide. Unfortunately, there is no insight what the current and future discharge of OUVF at Lac Bay is. Therefore, this study aimed to 1) measure concentrations and estimate the risk of specific OUVFs to different nursery habitats at Lac Bay, and 2) compare measured and predicted concentration based risk assessment outcome. Results showed that at least one of the three nurseries at Lac Bay had a potential for adverse effects. Furthermore, predicted environmental concentrations of UV filter discharge can be applied to gain more insight in the order of extent of OUVF discharge by marine tourism.
Climate Change Threatens Major Tourist Attractions and Tourism in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania
Kilungu, Halima ; Leemans, Rik ; Munishi, Pantaleo K.T. ; Amelung, Bas - \ 2017
In: Climate Change Management Springer (Climate Change Management ) - ISBN 9783319495194 - p. 375 - 392.
Climate change - Serengeti - Tourism - Tourist attractions - Wildlife migration
Serengeti National Park is famed for its wildlife migration tourism for decades. The park contributes substantially to country’s revenue and is a major employment arena that is based on tourism activities. Wildlife migration is the major tourist attraction in Serengeti and climate-dependent. There is a growing concern that climate has changed significantly with potential influence on wildlife migration. However, the knowledge of the consequences of climate-change on Serengeti’s tourism are poorly known. This paper analyses the consequences of rainfall and temperature variability and change, and associated land-cover changes on major tourist attractions and tourism over the past four decades. The results show that natural climate is an important factor shaping tourism seasonality and tourist attractions in Serengeti. Key impacts of increasing rainfall and temperature variability, and associated land-cover change include disruption of tourism seasonality, wildebeest migration patterns, and reduced diversity of tourist attractions. Both negatively affect tourism by reducing the park’s attractiveness. Adapting tourism to climate-change impacts requires active and integrated management approaches that improve the park’s attractiveness. The results can be used to develop climate-change adaptation strategies and inform conservation and tourism planning.
Introducing labour productivity changes into models used for economic impact analysis in tourism
Klijs, Jeroen ; Peerlings, Jack ; Heijman, Wim - \ 2017
Tourism Economics 23 (2017)3. - ISSN 1354-8166 - p. 561 - 576.
Core and peripheral labour - Economic impact analysis - Factor augmenting technical change - Labour productivity - Non-linear input-output model - Tourism
In tourism management, traditional input-output models are often applied to calculate economic impacts, including employment impacts. These models imply that increases in output are translated into proportional increases in labour, indicating constant labour productivity. In non-linear input- output (NLIO) models, final demand changes lead to substitution. This causes changes in labour productivity, even though one unit of labour ceteris paribus still produces the same output. Final demand changes can, however, also lead to employees working longer, harder and/or more efficiently. The goal of this article is to include this type of 'real' labour productivity change into an NLIO model. To do this, the authors introduce factor augmenting technical change (FATC) and a differentiation between core and peripheral labour. An NLIO model with and without FATC is used to calculate the regional economic impacts of a 10% final demand increase in tourism in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands. Accounting for real productivity changes leads to smaller increase in the use of labour, as productivity increases allow output to be produced using fewer inputs.
Destructive creation : capital accumulation and the structural violence of tourism
Büscher, Bram ; Fletcher, Robert - \ 2017
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 25 (2017)5. - ISSN 0966-9582 - p. 651 - 667.
capital - inequality - Tourism - value - violence - waste
Tourism is not merely a capitalist practice but a central practice through which capitalism sustains itself. Precisely how tourism “products” become capital and the types of violence this process entails, however, has not yet been systematically theorized or investigated. Building on Noel Castree's six principles of commodification, we explore how tourism becomes capital, understood as “value in motion”, and how this process not only provokes various forms of material violence but can become a form of (structural) violence in its own right. Based on research in tourism settings in Southern Africa and Latin America and general trends in international tourism, we argue that three integrated forms of structural violence to both humans and non-human natures are especially prominent, namely the systematic production of inequalities, waste and “spaces of exception”. As a global industry crucially dependent on integrated material and discursive forms of value creation, we also show that these forms of structural violence are often rendered invisible through branding. We conclude that tourism uniquely combines these three forms of structural violence to enable a move from Schumpeter's famous creative destruction to “destructive creation” as a key form of violence under capitalism.
Solidarity economy as a counterpoint to classical economics : Possibilities of changes
Teixeira Coriolano, Luzianeide Menezes ; Tavares, Jean Max ; Ateljevic, Irena - \ 2016
Tourismos 11 (2016)2. - ISSN 1790-8418 - p. 1 - 21.
Human development - solidarity economy - Tourism - Transmodernsociety
In the current context of social arrhythmia promoted by the culture of excess, consumerism and individualism the purpose of this article is to discuss the need to promote changes in tourism and society towards a more human development, based on the pillars of the solidarity economy. The article extends discussions on the solidarity economy into the context of classical economics, with new offers and demands that are focused not on capital accumulation only, but on the rights and development of human beings. To achieve this goal, we analyse four key foundations of the solidarity economy - solidarity, social equality, cooperation and sharing. The original contribution of the paper is to present cutting-edge ideas that show a counterpoint to capitalism and consumerism; one that is excluded from global tourism's contradictory path by a form of production that values social relations, and quality of life in community experiences and community tourism.
|The Khwe of Namibia. Foragers between game, tourism, and politics
Koot, Stasja ; Beek, Walter Van; Diemer, Jeroen - \ 2016
Anthropos 111 (2016)2. - ISSN 0257-9774 - p. 497 - 511.
Bushmen - Conservation - Dwelling - Namibia - Tourism
The Namibian Khwe Bushmen live in the Bwabwata National Park, where they are highly affected by the park's history and conservation activities. Following Ingold's dwelling perspective, the world comes into being because a person is continuously interacting with his/her environment. This contrasted with building, in which (wo)man constructs the world cognitively before (s)he can live in it. We apply a third notion, lodging, to refer to a situation in which people live in an essentially foreign environment. In this, many changes in the environment of the Khwe are triggered beyond their control, instead of through their interaction with their environment.
An inter-comparison of the Holiday Climate Index (HCI) and the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) in Europe
Scott, Daniel ; Rutty, Michelle ; Amelung, Bas ; Tang, Mantao - \ 2016
Atmosphere 7 (2016)6. - ISSN 2073-4433
Climate - Climate change - Climate index - Europe - Holiday Climate Index (HCI) - Tourism - Tourism Climate Index (TCI) - Urban tourism
Much research has been devoted to quantifying optimal or unacceptable climate conditionsboth generally and for specific tourism segments or activities over the last 10 years. This knowledge isnot incorporated in the Tourism Climate Index (TCI), which has also been subject to other substantialcritiques. To more accurately assess the climatic suitability of destinations for leisure tourism, theHoliday Climate Index (HCI) was developed. A major advancement of the HCI is that its variablerating scales and the component weighting system are based on this aforementioned literature oftourists' stated climatic preferences. This paper will discuss the design of the HCI and how thelimitations of the TCI were overcome. It then presents an inter-comparison of the results fromHCI:Urban and TCI for geographically diverse urban destinations across Europe. The resultsillustrate how the HCI:Urban rates the climate of many cities higher than the TCI, particularlyin shoulder seasons and the winter months, which is more consistent with observed visitationpatterns. The results empirically demonstrate that use of the TCI should be discontinued.
Towards an ecosystem-based approach of Guam's coral reefs : The human dimension
Weijerman, M. ; Grace-McCaskey, Cynthia ; Grafeld, Shanna L. ; Kotowicz, Dawn M. ; Oleson, Kirsten L.L. ; Putten, Ingrid E. van - \ 2016
Marine Policy 63 (2016). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 8 - 17.
Coral reef ecosystem - Fisheries - Guam - Marine resource use - Socio-ecological model - Tourism
Management of tropical reef ecosystems under pressure from terrestrial and extractive marine activities is not straightforward, especially when the interests of extractive and non-extractive marine resource sectors compete. Before implementing management actions, potential outcomes of alternative management strategies can be evaluated in order to avoid adverse or unintended consequences. In tropical reef ecosystems the continued existence of the cultural and recreational fishing activities and the economically important dive-based tourism and recreation industry rest on sustainably managed marine resources. Through a case study of Guam, an ecosystem model was linked with human behavior models for participation in fishing and diving to evaluate future socio-ecological impacts of different management options. Ecosystem indices for reef status and resilience, and extraction potential were identified to evaluate the performance of alternative management scenarios. These marine ecosystem indices link the natural system to human uses (fishing and dive-based tourism and recreation). Evaluating management scenarios indicate that applying a single management tool, such as input controls or marine preserves, without also managing the watershed, is suboptimal. Combining different management tools has negative near-term costs, particularly for the fishing sector, but these are likely to be outweighed by the long-term benefits obtained from greater species abundance. Adopting watershed management measures in addition to fishery regulations distributes the burden for improving the reef status across multiple sectors that contribute to reef pressures.
Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 1900–2050
Gössling, Stefan ; Peeters, Paul - \ 2015
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 23 (2015)5. - ISSN 0966-9582 - p. 639 - 659.
Energy - Food - Fresh water - Greenhouse gas emissions - Land use - Scenarios - Tourism
This paper pioneers the assessment of tourism's total global resource use, including its fossil fuel consumption, associated CO2 emissions, fresh water, land, and food use. As tourism is a dynamic growth system, characterized by rapidly increasing tourist numbers, understanding its past, current, and future contributions to global resource use is a central requirement for sustainable tourism assessments. The paper introduces the concept of resource use intensities (RUIs), which represent tourism's resource needs per unit of consumption (e.g. energy per guest night). Based on estimates of RUIs, a first assessment of tourism's global resource use and emissions is provided for the period 1900–2050, utilizing the Peeters Global Tourism Transport Model. Results indicate that the current (2010) global tourism system may require c.16,700 PJ of energy, 138 km3 of fresh water, 62,000 km2 of land, and 39.4 Mt of food, also causing emissions of 1.12 Gt CO2. Despite efforts to implement more sustainable forms of tourism, analysis indicates that tourism's overall resource consumption may grow by between 92% (water) and 189% (land use) in the period 2010–2050. To maintain the global tourism system consequently requires rapidly growing resource inputs, while the system is simultaneously becoming increasingly vulnerable to disruptions in resource flows.
Inspired by eruptions? eyjafjallajökull and icelandic tourism
Benediktsson, Karl ; Lund, Katrín Anna ; Huijbens, Edward - \ 2011
Mobilities 6 (2011)1. - ISSN 1745-0101 - p. 77 - 84.
Ejafjallajökull - Iceland - Risk - The sublime - Tourism
The paper deals with the complex meaning of risk for tourism mobilities. The impact of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption on tourism in Iceland is outlined, as well as the response of Icelandic tourist authorities. A survey in June and July 2010 among international tourists in the country revealed that for many the eruption had added considerable depth to their travel experiences. The sense of risk affects the relation between mobile travellers and their destination. The paper also analyses how events such as the eruption can facilitate new paths towards being sensitive to the natural world.
Tourism in times of crisis: Exploring the discourse of tourism development in Iceland
Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór ; Huijbens, Edward H. - \ 2010
Current Issues in Tourism 13 (2010)5. - ISSN 1368-3500 - p. 419 - 434.
Discourse - Economy - Iceland - Policy - Recession - Tourism
This paper explores the growth of tourism in Iceland and sets current policy discourses in the context of the global credit crunch of 2008. Tourism in Iceland has grown from being practically non-existent in the mid-twentieth century to being one of the three key sectors of the economy. With this growth, Iceland, as many other island states, started paying more attention to the potentialities of tourism as a development option. However, interest in tourism in public debates and policy seems to become prominent in times of economic crisis while it wanes during years of economic growth. In this light, the paper will relate discourses of tourism to the present condition of economic recession and potential crisis, especially when it comes to government policies. This paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crisis as it features in public discourse in Iceland, and aims at clarifying the implications this particular discourse on tourism has on tourism development in Iceland.