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Effect of market production on rural household food consumption: evidence from Uganda
Ntakyo, Proscovia Renzaho ; Berg, Marrit van den - \ 2019
Food Security 11 (2019)5. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 1051 - 1070.
Food security - Market-oriented production - Propensity score matching - Uganda
Food access is an important element of food security that has since long been a major concern of rural households. One intervention to improve food access has been increased promotion of market production in the hope that households will get increased income and access to food through the market rather than through self-sufficiency characteristic of subsistence production. We examine the effect of market production on household food consumption using a case of rice in western Uganda, where rice is largely a cash crop. Our analysis is based on propensity score matching and instrumental variable approach using survey data collected from 1137 rural households. We find evidence of negative significant effects of market production on calorie consumption; More commercialized households are more likely to consume less than the required calories per adult equivalent per day. This implies that the substitution effects due to higher shadow prices of food outweigh the income effects of additional crop sales. On the contrary, we find positive significant effects on household dietary diversity. We suggest a mixed approach combining policies targeted at market production as well as production for own consumption, and nutrition sensitization.
Responses to inoculation of Phaseolus beans on N2Africa trials in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda and Zimbabwe
Thuijsman, E.C. ; Ronner, E. ; Wolde-Meskel, E. ; Kantengwa, Speciose ; Rurangwa, E. ; Chikowo, Regis ; Chekanai, Vongai ; Baijukya, Frederick ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2019
Wageningen : N2Africa (N2Africa project report 118) - 12 p.
Annual report - Key milestones - objectives - progress - biological nitrogen fixation - grain legumes - Nigeria - Borno State - Ghana - Tanzania - Ethiopia - Uganda - DR Congo - Rwanda - Kenya - Malawi - Zimbabwe - Mozambique
Studies on responses to inoculation in bush bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) were carried out as part of the N2Africa project (www.n2africa.org) in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda and Zimbabwe.Inoculant treatments without fertilizer inputs significantly improved yields by 0.27 t ha-1compared to the unamended control in Ethiopia. The combined effect of inoculation and P fertilization was much larger and significant in all four countries. Trials in Tanzania and in Zimbabwe also included the application of N fertilizer, and manure was included on the trials in Rwanda. Largest yields were achieved when inoculant and fertilizer inputs were combined. Inoculation tended to boost responses to fertilizer inputs in Ethiopia, Rwanda and Tanzania. Detailed results per country are given below.
Discursive translations of gender mainstreaming norms : The case of agricultural and climate change policies in Uganda
Acosta, Mariola ; Bommel, Severine van; Wessel, Margit van; Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Jassogne, Laurence ; Feindt, Peter H. - \ 2019
Women's Studies International Forum 74 (2019). - ISSN 0277-5395 - p. 9 - 19.
Gender mainstreaming - Norm domestication - Norm translation - Transformational potential - Uganda
While the international norm on gender mainstreaming, UN-backed since 1995, has been widely adopted in national policies, gender inequalities are rarely systematically addressed on the ground. To explain this limited effectiveness, this paper takes a discourse analytical perspective on gender policy and budgeting, with a focus on the translation of the international norm into domestic norms and policies. An in-depth, inductive analysis of 107 policy documents in Uganda examines how the gender mainstreaming norm has been translated at three administrative levels: national, district, sub-county. The analysis finds five processes that reduce the norm's transformational potential: neglecting gender discourse, gender inertia, shrinking gender norms, embracing discursive hybridity and minimizing budgets. Overall, gender mainstreaming largely stopped at the discursive level, and often paradoxically depoliticized gender. The findings explain why gender mainstreaming might be helpful but not sufficient for advancing gender equality and suggest additional focus on promising practices, women's rights movements and stronger monitoring.
Do incentives matter when working for god? The impact of performance-based financing on faith-based healthcare in Uganda
Duchoslav, Jan ; Cecchi, Francesco - \ 2019
World Development 113 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 309 - 319.
Efficiency of healthcare delivery - Extrinsic incentives - Performance-based financing - Religious nonprofit organizations - Uganda
Can extrinsic incentives motivate faith-based healthcare providers? This paper challenges the finding that religious providers are intrinsically motivated to serve (poor) patients, and that extrinsic incentives may crowd-out such motivation. We use a unique panel of output and expenditure data from small faith-based nonprofit healthcare facilities in Uganda to estimate the effect of introducing performance-based financing. The output of the observed facilities is less than 50% of their potential. Performance-based financing increases output and efficiency robustly by at least 27%, with no apparent reduction in the perceived quality of services. Religious nonprofit healthcare providers may well be intrinsically motivated, but respond positively to extrinsic incentives. Whether working for god or not, incentives matter.
Information exchange links, knowledge exposure, and adoption of agricultural technologies in northern Uganda
Shikuku, Kelvin Mashisia - \ 2019
World Development 115 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 94 - 106.
Adoption - Climate smart agriculture - Farmer to farmer extension - Information exchange links - Social learning - Uganda
Direct training of selected individuals as disseminating farmers (DFs) can help to implement a farmer to farmer extension approach. This study systematically examines the relationship between social distance and the likelihood of information exchange, subsequently evaluating effects on awareness, knowledge, and adoption of drought-tolerant (DT) varieties of maize, disease-resistant varieties of groundnuts and conservation farming. Using a panel dataset from northern Uganda, the study combines matching techniques with difference-in-difference (DID) approach and employs two-stage least squares regression (2SLS) to identify causal effects. The study finds an increased likelihood of information exchange when the DF is female, regardless of the sex of the neighbour. The likelihood of information exchange increased when distance in farm size cultivated with maize was larger than the median in the sub-village. In terms of non-agricultural assets index, there was an increased likelihood of information exchange both when the distance was smaller and greater than the village median. Information exchange links improved awareness and knowledge for all of the technologies, but only increased adoption of maize varieties. Together, these findings suggest that social distance shapes the diffusion of agricultural knowledge even when DFs are selected by the community to be “representative” and reinforces that social learning can help to address informational constraints to adoption of agricultural technologies.
Impact of Positive Selection on Incidence of Different Viruses During Multiple Generations of Potato Seed Tubers in Uganda
Priegnitz, Uta ; Lommen, Willemien J.M. ; Vlugt, René A.A. van der; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2019
Potato Research 62 (2019)1. - ISSN 0014-3065 - p. 1 - 30.
Multi-seasonal trials - Positive selection - Seed degeneration - Seed potatoes - Seed regeneration - Uganda - Viruses
Smallholder farmers in Uganda commonly use seed potato tubers from the informal sector, especially by seed recycling over several generations. Therefore, seed tubers are highly degenerated with viruses and other pathogens, resulting in poor yield and quality of the produce. Over one cycle of multiplication, degeneration management by positive seed selection was found to be efficient in reducing virus diseases compared with the farmers’ method of selection. The objective of this study was to assess to what extent positive selection over several seasons can reduce six different virus incidences in seed lots of different starting quality in southwestern Uganda. Multi-seasonal trials were carried out in three locations, with five seed lots from four sources and three cultivars. Detection of viruses was based on DAS-ELISA and Luminex xMAP technology. Analysis was carried out with analysis of variance (ANOVA) on angular-transformed percentages of virus incidence. Results showed fluctuations in some viruses over seasons with lower Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and Potato virus X (PVX) incidences in lots from positive selection compared with lots from farmers’ selection. In contrast, some seed lots were initially highly infected with Potato virus S (PVS) and Potato virus M (PVM) and showed no reduction in virus incidence through positive selection. In general, little infection with Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato virus A (PVA) was found. Based on these results, it is recommended that smallholder farmers are trained in positive selection to opt for less virus-infected plants and tubers, thus increasing potato production.
|Towards integrated government action? Assessing nutrition policy integration in Uganda
Namugumya, Brenda ; Candel, J.J.L. ; Talsma, E.F. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2018
nutrition - Policy integration - integrated nutrition strategies - Uganda - governance
To tackle malnutrition more effectively, Sub-Saharan African governments have developed overarching, integrative policy strategies over the past decade. Despite their popularity, little is known about their follow-up and ultimately their success (or failure). Consequently, tracking the progress of such political commitment has gained global importance. Various studies provide insights into changes in nutrition-related policies. Nevertheless, it is generally acknowledged that we have limited understanding of how nutrition concerns are explicitly addressed in policies of different ministries. This study uses a novel policy integration perspective to investigate the extent to which eight ministries in Uganda integrated nutrition concerns across their policy outputs between 2001 and 2017. The approach used assumes nutrition policy integration is a dynamic process occurring in different policy dimensions. We performed a qualitative content analysis to assess 103 policy outputs for changes in subsystems involved, policy goals, and instruments used. Overall, we found a shift towards increased integrated government action on nutrition over time. The 2011–2015 analysis period was a critical juncture where increased integration of nutrition was observed in all policy integration dimensions across all ministries. However, considerable variations in actor networks, goals, and instruments exist across sectors and over time. The sustainability of nutrition integration efforts remains contentious, because of which continuous monitoring will be essential.
Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks
Chami, Goylette F. ; Kontoleon, Andreas A. ; Bulte, Erwin ; Fenwick, Alan ; Kabatereine, Narcis B. ; Tukahebwa, Edridah M. ; Dunne, David W. - \ 2017
Social Science and Medicine 183 (2017). - ISSN 0277-9536 - p. 37 - 47.
Compliance - Coverage - Mass drug administration - Social networks - Uganda
Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Yet, it is unknown if village social networks influence effective MDA implementation by CMDs. In Mayuge District, Uganda, census-style surveys were conducted for 16,357 individuals from 3,491 households in 17 villages. Praziquantel, albendazole, and ivermectin were administered for one month in community-directed MDA to treat Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm, and lymphatic filariasis. Self-reported treatment outcomes, socioeconomic characteristics, friendship networks, and health advice networks were collected. We investigated systematically missed coverage and noncompliance. Coverage was defined as an eligible person being offered at least one drug by CMDs; compliance included ingesting at least one of the offered drugs. These outcomes were analyzed as a two-stage process using a Heckman selection model. To further assess if MDA through CMDs was working as intended, we examined the probability of accurate drug administration of 1) praziquantel, 2) both albendazole and ivermectin, and 3) all drugs. This analysis was conducted using bivariate Probit regression. Four indicators from each social network were examined: degree, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and the presence of a direct connection to CMDs. All models accounted for nested household and village standard errors. CMDs were more likely to offer medicines, and to accurately administer the drugs as trained by the national control programme, to individuals with high friendship degree (many connections) and high friendship closeness centrality (households that were only a short number of steps away from all other households in the network). Though high (88.59%), additional compliance was associated with directly trusting CMDs for health advice. Effective treatment provision requires addressing CMD biases towards influential, well-embedded individuals in friendship networks and utilizing health advice networks to increase village trust in CMDs.
Women and microcredit in rural agrarian households of Uganda: match or mismatch between lender and borrower?
Namayengo, M.M.F. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van; Antonides, G. - \ 2016
APSTRACT: Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce (2016). - ISSN 1789-221X - p. 77 - 88.
Uganda - BRAC - rural microcredit - women
The alignment of microfinance programs with the context and expectations of the recipients is critical for ensuring clients' satisfaction and desired program outcomes. This study sought to investigate the extent to which the objectives and design of the BRAC microfinance program match the expectations, context and characteristics of female borrowers in a rural agrarian setting in Uganda. Quantitative and qualiative methods were used to obtain socio-demographic, personality and microenterprise (ME) chaaceristics of existing borrowers, incoming borrowers and non-borrowers and to obtain information about the microcredit program. We found that BRAC uses a modified Grameen group-lending model to provide small, high-interest rate production loans and follows a rigorous loan processing and recovery procedure. BRAC clients are mainly poor subsistence farmers who derive income from diverse farming and non-farm activities. The major objective to borrow is to meet lump-sum monetary needs usually for school fees and for investment in informal small non-farm businesses. Many borrowers use diverse sources of funds to meet repayment obligations. Defaulting on loans is quite low. The stress cause by weekly loan repayment and resolution of lump-sum cash needs weer identified as reasons for women to stop borrowing The limited loan amounts, the diversions of loans to on-production activities, the stages of the businesses and the weekly recovery program without a grace period may limit the contribution of these loans to ME expansion and increase in income.
The influence of household farming systems on dietary diversity and caloric intake: the case of Uganda
Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Powell, J.P. ; Vignes, Romain ; Ruben, R. - \ 2016
- 16 p.
Nutrition diversity - Production diversity - Uganda - LSMS - Econometrics
The relationship between farm production diversity at the plot level and diversity of household consumption and caloric intake are econometrically estimated. Our results confirm previous findings that an increase in production diversity increases consumption diversity and thereby, presumably, household nutritional levels. In addition, we find a positive relationship between diversity of farm production and caloric intake. Three waves of the World Bank LSMS-ISA database for Uganda were used to create a panel data set. Fixed effects models were estimated. Preliminary results indicate that households that produce a greater diversity of crops, have higher food expenditures, have larger farms, and consume more from their own production have higher nutrition diversity and caloric intake. Policy implications are that strategies aimed at increasing household production diversity may have positive effects on household nutritional levels and caloric intake.
Farmland biodiversity and agricultural management on 237 farms in 13 European and two African regions
Lüscher, G. ; Ammari, Y. ; Andriets, A. ; Angelova, Siyka ; Arndorfer, Michaela ; Bailey, D. ; Balázs, K. ; Bogers, M.M.B. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Choisis, Jean Philippe ; Dennis, P. ; Díaz, M. ; Dyman, T. ; Eiter, Sebastian ; Fjellstad, W. ; Fraser, M. ; Friedel, Jürgen K. ; Garchi, S. ; Geijzendorffer, I.R. ; Gomiero, Tiziano ; González-Bornay, G. ; Guteva, Y. ; Herzog, F. ; Jeanneret, P. ; Jongman, R.H.G. - \ 2016
agricultural management - arable crop - bee - BioBio - earthworm - grassland - habitat diversity - permanent crop - spider - Tunesia - Uganda - vascular plant
Farmland is a major land cover type in Europe and Africa and provides habitat for numerous species. The severe decline in farmland biodiversity of the last decades has been attributed to changes in farming practices, and organic and low-input farming are assumed to mitigate detrimental effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity. Since the farm enterprise is the primary unit of agricultural decision making, management-related effects at the field scale need to be assessed at the farm level. Therefore, in this study, data were collected on habitat characteristics, vascular plant, earthworm, spider, and bee communities and on the corresponding agricultural management in 237 farms in 13 European and two African regions. In 15 environmental and agricultural homogeneous regions, 6–20 farms with the same farm type (e.g., arable crops, grassland, or specific permanent crops) were selected. If available, an equal number of organic and non-organic farms were randomly selected. Alternatively, farms were sampled along a gradient of management intensity. For all selected farms, the entire farmed area was mapped, which resulted in total in the mapping of 11 338 units attributed to 194 standardized habitat types, provided together with additional descriptors. On each farm, one site per available habitat type was randomly selected for species diversity investigations. Species were sampled on 2115 sites and identified to the species level by expert taxonomists. Species lists and abundance estimates are provided for each site and sampling date (one date for plants and earthworms, three dates for spiders and bees). In addition, farmers provided information about their management practices in face-to-face interviews following a standardized questionnaire. Farm management indicators for each farm are available (e.g., nitrogen input, pesticide applications, or energy input). Analyses revealed a positive effect of unproductive areas and a negative effect of intensive management on biodiversity. Communities of the four taxonomic groups strongly differed in their response to habitat characteristics, agricultural management, and regional circumstances. The data has potential for further insights into interactions of farmland biodiversity and agricultural management at site, farm, and regional scale.
Professional development status of teaching staff in a Ugandan public university
Kasule, George Wilson ; Wesselink, Renate ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2016
Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 38 (2016)4. - ISSN 1360-080X - p. 434 - 447.
Professional development - status - teaching staff - Uganda - university
A study was conducted to determine general professional development activities perceived to be important in enhancing university teaching staff’s job performance, and the extent to which teaching staff participate in these activities in Uganda. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with faculty deans and department heads (n = 20), and a questionnaire administered to university senior administrative staff (n = 90) and teaching staff (n = 126). Deductive content analysis and descriptive statistics techniques were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. It was established that university teaching staff rarely participate in professional development activities. Nevertheless, activities such as accredited university teacher education and training, symposia, workshops, and professional networks, all oriented on contemporary teaching and learning, research and innovation, and community development activities, are perceived to be important in improving teaching staff job performance. Thus, there is a need to make participation in formal and informal professional development activities mandatory for university teachers.
Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains : Case of green bean chain in Kenya versus hot pepper chain in Uganda
Nanyunja, Jessica ; Jacxsens, Liesbeth ; Kirezieva, Klementina ; Kaaya, A.N. ; Uyttendaele, Mieke ; Luning, P.A. - \ 2016
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96 (2016)10. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 3380 - 3392.
Food safety management - Green beans - Hot peppers - Kenya - Supply chain - Uganda
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMS) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of context riskiness, FSMS activities and system output in primary production (n = 60) and trade (n = 60). High-risk context characteristics combined with basic FSMS are expected to increase the risk on unsafe produce. RESULTS: In Uganda both farmers and export traders of hot peppers operate in a high- to moderate-risk context but have basic FSMS and low systems output. In Kenya, both farmers and export traders of green beans operate in a low- to moderate-risk context. The farmers have average performing FSMS, whereas export trade companies showed more advanced FSMS and system output scores ranging from satisfactory to good. CONCLUSION: Large retailers supplying the EU premium market play a crucial role in demanding compliance with strict voluntary food safety standards, which was reflected in the more advanced FSMS and good system output in Kenya, especially traders. In Kenya, a clear shift in more fit-for-purpose FSMS and higher system output was noticed between farms and trade companies. In the case of Uganda, traders commonly supply to the less demanding EU wholesale markets such as ethnic specialty shops. They only have to comply with the legal phytosanitary and pesticide residue requirements for export activities, which apparently resulted in basic FSMS and low system output present with both farmers and traders.
The current status of teaching staff innovation competence in Ugandan universities: perceptions of managers, teachers, and students
Kasule, G.W. ; Wesselink, R. ; Noroozi, O. ; Mulder, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 37 (2015)3. - ISSN 1360-080X - p. 330 - 343.
innvovation competence - status quo - teaching staff - university - Uganda
How competent are university teaching staff to deliver effectively their present and future university duties in Uganda? This question was explored in this study by collecting data from managers (n = 90), teachers (n = 126), and students (n = 179) through a questionnaire administered at Kyambogo University. The results show that teacher performance in the role of innovating; knowledge society facilitating; collaborating and networking; higher education designing and developing; and entrepreneurship, could not be considered as satisfactory. It was also established that there are significant differences in the perception of the aforesaid among the respondent categories. The findings suggest that urgent intervention is needed to develop teacher innovation competence if Uganda wants to have an effective higher education. This study also highlights the centrality of using various internal key stakeholders in the educational system such as students and educational managers if effective teacher performance evaluation is to be attained in universities.