Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Global vegetable intake and supply compared to recommendations : A systematic review
    Kalmpourtzidou, Aliki ; Eilander, Ans ; Talsma, Elise F. - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Dietary intake - Global - Vegetable consumption - Vegetable supply - Vegetables

    Low vegetable intake is associated with higher incidence of noncommunicable diseases. Data on global vegetable intake excluding legumes and potatoes is currently lacking. A systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted to assess vegetable consumption and supply in adult populations and to compare these data to the existing recommendations (≥240 g/day according to World Health Organization). For vegetable intake data online, websites of government institutions and health authorities, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database, STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) and Pubmed/Medline databases were searched from March 2018 to June 2019. Vegetable supply data was extracted from Food Balance Sheets, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT), 2013. Vegetable intake was expressed as means and 95% confidence intervals. Data were summarized for each region by calculating weighted means. Vegetable intake and supply data were available for 162 and 136 countries, respectively. Weighted mean vegetable intake was 186 g/day (56-349 g/day). Weighted mean vegetable supply was 431 g/day (71-882 g/day). For 88% of the countries vegetable intake was below the recommendations. Public health campaigns are required to encourage vegetable consumption worldwide. In the 61% of the countries where vegetable supply is currently insufficient to meet the recommendations, innovative food system approaches to improve yields and decrease post-harvest losses are imperative.

    Improving dietary intake during lunch through the provision of a healthy school lunch at Dutch primary schools : Design of a pretest-posttest effectiveness study
    Kleef, Ellen Van; Rongen, Frédérique C. ; Vingerhoeds, Monique H. ; Dijkstra, Coosje ; Seidell, Jaap C. - \ 2020
    BMC Public Health 20 (2020)1. - ISSN 1471-2458
    Primary school - School lunch - School-based intervention - Vegetables

    Background: Since there is a shift from eating lunch at home to eating lunch at primary schools in the Netherlands, providing a school lunch may be an important opportunity to improve the diet quality of Dutch children. Therefore, the aim of this Healthy School Lunch project is to encourage healthy eating behavior of children at primary schools by offering a healthy school lunch, based on the guidelines for a healthy diet. In this study, two research questions will be addressed. The first research question is: What and how much do children consume from a self-served school lunch and how do they evaluate the lunch? The second research question is: Do children compensate healthier school lunches by eating less healthy outside school hours? The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale and study design of this study. Methods: In the Healthy School Lunch project children in grades 5-8 (aged 8-12 years) of three primary schools in the Netherlands will receive a healthy school lunch for a 6-month period. To answer research question 1, lunch consumption data will be collected at baseline and again at 3- A nd 6-months. This will be measured with lunch photos and questionnaires among children. To answer the second research question, a quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test intervention-comparison group design (3 intervention schools and 3 comparison schools) will be carried out. Potential compensation effects will be measured with a single brief questionnaire among parents at the three intervention and three comparison schools at month 6 of the lunch period. The school lunch will also be evaluated by parents (discussion groups) and teachers and support staff (brief questionnaires). Discussion: Results of this study will provide valuable information to influence future school lunch interventions and policies. Trial registration: This study is registered at the Netherlands trial register (NTR):, Trial NL7402 (NTR7618), registered retrospectively at 2018-11-13.

    Social norm nudges in shopping trolleys to promote vegetable purchases : A quasi-experimental study in a supermarket in a deprived urban area in the Netherlands
    Huitink, Marlijn ; Poelman, Maartje P. ; Eynde, Emma van den; Seidell, Jacob C. ; Dijkstra, S.C. - \ 2020
    Appetite 151 (2020). - ISSN 0195-6663
    Deprived urban area - Nudging - Purchase behaviour - Shopping trolleys - Social norm - Supermarkets - Vegetables

    Background: Supermarkets are a key point of purchase for groceries and can therefore have a considerable influence on eating behaviours. Evidence suggests that descriptive social norm nudges in shopping trolleys can be effective in stimulating vegetable purchases in supermarkets. Objective: We investigated the effect of a combination of two nudging strategies in shopping trolleys – a social norm about vegetable purchases and a designated place to put vegetables – on the amount of vegetables purchased in a supermarket in a deprived urban area in the Netherlands. Design: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two conditions: 1) intervention days on which the shopping trolleys in the supermarket had a green nudge inlay indicating a place for vegetables and a social norm message and 2) control days on which the regular shopping trolleys (no inlay or social norm) were used in the supermarket. During both the intervention and control days, vegetable purchases were measured by means of the cash receipts collected from customers at the checkouts. In addition, individual and purchase characteristics were assessed by means of short surveys. Results: In total, 244 customers participated in the study. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that customers on the intervention days (n = 123) were in a higher tertile for grams of vegetables purchased compared to the customers on the control days (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.03–2.69, p = 0.03), especially those who bought groceries for less than three days (OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.43–7.35, p = 0.003). Sensitivity analyses also showed that intervention customers who noticed the green inlay were even more likely to purchase more vegetables (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.06–3.25, p = 0.02). Conclusions: This quasi-experimental study showed that a nudge inlay in shopping trolleys communicating a social norm on vegetable purchases and indicating a distinct place to put vegetables in the trolley increased vegetable purchases among supermarket customers.

    Effectiveness of a peracetic acid solution on Escherichia coli reduction during fresh-cut lettuce processing at the laboratory and industrial scales
    Banach, J.L. ; Bokhorst-van de Veen, H. van; Overbeek, L.S. van; Zouwen, P.S. van der; Zwietering, M.H. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2020
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 321 (2020). - ISSN 0168-1605
    Cross-contamination - Disinfection - Food industry - Vegetables - Water

    Fresh leafy greens like lettuce can be consumed raw and are susceptible to foodborne pathogens if they become contaminated. Recently, the number of reported pathogenic foodborne outbreaks related to leafy greens has increased. Therefore, it is important to try to alleviate the human health burden associated with these outbreaks. Processing of fresh-cut lettuce, including washing, is a step in the supply chain that needs to be well controlled to avoid cross-contamination. Current measures to control the quality of lettuce during washing include the use of chemicals like chlorine; however, questions regarding the safety of chlorine have prompted research for alternative solutions with peracetic acid (PAA). This study evaluates the effectiveness of a PAA (c.a. 75 mg/L) solution on the reduction of a commensal E. coli strain during the washing of fresh-cut lettuce. Experiments were performed at the laboratory scale and validated at the industrial scale. We observed that the use of PAA was not adversely affected by the organic load in the water. The contact time and dose of the PAA showed to be relevant factors, as observed by the approximately 5-log reduction of E. coli in the water. Results showed that once introduced during washing, E. coli remained attached to the lettuce, thus supporting the need to control for pathogenic bacteria earlier in the supply chain (e.g., during primary production) as well as during washing. Moreover, our results showed that the use of PAA during washing did not have an apparent effect on the levels of fluorescent pseudomonads (FP) and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) in lettuce. Overall, our results at the laboratory and industrial scales confirmed that during the processing of fresh-cut produce, where the accumulation of soil, debris, and other plant exudates can negatively affect washing, the use of a PAA (c.a. 75 mg/L) solution was an effective and safe wash water disinfectant that can potentially be used at the industrial scale

    Portioning meat and vegetables in four different out of home settings : A win-win for guests, chefs and the planet
    Reinders, Machiel J. ; Lieshout, Lilou van; Pot, Gerda K. ; Neufingerl, Nicole ; Broek, Eva van den; Battjes-Fries, Marieke ; Heijnen, Joris - \ 2020
    Appetite 147 (2020). - ISSN 0195-6663
    Environmental impact - Healthy diet - Meat - Plant-forward diet - Portion size - Real-life intervention study - Restaurant - Vegetables

    Individuals increasingly consume their meals away from home. This article describes a series of studies that examined the effects of meals with reduced amounts of meat and increased amounts of vegetables on food consumption, waste and guest satisfaction in four real-life restaurant settings in the Netherlands: an a-la-carte restaurant, six company canteens, a self-service restaurant, and a buffet restaurant, including nearly 1500 participants in total. The four studies in these four different out of home settings consistently showed that adapting portion sizes of meat and vegetables was effective to reduce meat consumption and increase vegetable consumption, while maintaining high guest satisfaction. Guest satisfaction even increased when vegetables were presented and prepared in a more attractive and tasty way. Thus, adapting portion sizes of meat and vegetables provides a viable strategy to stimulate healthy and environmentally sustainable consumption patterns in out of home settings.

    Motive-based consumer segments and their fruit and vegetable consumption in several contexts
    Verain, Muriel C.D. ; Sijtsema, Siet J. ; Taufik, Danny ; Raaijmakers, Ireen ; Reinders, Machiel J. - \ 2020
    Food Research International 127 (2020). - ISSN 0963-9969
    Consumer segmentation - Consumption context - Food choice motives - Food consumption - Fruit - Vegetables

    A targeted approach to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, considering the heterogeneity of food choice motives across consumers and across contexts, is expected to be more effective than the often used ‘one-size-fits-all approach’. Therefore, the current study aims to increase understanding of consumers’ food choice motives across contexts, to identify consumer segments based on these motives and to gain insights in fruit and vegetable consumption, perceptions and demographic characteristics of these segments. An online survey was conducted in May 2015 among consumers in the Netherlands, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Poland, Spain, Greece, Croatia and Serbia. 3064 participants completed the survey on fruit and 2998 participants completed the survey on vegetables. Four segments were identified, differing in their focus on present versus future food choice motives for main meals at home and for other contexts. The segments differed in their consumption, perceptions of fruit and vegetables and in their demographic characteristics. Implications for targeted approaches to increase fruit and vegetable consumption are discussed.

    Baby's first bites: a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of vegetable-exposure and sensitive feeding on vegetable acceptance, eating behavior and weight gain in infants and toddlers
    Veek, S.M.C. van der; Graaf, C. de; Vries, J.H.M. de; Jager, G. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. ; Weenen, H. ; Winden, N. van; Vliet, M.S. van; Schultink, J.M. ; Wild, V.W.T. de; Janssen, S. ; Mesman, J. - \ 2019
    BMC Pediatrics 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2431 - 1 p.
    Complementary feeding - Infant - Responsive feeding - Self-regulation of energy intake - Toddler - Vegetable exposure - Vegetables

    BACKGROUND: The start of complementary feeding in infancy plays an essential role in promoting healthy eating habits. Evidence shows that it is important what infants are offered during this first introduction of solid foods: e.g. starting exclusively with vegetables is more successful for vegetable acceptance than starting with fruits. How infants are introduced to solid foods also matters: if parents are sensitive and responsive to infant cues during feeding, this may promote self-regulation of energy intake and a healthy weight. However, the effectiveness of the what and the how of complementary feeding has never been experimentally tested in the same study. In the current project the what and how (and their combination) are tested in one study to determine their relative importance for fostering vegetable acceptance and self-regulation of energy intake in infants. METHODS: A four-arm randomized controlled trial (Baby's First Bites (BFB)) was designed for 240 first-time Dutch mothers and their infants, 60 per arm. In this trial, we compare the effectiveness of (a) a vegetable-exposure intervention focusing on the what in complementary feeding; (b) a sensitive feeding intervention focusing on the how in complementary feeding, (c) a combined intervention focusing on the what and how in complementary feeding; (d) an attention-control group. All mothers participate in five sessions spread over the first year of eating solid foods (child age 4-16 months). Primary outcomes are vegetable consumption, vegetable liking and self-regulation of energy intake. Secondary outcomes are child eating behaviors, child anthropometrics and maternal feeding behavior. Outcomes are assessed before, during and directly after the interventions (child age 18 months), and when children are 24 and 36 months old. DISCUSSION: The outcomes are expected to assess the impact of the interventions and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of vegetable acceptance, self-regulation and healthy eating patterns in infants and toddlers, as well as the prevention of overweight. The results may be used to improve current dietary advice given to parents of their young children on complementary feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered during inclusion of participants at the Netherlands National Trial Register (identifier NTR6572 ) and at ( NCT03348176 ). Protocol issue date: 1 April 2018; version number 1.

    Characterizing Producer Organizations: The case of organic versus conventional vegetables in Uruguay
    Groot Kormelinck, Annemarie ; Bijman, Jos ; Trienekens, Jacques - \ 2019
    Journal of Rural Studies 69 (2019). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 65 - 75.
    Organic - Organizational characteristics - Producer organizations - Uruguay - Value chains - Vegetables

    Producer organizations (POs) are considered important for rural development in developing and transition countries. Scientific studies on POs mostly focus on their impact, but do not distinguish among different types. However, POs are a heterogeneous group. This paper explores the organizational characteristics that distinguish POs in the vegetables sector of Uruguay. In comparing organic and conventional vegetables chains, we have identified five types of POs and we have investigated their distinct organizational characteristics. We found, first, that POs in the organic value chain are responding to market incentives, whereas POs in the conventional value chain are responding to public incentives. Second, contrary to POs with a focus on social and political activities, POs with economic activities are small, they have a product focus, they require member investment, and they have a high formalization status. Third, POs with output-driven objectives have higher levels of horizontal and vertical coordination than POs with value-driven objectives. Our study contributes to the increasing body of literature on the internal and external conditions that explain the diversity of POs in developing and transition countries.

    Combinations of vegetables can be more accepted than individual vegetables
    Stokkom, V.L. van; Graaf, C. de; Wang, S. ; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 72 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 147 - 158.
    Acceptance - Bitterness - Sweetness - Taste - Variety - Vegetables

    Enhancing sweetness of vegetables by addition of sucrose or sweeteners can increase acceptance but is not necessarily desirable. An alternative strategy could be to combine vegetables with other vegetables. By offering combinations of vegetables it might be possible to suppress bitterness, enhance sweetness and provide texture variety leading to increased acceptance. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of combining vegetables with other vegetables on sensory properties and acceptance. Carrot (sweet), cucumber (neutral), green bell pepper (bitter) and red bell pepper (sour) were assessed individually and in combination with the other three vegetables in two mixing ratios (1:2 and 2:1). Additionally, four combinations of three vegetables (mixing ratio 1:1:1) were assessed. A trained panel (n = 24) evaluated taste, flavour and texture and a consumer panel (n = 83) evaluated acceptance of all vegetables and combinations. Combining green bell pepper with carrot (1:2 and 2:1) increased sweetness and decreased bitterness. Combining cucumber, carrot or red bell pepper with green bell pepper (1:2) increased bitterness. Mainly sweetness and bitterness were associated with acceptance whereas texture (crunchiness, firmness and juiciness) did not strongly influence acceptance. Cucumber was the most accepted vegetable followed by carrot, red bell pepper and green bell pepper. Acceptance of vegetable combinations can differ from acceptance of individual vegetables depending on vegetable type and mixing ratio. Only 3 of 16 vegetable combinations had higher acceptance compared to the least accepted vegetable in the combination and similar acceptance as the more accepted vegetable in the combination. For 13 of 16 vegetable combinations acceptance did not increase compared to acceptance of individual vegetables. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at increasing vegetable consumption can be devised using specific combinations of vegetables.

    Sweetness but not sourness enhancement increases acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in children
    Stokkom, V.L. van; Poelman, A.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
    Appetite 131 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 100 - 107.
    Acceptance - Children - Sourness - Sweetness - Taste - Vegetables

    For children it is important to consume enough vegetables to establish healthy dietary patterns. Taste acceptance is an important factor contributing to food choice and consumption. Sweetness and sourness enhancement can increase acceptance of specific foods in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sweetness and sourness enhancement on acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in 5-6-year-old children. Three concentrations of sucrose (2, 5 and 10%) and citric acid (0.05, 0.08 and 0.15%) were added to cucumber and green capsicum purees. Children (n = 70, 5.7 ± 0.5 yrs) assessed acceptance of the vegetable purees using a 5-point hedonic facial scale. Sweetness enhancement significantly increased acceptance of cucumber purees (5 and 10% sucrose) and green capsicum purees (2 and 10% sucrose) compared to unmodified purees. Sourness enhancement (0.05, 0.08 and 0.15% citric acid) did not significantly influence acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees compared to unmodified purees. Children differed in acceptance of vegetable purees with added sucrose and citric acid. Sweetness likers (cucumber 77.1%, green capsicum 58.6%) accepted sucrose concentrations better than sweetness non-likers in both vegetables. Sourness likers (cucumber 50.0%, green capsicum 44.3%) accepted medium and high concentrations of citric acid better than sourness non-likers in cucumber and all citric acid concentrations in green capsicum. We conclude that enhancement of sweetness increases acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in most children whereas enhancement of sourness is better accepted by only a few children. This study highlights the challenge to get children to better accept vegetables, since only sweetness enhancement improved acceptance while addition of sucrose is undesirable. For a small subset of children enhancing sourness might be an alternative strategy to increase acceptance of vegetables.

    Animal manure use in vegetable production in the Netherlands
    Haan, J. de; Geel, W. van - \ 2018
    In: 5th International Symposium on Ecologically Sound Fertilization Strategies for Field Vegetable Production. - International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611887 - p. 73 - 80.
    Manure - Nitrogen - Organic matter - Phosphate - Regulations - Vegetables
    Application of animal manure in vegetables, when used right, can improve soil quality, crop production and financial returns on the long term. Use of animal manure closes nutrient and carbon cycles and contributes to several ecosystem services. The composition of animal manure varies considerably depending on animal species, housing system and feeding of animals. It is important to account for the composition of the manure when using it in vegetable production. Important aspects are the right selection of manure type, matching crop needs in nutrients and organic matter, and the right application of manure in time and place with minimum emissions. Animal manure is ample available in the Netherlands. It is widely used to cover nutrient needs and to sustain soil fertility in the intensive crop rotations in the Netherlands. Manure use in the Netherlands is severely restricted by legislation on nitrogen and phosphorus to prevent emissions to ground and surface water. Processing of animal manure is emerging to be able to use more manure in crop production efficiently next to other advantages for the animal farmer. Important processing techniques developed are 1) anaerobic digestion and 2) separation of manure in a liquid and a solid fraction combined with reversed osmosis making mineral concentrates. The value of animal manure for arable and vegetable crop production is difficult to calculate, especially for organic matter as it affects multiple processes in soil and plant growth. A first estimation of the value of animal manure for arable and vegetable farming on sandy soils is made based on a long-term experiment with different organic matter input treatments. Total value of slurry in the Netherlands is estimated between € 35 and 57 t-1 or € 430 and 2240 ha-1 based on input of 60 kg ha-1 of phosphate with slurry.
    The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables
    Stokkom, V.L. van; Blok, A.E. ; Kooten, O. van; Graaf, C. de; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
    Appetite 121 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 69 - 76.
    Flavour - Identification - Smell - Taste - Texture - Vegetables
    It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of ten vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands (broccoli, cauliflower, French bean, leek, bell pepper, carrot, cucumber, iceberg lettuce, onion and tomato). Subjects (n = 194) were randomly assigned to one of four test conditions which differed in the sensory cues available for vegetable identification: taste, smell (orthonasal), flavour (taste and smell) and flavour-texture (taste, smell and texture). Blindfolded subjects were asked to identify the vegetable from a list of 24 vegetables. Identification was the highest in the flavour-texture condition (87.5%). Identification was significantly lower in the flavour condition (62.8%). Identification was the lowest when only taste cues (38.3%) or only smell cues (39.4%) were provided. For four raw vegetables (carrot, cucumber, onion and tomato) providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues did not significantly change identification suggesting that flavour cues were sufficient to identify these vegetables. Identification frequency increased for all vegetables when perceived intensity of the smell, taste or flavour cue increased. We conclude that providing flavour cues (taste and smell) increases identification compared to only taste or only smell cues, combined flavour and texture cues are needed for the identification of many vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands.
    Consumers’ familiarity with and attitudes towards food quality certifications for rice and vegetables in Vietnam
    My, Nguyen H.D. ; Rutsaert, Pieter ; Loo, Ellen J. Van; Verbeke, Wim - \ 2017
    Food Control 82 (2017). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 74 - 82.
    Attitude - Certification - Consumer - Food - Quality - Rice - Safety - Vegetables - Vietnam

    This study investigates consumers’ attitudes towards, and familiarity with, food quality certification in selected urban areas in the South of Vietnam. Cross-sectional data were collected by means of a consumer survey (n = 500). Consumers’ awareness of food quality-related terms was relatively low. Less than half the participants claimed to understand the meaning of good agricultural practices (GAP), organic food and sustainability. Consumers’ familiarity with food quality certification (Vietnamese Good Agricultural Practices (VietGAP), Global Good Agricultural Practices (GLOBALG.A.P.), organic, and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)) was also low. Familiarity with food quality certification was positively associated with general attitude and food choice motives, namely food safety concern, perceived importance of healthy eating, and perceived importance of environmental consequences relating to food purchase. Food safety concern and perceived importance of environmental consequences were positively associated with consumers’ attitudes towards safe vegetables, as well as high quality rice. Perceived importance of healthy eating was positively related to attitude towards high quality rice. Findings suggest that food safety aspects of safe vegetables and high quality rice should be emphasized during policy and marketing activities for food quality certification. Additionally, an increase in the perceived importance of environmental consequences relating to quality food purchase should be encouraged to enhance positive consumer attitudes towards quality food. Efforts to improve public awareness and knowledge of food quality certification and sustainable agricultural practices in developing countries such as Vietnam are highly recommended.

    The financial feasibility of producing fish and vegetables through aquaponics
    Bosma, Roel H. ; Lacambra, Lysette ; Landstra, Ynze ; Perini, Chiara ; Poulie, Joline ; Schwaner, Marie J. ; Yin, Yi - \ 2017
    Aquacultural Engineering 78 (2017). - ISSN 0144-8609 - p. 146 - 154.
    Aquaponics - Catfish - Cost-Benefit-Analysis - Jade perch - Vegetables
    Aquaponics, producing fish and vegetables in a closed-loop water system, reduces fertilizer use and water discharge, and is therefore promoted as a sustainable venture. A recent global study found that the majority of 257 surveyed aquaponics farms made losses, but the reasons have been poorly analyzed. Based upon grey literature and a post-hoc cost-benefit analysis for an investment in an aquaponics farm in the Philippines, this paper aims to assess the factors contributing to an appropriate level of returns. In the Philippines, vegetables are relatively well-priced, but if catfish were produced, a venture producing 1250. kg fish, 6000. kg lettuce, and 300. kg tomato per year would have a Net-Benefit-Cost Ratio of below 1.3 after 20 years. This ratio should be higher when one considers the risks against which a farmer cannot and should not insure its production, as argued in the paper. Depending on the species of both fish and vegetables, the quantity of nutrients coming from the former component imposes a fish volume: vegetable area ratio ranging from 1:30 to 1:100, thus the quantity of marketable fresh vegetables determines the size of an aquaponics enterprise. As a consequence, the investments in the fish component are relatively high and weigh heavily on the financial balance. For producers to successfully adopt aquaponics, they need to consider starting first with catfish, and then, as they get to master the system's management, they can shift to a high-value fish species for niche markets.
    Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption : A real-life experiment
    Reinders, Machiel J. ; Huitink, Marlijn ; Dijkstra, S.C. ; Maaskant, Anna J. ; Heijnen, Joris - \ 2017
    International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 14 (2017)1. - ISSN 1479-5868
    Diet - Intake - Meat - Menu - Portion size - Restaurant - Vegetables

    Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment. Methods: A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included. Results: Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish. Conclusions: This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied with their restaurant visit and main dish. The findings of this study suggest that modifying portion size in restaurants is an effective tool for stimulating vegetable consumption and consequently healthy and sustainable diets.

    New approach to Integrated Pest Management research with and for horticulture. A vision from and beyond economics
    Buurma, J.S. ; Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2017
    Crop Protection 97 (2017). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 94 - 100.
    Adoption - Fruit - Market pull - Product concepts - Sociology - Vegetables
    The main problem addressed in this paper is the low adoption rate of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) knowledge into practice. Many IPM research leaders believe this low adoption rate is due to bottlenecks in knowledge supply. Consequently, they have asked for research, education and extension efforts that will lead to more widespread use of flexible, locally adapted and practical IPM. In our opinion, however, the bottleneck is a lack of attention for the motivations and framework conditions of the end-users. Therefore, in this paper we shift the focus from technology push to market pull. This paper is based on interviews with Dutch greenhouse growers about the adoption of a new cultivation concept and on export data of tomatoes and apples from Eurostat's Comext database. The two data sources were combined to get understanding of the interactions between entrepreneur types, economic drivers and adoption of new IPM methods. The motivations of the greenhouse growers were captured in mind maps. The export data were analysed for differences between market segments. The main motivations of the growers for adopting innovations such as IPM were getting access to high market segments and achieving better crop growth and lower crop losses. Thus, the challenge for IPM research is integrating tasteful cultivars and product types, advanced agronomy, adequate crop management, attractive packaging and low pesticide residue levels in an inclusive product concept (e.g. residue-free snack tomatoes in a transparent plastic cup). This can be achieved by capturing innovative production strategies from market-oriented entrepreneurs, further developing these strategies in . in-situ experiments with input suppliers, crop-oriented entrepreneurs and advisers, and co-creating guidelines for integrated production strategies with these partners for both crop-oriented and costs-oriented entrepreneurs. The costs-oriented interviewees often had financial problems and/or plans to sell their business. Consequently, knowledge investments in this specific subgroup will, in many cases, not lead to adoption of new crop protection solutions.
    Vegetables and other core food groups : A comparison of key flavour and texture properties
    Poelman, Astrid A.M. ; Delahunty, Conor M. ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
    Food Quality and Preference 56 (2017)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 7.
    Children - Sensory properties of diets - Taste - Texture - Vegetables

    Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n = 34) were compared to fruit (n = 26), dairy (n = 28), meat/fish (n = 28) and grains (n = 38); these foods were representative of the diet of Australian children and profiled by a trained sensory panel on 10 key taste and texture attributes as part of a larger study (Lease, Hendrie, Poelman, Delahunty, & Cox, 2016). Mean intensities were analysed using ANOVA. Vegetables were more bitter in taste than the other food categories and amongst the hardest. They were the lowest, or amongst the lowest, in all other flavour properties. Other core food categories had sensory properties known to be drivers of food liking: sweet and sour for fruit, sour, salty and fatty for dairy, salty, umami and fatty for meat/fish, and salty for grains. No food category other than vegetables had a bitter taste, a known driver of dislike. This research shows that vegetables, relative to other food groups, have sensory properties that are known to predispose to low acceptance based on innate likes and dislikes or preferences acquired within the first few months of life. High hardness of vegetables implicates a slow eating rate, which is generally beneficial from a public health perspective, but may make it difficult to meet recommended vegetable intake. To increase children's acceptance and intake for vegetables, either vegetable sensory properties can be modified, or children's acceptance for vegetables can be modified through sensory learning strategies.

    Taste intensities of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands
    Stokkom, V.L. van; Teo, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Graaf, Kees de; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2016
    Food Research International 87 (2016). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 34 - 41.
    Bitterness - Cooking - Preparation - Taste - Vegetables

    Bitterness has been suggested to be the main reason for the limited palatability of several vegetables. Vegetable acceptance has been associated with preparation method. However, the taste intensity of a variety of vegetables prepared by different methods has not been studied yet. The objective of this study is to assess the intensity of the five basic tastes and fattiness of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands prepared by different methods using the modified Spectrum method. Intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fattiness were assessed for ten vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, leek, carrot, onion, red bell pepper, French beans, tomato, cucumber and iceberg lettuce) by a panel (n = 9) trained in a modified Spectrum method. Each vegetable was assessed prepared by different methods (raw, cooked, mashed and as a cold pressed juice). Spectrum based reference solutions were available with fixed reference points at 13.3 mm (R1), 33.3 mm (R2) and 66.7 mm (R3) for each taste modality on a 100 mm line scale. For saltiness, R1 and R3 differed (16.7 mm and 56.7 mm). Mean intensities of all taste modalities and fattiness for all vegetables were mostly below R1 (13.3 mm). Significant differences (p

    Organics unpacked : The influence of packaging on the choice for organic fruits and vegetables
    Herpen, Erica van; Immink, Victor ; Puttelaar, Jos van den - \ 2016
    Food Quality and Preference 53 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 90 - 96.
    Choice - Fruit - Organics - Packaging - Produce - Unpacked - Vegetables

    In many supermarkets throughout Europe, it has become common practice in the fruit and vegetable department to offer options in plastic packaging. Recent trends, however, move towards the removal of packaging. The current study examines whether offering fruit and vegetables without primary packaging increases the likelihood that consumers choose these products. This is especially relevant for organic fruit and vegetables, given that plastic may be perceived as contrary to the sustainable nature of these products. A first experiment, using a student sample and an immersive 3D virtual supermarket environment, shows that choice for organic fruit and vegetables indeed increases when organics are offered without packaging. A second experiment with the virtual supermarket generalizes these findings to a sample of supermarket patrons, additionally showing that unpacked fruit and vegetables are preferred over packed options overall, both for organic and non-organic products. We conclude that removing the primary packaging of organic fruit and vegetables appears to be a promising intervention in attempts to increase organic sales.

    Lactobacillus paracasei-Enriched Vegetables Containing Health Promoting Molecules
    Lavermicocca, P. ; Dekker, Matthijs ; Russo, F. ; Valerio, F. ; Venere, D. Di; Sisto, A. - \ 2015
    In: Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion Academic Press - ISBN 9780128023716 - p. 361 - 370.
    Functional constipation - Functional foods - Glucosinolates - Inulin - Lactobacillus paracasei LMG P-22043 - Polyphenols - Vegetables

    Broadening the range of probiotic foods is an interest of both consumers and enterprises because probiotic products available on the market are mainly limited to milk-based foods or dietary supplements. Here we describe the efficient association of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain with several vegetable matrices acting as vehicles for both live beneficial probiotic populations and health-promoting molecules. In this regard, table olives, cabbage, and artichokes were proved to be suitable as probiotic carriers, also providing phytochemicals, such as glucosinolates and polyphenols, as well as the prebiotic inulin. Moreover, experimental results demonstrated the technological features of the probiotic strain acting as an efficient starter for fermentation process, saving the bioactive molecules, and as a protective culture improving product shelflife. Finally, in vivo human trials indicated the efficacy of the symbiotic artichokes, carrying the probiotic L. paracasei IMPC2.1, in modulating fecal biochemical and microbiological parameters and in reducing symptoms of functional constipation.

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