- Wim Huisman (1)
- W. Huisman (1)
- N. Liu (1)
- Saskia M. Ruth van (1)
- Harro Maat (1)
- Maartje Pronk (1)
- S.M. Ruth van (1)
- G.H. Schrijver (1)
- Y. Yang (1)
Fraud vulnerability in the Dutch milk supply chain : Assessments of farmers, processors and retailers
Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. ; Hettinga, K.A. ; Liu, N. ; Heck, J. ; Schrijver, G.H. ; Gaiardoni, L. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2019
Food Control 95 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 308 - 317.
Dairy supply chain - Fraud factor - Fraud mitigation - Milk adulteration - Organic farm - Vulnerability assessment
Food fraud surfaces regularly, anywhere in the world. Not only the companies involved in food fraud suffer from losses when food fraud occurs, other actors in the supply chain and branch of industry are often painted with the same brush. Milk has been a common fraud target in the past and, therefore, fraud is a concern for companies involved in milk production. In order to manage and prevent fraud in the milk supply chain, a good insight into the vulnerabilities of companies and their supply chain networks is pivotal. The aim of the current study is to understand (a) the fraud vulnerability of the general milk supply chain in the Netherlands and its tiers (farmers, processors, retailers) and (b) the differences in fraud vulnerability of farmers producing organic milk, green intermediate ‘pasture milk’ and conventional milk. The SSAFE food fraud assessment tool was slightly adapted to the milk supply chain and used to examine the fraud vulnerability of the 38 businesses of the three tiers in the study: 30 farmers, 4 milk processors and 4 retailers. Forty-eight fraud factors related to opportunities, motivations and control measures were examined. Subsequently, key fraud factors were identified. The three tier groups showed major similarities in motivation related fraud factors, and large differences in fraud opportunities and controls. There were also differences observed between the organic and non-organic farmers, with organic farmers being slightly more vulnerable than their non-organic counterparts. From this study it appears that the milk supply chain in the Netherlands is low to medium vulnerable to fraud but the key factors contributing to the vulnerability differ between the tiers (farmers, processors, retailers). Management of the fraud risks requires consideration of these differences.
Food fraud vulnerability and its key factors
Ruth, Saskia M. van; Huisman, Wim ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2017
Trends in Food Science and Technology 67 (2017). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 70 - 75.
Counterfeiting - Criminology - Food adulteration - Fraud risk - Vulnerability assessment
Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However, knowledge on what determines food fraud vulnerability is limited. Scope and approach In the current study a new food fraud vulnerability concept is explored. The concept is based on the criminological routine activity theory and key food fraud vulnerability factors are subsequently extracted and identified. Key findings and conclusions Opportunities, motivations and control measures are defined in this concept as the three main elements of food fraud vulnerability. They can be subdivided into technical opportunities, opportunities in time and place, economic drivers, culture and behavior, as well as technical and managerial control measures. They are further detailed in 31 fraud vulnerability factors. Food fraud vulnerability threats may originate from both the external and the internal environment of a business which means that several vulnerability factors need to be considered at multiple environmental levels, i.e. the level of the business itself, its suppliers, its customers, the wider chain and at the (inter)national level. The concept was further developed into a practical food fraud vulnerability self-assessment tool with 50 questions and answering grids. This will be a valuable first step towards fraud prevention and will assist in the global combat on food fraud.
Vulnerability assessments as a political creation : Tsunami management in Portugal
Pronk, Maartje ; Maat, Harro ; Crane, Todd A. - \ 2017
Disasters 41 (2017)4. - ISSN 0361-3666 - p. 728 - 747.
Risk management - Social mediation - Tsunami - Vulnerability assessment
Vulnerability assessments are a cornerstone of contemporary disaster research. This paper shows how research procedures and the presentation of results of vulnerability assessments are politically filtered. Using data from a study of tsunami risk assessment in Portugal, the paper demonstrates that approaches, measurement instruments, and research procedures for evaluating vulnerability are influenced by institutional preferences, lines of communication, or lack thereof, between stakeholder groups, and available technical expertise. The institutional setting and the pattern of stakeholder interactions form a filter, resulting in a particular conceptualisation of vulnerability, affecting its operationalisation via existing methods and technologies and its institutional embedding. The Portuguese case reveals a conceptualisation that is aligned with perceptions prevalent in national government bureaucracies and the exclusion of local stakeholders owing to selected methodologies and assessment procedures. The decisions taken by actors involved in these areas affect how vulnerability is assessed, and ultimately which vulnerability reduction policies will be recommended in the appraisal.