- N.M. Dam van (1)
- Katrien Descheemaeker (1)
- M. Dicke (1)
- Ken E. Giller (1)
- Omar García-Tejera (1)
- G.E. Halsema Van (1)
- Michael J. Lathuillière (1)
- Francisco J. Villalobos (1)
- J. Loon van (1)
- Álvaro López-Bernal (1)
- Alessandro Manzardo (1)
- Manuele Margni (1)
- Anne Marie Boulay (1)
- J.P. Melo-Abreu De (1)
- Alejandro Morales (1)
- Masaharu Motoshita (1)
- Esther N. Masvaya (1)
- Justice Nyamangara (1)
- M.K. Nyathi (1)
- Montserrat Núñez (1)
- Taikan Oki (1)
- Francisco Orgaz (1)
- H.G. Ouwersloot (1)
- N. Pangesti (1)
- W. Peters (1)
- Stephan Pfister (1)
- A. Pineda Gomez (1)
- C.P. Plooy Du (1)
- Bradley Ridoutt (1)
- R. Soler (1)
- T.J. Stomph (1)
- P.C. Struik (1)
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- Amandine Valerie Pastor (1)
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- Sebastien Worbe (1)
The dual-purpose use of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas var. Bophelo) for improved nutritional food security
Nyathi, M.K. ; Plooy, C.P. Du; Halsema, G.E. Van; Stomph, T.J. ; Annandale, J.G. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 217 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 23 - 37.
Green leafy vegetable - Micronutrient deficiency - Nutritional water productivity - Vitamin A - Water stress
Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) leaves can be utilised as a fresh green leafy vegetable, in addition to the traditional use of storage root; therefore, OFSP can be seen as a “dual-purpose’’ crop. We hypothesized that no vine harvesting combined with fertiliser application and irrigation will improve the storage root yield and selected plant parameters (water productivity, leaf and storage root nutrient concentrations, nutritional yield, and nutritional water productivity). The objectives of the study were to (i) evaluate the effect of vine harvesting on the selected plant parameters, and, (ii) assess the effect of irrigation regimes and soil fertilisation on these selected parameters. Field experiments were conducted at ARC-VOP, Pretoria, South Africa, during the 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. Treatments included irrigation regimes [well-watered (W1) and supplemental irrigation (W2)], soil fertilisation [well-fertilised (F1) and no fertiliser application (F2)], and vine harvesting [no vine harvesting (H1) and vine harvesting (H2)]. For the 2014/15 season, the well-watered regime improved total storage root yield (W1 = 13.0 t DM ha −1 ; W2 = 7.5 t DM ha −1 ). Under the practice of vine harvesting, soil fertility treatments did not affect (total dry storage root yield and dry marketable storage root yield) storage root production. Our results further revealed that vine harvesting reduced storage root nutrient concentrations (23% for iron; 14% for zinc; 12% for β-carotene). Nevertheless, total nutritional yields increased; the highest total nutritional yields for iron, zinc, and β-carotene were found under the water and nutrient input regime (W1F1). Assessments showed that boiled orange-fleshed sweet potato aboveground edible biomass could potentially contribute to the daily-recommended nutritional requirement of iron and vitamin A for a family of six people. More water was needed to meet the daily-recommended nutrient intake (iron, zinc, and vitamin A) with OFSP grown as a storage root crop only than when grown as a dual-purpose crop. Our results indicated that there is an opportunity to utilise OFSP as a dual-purpose crop for rural resource-poor households because total nutritional yields (iron, zinc, and β-carotene) and total nutritional water productivities (iron, zinc, and β-carotene) were improved. More research is needed to assess the effect of vine harvesting on a range of OFSP varieties and should be conducted on the farm. Rural resource-poor households are encouraged to produce OFSP for their own consumption and the surplus could be sold at the local market.
Risk management options in maize cropping systems in semi-arid areas of Southern Africa
Masvaya, Esther N. ; Nyamangara, Justice ; Giller, Ken E. ; Descheemaeker, Katrien - \ 2018
Field Crops Research 228 (2018). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 110 - 121.
Grain requirement - N mineralisation - N stress - Runoff curve number - Water stress
Although rainfed cropping in semi-arid areas is risky due to frequent droughts and dry spells, planting early with the first rains is often expected to result in yield benefits. We hypothesised that planting early leads to yield benefits if the planting coincides with a mineral N flush at the start of the season but leads to crop failure if there is a false start to the cropping season. The effects of different management options, including tillage (ploughing and ripping), mulch (two levels 0 and 2 t ha−1) and fertility amendments (five levels: 0; 20 and 40 kg N ha−1; 5 t manure ha−1 and 5 t ha−1 manure + 20 kg N ha−1) on grain yields were simulated using the calibrated and tested APSIM model over a 30-year period (1984–2015). Yields were simulated and compared across seven planting date scenarios (1 November, 15 November, 30 November, 15 December, 31 December, 15 January and planting when cumulative rainfall of 20 mm was received in three consecutive days). Planting with the first rains with manure + 20 kg N ha−1 resulted in the best average yield of 2271 kg ha−1 whilst the poorest average yields of 22 kg ha−1 were observed with planting on 15 January with no fertility amendment (0 kg N ha−1). Planting early (1 Nov to 15 Nov) and with the first rains resulted in exceeding the food self-sufficiency threshold of 1080 kg ha-1 in 40–83 % of the cases if fertility amendments are applied, as well as a low probability of complete crop failure, ranging from 0 to 40%. Grain yield penalties due to a false start followed the trend: ripper + mulch > plough + mulch > ripper (no mulch) averaging 256, 190 and 182 kg ha-1 respectively across all the fertility treatments. The model was able to simulate the occurrence of the mineral N flush with the first rains. Its coincidence with planting resulted in average yield benefits of 712, 452, 382 and 210 kg ha-1 for the following respective planting dates: 1 Nov, 15 Nov, 30 Nov, variable date when >20 mm rainfall was received. Early planting, in combination with reduced tillage, mulch and N containing fertility amendments is critical to reduce risk of crop failure in the smallholder cropping systems of semi-arid areas of southern Africa and achieve the best possible yields.
OliveCan : A process-based model of development, growth and yield of olive orchards
López-Bernal, Álvaro ; Morales, Alejandro ; García-Tejera, Omar ; Testi, Luca ; Orgaz, Francisco ; Melo-Abreu, J.P. De; Villalobos, Francisco J. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Carbon assimilation - Crop model - Olea europaea L. - SPAC model - Water stress - Water uptake
Several simulation models of the olive crop have been formulated so far, but none of them is capable of analyzing the impact of environmental conditions and management practices on water relations, growth and productivity under both well-irrigated and water-limiting irrigation strategies. This paper presents and tests OliveCan, a process-oriented model conceived for those purposes. In short, OliveCan is composed of three main model components simulating the principal elements of the water and carbon balances of olive orchards and the impacts of some management operations. To assess its predictive power, OliveCan was tested against independent data collected in two 3-year field experiments conducted in Córdoba, Spain, each of them applying different irrigation treatments. An acceptable level of agreement was found between measured and simulated values of seasonal evapotranspiration (ET, range 393 to 1016 mm year−1; RMSE of 89 mm year−1), daily transpiration (Ep, range 0.14–3.63 mm d−1; RMSE of 0.32 mm d−1) and oil yield (Yoil, range 13–357 g m−2; RMSE of 63 g m−2). Finally, knowledge gaps identified during the formulation of the model and further testing needs are discussed, highlighting that there is additional room for improving its robustness. It is concluded that OliveCan has a strong potential as a simulation platform for a variety of research applications.
The WULCA consensus characterization model for water scarcity footprints : assessing impacts of water consumption based on available water remaining (AWARE)
Boulay, Anne Marie ; Bare, Jane ; Benini, Lorenzo ; Berger, Markus ; Lathuillière, Michael J. ; Manzardo, Alessandro ; Margni, Manuele ; Motoshita, Masaharu ; Núñez, Montserrat ; Pastor, Amandine Valerie ; Ridoutt, Bradley ; Oki, Taikan ; Worbe, Sebastien ; Pfister, Stephan - \ 2018
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 0948-3349 - p. 368 - 378.
Impact assessment - LCIA - Life cycle assessment - UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative - Water consumption - Water footprint - Water stress - Water use - WULCA
Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to assess freshwater-related impacts according to a new water footprint framework formalized in the ISO 14046 standard. To date, no consensus-based approach exists for applying this standard and results are not always comparable when different scarcity or stress indicators are used for characterization of impacts. This paper presents the outcome of a 2-year consensus building process by the Water Use in Life Cycle Assessment (WULCA), a working group of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, on a water scarcity midpoint method for use in LCA and for water scarcity footprint assessments. Methods: In the previous work, the question to be answered was identified and different expert workshops around the world led to three different proposals. After eliminating one proposal showing low relevance for the question to be answered, the remaining two were evaluated against four criteria: stakeholder acceptance, robustness with closed basins, main normative choice, and physical meaning. Results and discussion: The recommended method, AWARE, is based on the quantification of the relative available water remaining per area once the demand of humans and aquatic ecosystems has been met, answering the question “What is the potential to deprive another user (human or ecosystem) when consuming water in this area?” The resulting characterization factor (CF) ranges between 0.1 and 100 and can be used to calculate water scarcity footprints as defined in the ISO standard. Conclusions: After 8 years of development on water use impact assessment methods, and 2 years of consensus building, this method represents the state of the art of the current knowledge on how to assess potential impacts from water use in LCA, assessing both human and ecosystem users’ potential deprivation, at the midpoint level, and provides a consensus-based methodology for the calculation of a water scarcity footprint as per ISO 14046.
Negative impact of drought stress on a generalist leaf chewer and a phloem feeder is associated with, but not explained by an increase in herbivore-induced indole glucosinolates
Pineda Gomez, A. ; Pangesti, N. ; Soler, R. ; Dam, N.M. van; Loon, J. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2016
Environmental and Experimental Botany 123 (2016). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 88 - 97.
Abiotic factor - Arabidopsis thaliana - Generalist herbivores - Indole glucosinolates - Plant-insect interactions - Water stress - 016-3905
Plants are constantly exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought and herbivory. However, plant responses to these stresses have usually been studied in isolation. Here, we take a multidisciplinary approach addressing ecological and chemical aspects of plant responses to generalist herbivores and several intensities of drought. We hypothesize that in brassicaceous plants, the effects of drought stress on herbivores can be explained by an increase in indole glucosinolates. Four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana plants were drought stressed for one week or watered as normal. Three types of drought stress were compared: (1) no watering for 1 week and then rewatered to saturation (low drought); (2) no watering for 1 week and then rewatered to 60% of soil water content (high drought); (3) watering every other day to 60% of soil water content (continuous drought). All three types of drought stress negatively affected both the larval mass of the leaf chewer Mamestra brassicae and the population growth of the phloem feeder Myzus persicae. This was associated with increased levels of herbivore-induced indole glucosinolates compared to infested control plants. Interestingly, the levels of total indole glucosinolates did not change in uninfested plants, except for the indole 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin that was induced by continuous drought. Two-choice experiments also showed that caterpillars of M. brassicae, but not aphids, avoided drought-stressed plants only after feeding on them, but not by visual/olfactory cues. However, on a knockout mutant blocked in the production of indole glucosinolates (cyp79B2 cyp79B3), the effect of drought on herbivore performance was similar to that on wild-type plants. The results of this study show that drought stress induced higher levels of indole glucosinolates; however, these levels were not responsible for higher resistance to generalist herbivores in drought-stressed plants.
Plant water-stress parameterization determines the strength of land-atmosphere coupling
Combe, M. ; Vila-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Ouwersloot, H.G. ; Peters, W. - \ 2016
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 217 (2016). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 61 - 73.
Atmospheric boundary layer - CO - Drought - Heat wave - Land-atmosphere interactions - Water stress
Land-surface models used in studies of the atmosphere and vegetation during droughts usually include an underlying parameterization that describes the response of plants to water stress. Here, we show that different formulations of this parameterization can lead to significant differences in the coupling strength (i.e. the magnitude of the carbon and water exchange) between the land surface and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). We use a numerical model that couples the daytime surface fluxes typical for low vegetation to the dynamics of a convective ABL, to systematically investigate a range of plant water-stress responses. We find that under dry soil conditions, changing from a sensitive to an insensitive vegetation response to water stress has the same impact on the land-atmosphere (L-A) coupling as a strong increase in soil moisture content. The insensitive vegetation allows stomata to remain open for transpiration (+150Wm-2 compared to the sensitive one), which cools the atmosphere (-3.5K) and limits the ABL growth (-500m). During the progressive development of a dry spell, the insensitive response will first dampen atmospheric heating because the vegetation continues to transpire a maximum of 4.6mmday-1 while soil moisture is available. In contrast, the more sensitive vegetation response reduces its transpiration by more than 1mmday-1 to prevent soil moisture depletion. But when soil moisture comes close to wilting point, the insensitive vegetation will suddenly close its stomata causing a switch to a L-A coupling regime dominated by sensible heat exchange. We find that in both cases, progressive soil moisture depletion contributes to further atmospheric warming up to 6K, reduced photosynthesis up to 89%, and CO2 enrichment up to 30ppm, but the full impact is strongly delayed for the insensitive vegetation. Then, when we analyze the impact of a deviation of the modeled large-scale boundary conditions (e.g. subsidence, cloud cover, free-troposphere lapse rates, etc.) from their true state during a drought, we find that the two coupled systems (with a sensitive or insensitive vegetation) respond much differently to the generated atmospheric warming, this due to the difference in the basic surface coupling regime (coupled vs. uncoupled). This is of importance for the simulation of heat waves and meteorological droughts, as well as carbon-climate projections, as we show the predictive skill of coupled models is tied to the underlying vegetation response to water stress.