Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Multiple vs Single Target Vegetable Exposure to Increase Young Children's Vegetable Intake
    Poelman, Astrid A.M. ; Delahunty, Conor M. ; Broch, Maeva ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2019
    Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 51 (2019)8. - ISSN 1499-4046 - p. 985 - 992.
    acceptance - repeated exposure - variety - vegetable intake - young children

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of repeated exposure to multiple vs single target vegetables in increasing young children's vegetable intake. Methods: A pilot randomized controlled trial (children aged 4–6 years, n = 32) was conducted, which exposed children at home 15 times over 5 weeks to either 1 (single target) or 3 (multiple target) vegetables. A comparison group did not change eating habits. Vegetable intake was measured by (1) a dinner meal consumed at research facilities, (2) 3-day weighed food records, and (3) usual vegetable intake (parent report). Measures were collected at baseline and either immediately after intervention (1), at 3-month follow-up (3) or both (2). Results: There were no differences between groups at baseline in vegetable intake. Usual vegetable intake increased in the multiple target group from.6 to 1.2 servings/d and did not change in other groups (P =.02). Food record data were not significant but underpowered. Vegetable intake from dinner meals was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions and Implications: Exposure to multiple vegetables simultaneously may be more effective than a single vegetable to increase young children's intake. Larger scale research is recommended to confirm the effectiveness of offering variety in exposure and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms involved.

    Effect of Taste Enhancement on Consumer Acceptance of Pureed Cucumber and Green Capsicum
    Stokkom, Vera L. van; Graaf, Cees de; Kooten, Olaf van; Stieger, Markus - \ 2018
    Journal of Food Science 83 (2018)10. - ISSN 0022-1147 - p. 2578 - 2585.
    acceptance - capsicum - cucumber - taste - vegetable

    Abstract: Vegetables have low taste intensities, which might contribute to low acceptance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of taste (sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness) and fattiness enhancement on consumer acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees. Three concentrations of sugar, citric acid, caffeine, mono-sodium glutamate, NaCl, and sunflower oil were added to pureed cucumber and green capsicum. Subjects (n = 66, 35.6 ± 17.7 y) rated taste and fattiness intensity. Different subjects (n = 100, 33.2 ± 16.5 years) evaluated acceptance of all pureed vegetables. Taste intensities of vegetable purees were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the three tastant concentrations except for umami in both vegetable purees, sourness in green capsicum puree, and fattiness in cucumber puree. Only enhancement of sweetness significantly (P < 0.05) increased acceptance of both vegetable purees compared to unmodified purees. In cucumber purees, relatively small amounts of added sucrose (2%) increased acceptance already significantly, whereas in green capsicum acceptance increased significantly only with addition of 5% sucrose. Enhancement of other taste modalities did not significantly increase acceptance of both vegetable purees. Enhancing saltiness and bitterness significantly decreased acceptance of both vegetable purees. We conclude that the effect of taste enhancement on acceptance of vegetable purees differs between tastants and depends on tastant concentration and vegetable type. With the exception of sweetness, taste enhancement of taste modalities such as sourness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness was insufficient to increase acceptance of vegetable purees. We suggest that more complex taste, flavor, or texture modifications are required to enhance acceptance of vegetables. Practical Application: Results can be used by cultivators to select and grow vegetable varieties with enhanced taste and flavor. Especially for cucumber, relatively small sweetness enhancement is sufficient to increase acceptance.

    The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public
    Fallaize, R. ; Macready, A.L. ; Butler, L.T. ; Ellis, J.A. ; Berezowska, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Walsh, M.C. ; Gallagher, C. ; Stewart-Knox, B.J. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Gibney, M.J. ; Lovegrove, J.A. - \ 2015
    The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)8. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1271 - 1279.
    nutrigenomics - communication - disease - information - consumer - medicine - intervention - acceptance - knowledge - attitudes
    Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the ‘framework approach’ described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK.
    Influence of choice on vegetable intake in children: an in-home study
    Wild, V.W.T. de; Graaf, C. de; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Jager, G. - \ 2015
    Appetite 91 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 1 - 6.
    portion size - preschool-children - european countries - young-children - flavor-flavor - mere exposure - fruit - consumption - increases - acceptance
    Children's vegetable consumption is still far below that recommended, and stimulating their intake is a challenge for caregivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether choice-offering is an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake in an in-home situation. Seventy children (mean age 3.7; SD 1) randomly assigned to a choice or a no-choice condition, were exposed 12 times to six familiar target vegetables at home during dinner. In the choice group, two selected vegetables were offered each time, whereas the no-choice group only received one vegetable. Vegetable intake was measured by weighing children's plates before and after dinner. A mixed linear model with age, gender, and baseline vegetable liking as covariates was used to compare intake between the choice and the no-choice group. Mixed linear model analysis yielded estimated means for vegetable intake of 48.5¿g +/- 30 in the no-choice group and 57.7¿g¿+/- 31 for the choice group (P¿=¿0.09). In addition, baseline vegetable liking (P¿
    Colour, pleasantness, and consumption behaviour within a meal
    Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Spence, C. - \ 2014
    Appetite 75 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 165 - 172.
    sensory-specific satiety - subsequent food-intake - in-home consumption - stimulus specificity - variety - choice - flavor - cues - red - acceptance
    It is often claimed that colour (e.g., in a meal) affects consumption behaviour. However, just how strong is the evidence in support of this claim, and what are the underlying mechanisms? It has been shown that not only the colour itself, but also the variety and the arrangement of the differently-coloured components in a meal influence consumers’ ratings of the pleasantness of a meal (across time) and, to a certain extent, might even affect their consumption behaviour as well. Typically, eating the same food constantly or repeatedly leads to a decrease in its perceived pleasantness, which, as a consequence, might lead to decreased intake of that food. However, variation within a meal (in one or several sensory attributes, or holistically) has been shown to slow down this process. In this review, we first briefly summarize the literature on how general variety in a meal influences these variables and the major theories that have been put forward by researchers to explain them. We then go on to evaluate the evidence of these effects based mainly on the colour of the food explaining the different processes that might affect colour-based sensory-specific satiety and, in more detail, consumption behaviour. In addition, we also discuss the overlap in the definitions of these terms and provide additional hypothesis as to why, in some cases, the opposite pattern of results has been observed.
    Dealing with consumer differences in liking during repeated exposure to food; typical dynamics in rating behavior
    Horst, G.J. ter; Renken, R. ; Nanneti, L. ; Dalenberg, J.R. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
    in-home consumption - k-means - elderly adults - mere exposure - acceptance - intensity - flavor - young - pleasantness - preferences
    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of consumer behaviors, leading to a misinterpretation of the results. To deal with the variability in consumer liking, we propose to use clustering on data from consumer-product combinations to investigate the nature of the behavioral differences within the complete dataset. The resulting behavioral clusters can then be used to describe product acceptance. To test this approach we used two independent data sets in which young adults were repeatedly exposed to drinks and snacks, respectively. We found that five typical consumer behaviors existed in both datasets. These behaviors differed both in the average level of liking as well as its temporal dynamics. By investigating the distribution of a single product across typical consumer behaviors, we provide more precise insight in how consumers divide in subgroups based on their product liking (i.e. product modality). This work shows that taking into account and using interindividual differences can unveil information about product acceptance that would otherwise be ignored.
    Innovation capabilities in food and beverages and technology-based innovation projects
    Tepic, M. ; Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Kemp, R.G.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2014
    British Food Journal 116 (2014)2. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 228 - 250.
    product development - success factors - dynamic environments - chinese firms - performance - industry - uncertainty - system - perspectives - acceptance
    Purpose - The aim of this paper is to establish the differences between the food and beverages (F&B) and technology-based industries with regards to the relation between previously identified success factors and innovation project performance. Design/methodology/approach - These differences are established on the basis of logistic regression analysis, using 38 innovation projects (18 F&B and 20 technology-based). Findings - Newness of the innovation project to the company, communication capabilities and market potential have a more negative impact on innovation project performance in the F&B than the tech-based industry. Especially functional upstream capabilities increase the likelihood of success in F&B, when compared to tech-based innovation projects. Practical implications - While functional upstream capabilities are important for success of F&B innovation projects, there is still room for improvement in order to deal effectively with newness of the innovation project to the company. Internalization of resources from the network and a balanced radical/incremental innovation project portfolio contribute to additional enhancement of functional capabilities of the F&B companies, improving their capacity to deal with newness. Through a larger focus on co-innovation with retail, F&B companies can improve their intra- and inter-firm communication capabilities to attain more consumer-oriented integration of R&D and marketing activities, improving the market potential of their innovations. Originality/value - This paper demonstrates that the previously identified critical success factors for innovation projects differ in impact and importance for F&B innovation project performance when compared to innovation projects in the technology-based industry.
    Effect of starting weaning exclusively with vegetables on vegetable intake at the age of 12 and 23 months
    Barends, C. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Mojet, J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
    Appetite 81 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 193 - 199.
    taste preferences - repeated exposure - food preferences - acceptance - children - fruit - infants - variety - consumption - adolescents
    Background: The low vegetable intake in children may be attributed to their low preference for vegetables. During the first year of life, first taste preferences are formed, which may track over time. In a previous study to increase infants' vegetable intake and liking, we found that at the start of weaning, infants had a higher vegetable intake in the lab after repeated exposure to vegetable purées than to fruit purées. The current study is a follow-up of these infants at the age of 12 and 23¿months, and examined whether the group that started weaning with vegetables continued eating more vegetables than the group that started weaning with fruits. Methods: At 12 (n¿=¿86) and 23 (n¿=¿81) months of age the children's daily vegetable consumption was reported by their parents using a 3-day food diary. The intake of green beans and apple purée was measured in the laboratory. Results: Reported daily intake of vegetables at 12¿months of age was 38 % higher (P¿=¿0.02) in the vegetable group (75¿±¿43¿g) than in the fruit group (54¿±¿29¿g), but was similar for both groups at 23¿months of age (49¿±¿43, 57¿±¿35¿g, respectively; NS). Both at 12 and 23¿months of age, apple and green beans intake in the lab did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that weaning exclusively with vegetables results in a higher daily vegetable consumption until at least 12¿months of age. More research is needed to investigate how to maintain this effect.
    Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption
    Kleef, E. van; Vrijhof, M.N. ; Polet, I.A. ; Vingerhoeds, M.H. ; Wijk, R.A. de - \ 2014
    BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 11 p.
    dietary-intake - grain intake - food - acceptance
    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelve primary schools in the Netherlands, with school as the unit of condition assignment, children were exposed to an assortment of white and whole wheat bread rolls, both varying in shape (regular versus fun). Children were free to choose the type and number of bread rolls and toppings to eat during breakfast. Consumption of bread rolls was measured at class level via the number of bread rolls before and after breakfast. In addition, children (N = 1113) responded to a survey including questions about the breakfast. Results: Results of the field experiment showed that about 76% of bread consumption consisted of white bread rolls. Consumption of white bread rolls did not differ according to shape (all P-values > 0.18). However, presenting fun-shaped whole wheat bread rolls almost doubled consumption of whole wheat bread (P = 0.001), particularly when the simultaneously presented white bread rolls had a regular shape (interaction P = 0.02). Survey results suggest that slight increases in perceived pleasure and taste are associated with these effects. Conclusions: Overall, presenting whole wheat bread in fun shapes may be helpful in increasing consumption of whole wheat bread in children. Future research could examine how improving the visual appeal of healthy foods may lead to sustained behaviour changes. Keywords: Nudge, Nudging, Whole grain, Whole-wheat bread, Children’s food preferences, Bread shape, Visual appeal
    Preference mapping of apple varieties in Europe
    Bonany, J. ; Buehler, A. ; Carbó, J. ; Codarin, C. ; Donati, F. ; Echeverria, G. ; Egger, S. ; Guerra, W. ; Hilaire, C. ; Höller, I. ; Iglesias, I. ; Jesionkowska, K. ; Konopacka, D. ; Kruczynska, D. ; Martinelli, A. ; PItiot, C. ; Sansavini, S. ; Stehr, R. ; Schoorl, F.W. - \ 2014
    Food Quality and Preference 32 (2014)c. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 317 - 329.
    vegetable consumption - fruit - population - acceptance - consumers - barriers - industry - quality
    A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 – sweetness, fruitiness, flowery attributes, 2 – acidity, firmness, 3 – juiciness and crispness). Consumers were segmented in 6 clusters according to their preferences. The 6 clusters were grouped into two main mega clusters A (68% of consumers) and B (32% of consumers). Megacluster A (Clusters 1, 2, 5 and 6) was characterized by preferring sweet apples. Clusters 2 and 5 (41% of consumers) liked sweet apples independently of their acidity and firmness and moderate positive values on dimension of juiciness and crispness. Cluster 1 (21% of consumers) had an optimal point in positive values of the sweetness dimension, moderate negative value for acidity and firmness and moderate positive value for juiciness and crispness. Cluster 6 (6% of consumers) besides preferring sweet varieties disliked acid-firm varieties. As to regard to megacluster B (Clusters 3 and 4) (32% of consumers), they preferred varieties that were acidic-firm and juiciy and crisp with values in the mid range of the sweetness dimension. In spite of the difficulties in translating preference dimensions into standard practical values for fruit quality and the fact of being a punctual measurement of consumer behaviour, this preference map could be of practical use of different actors on the fruit value chain like marketers and breeders.
    The role of psychological flexibility in the demands-exhaustion-performance relationship
    Onwezen, M.C. ; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Biron, M. - \ 2014
    European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 23 (2014)2. - ISSN 1359-432X - p. 163 - 176.
    job demands - emotional labor - work performance - resources model - burnout - acceptance - impact - diary - intervention - consequences
    Employees in the service sector deal with a variety of emotional job demands due to interactions with clients. Emotional job demands often result in heightened levels of emotional exhaustion and decreased levels of performance. The current study aims to explore whether the adaptive behavioural pattern of psychological flexibility diminishes the negative impacts of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion and subsequent performance. Data were collected from 116 nonprofit service workers, using self-report questionnaires (i.e., baseline) and diaries (i.e., follow-up). The results suggest that psychological flexibility is negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and positively associated with performance. In addition, psychological flexibility is found to attenuate the negative effects of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion and performance. Finally, the results reveal that the attenuating role of psychological flexibility diminishes if employees are already exhausted. The results support the importance of personal resources, like psychological flexibility, in buffering the negative effects of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion and performance. However, employees no longer benefit from high levels of psychological flexibility when facing high levels of exhaustion due to excessive emotional job demands.
    Information bias condemning radical food innovators? The case of insect-based products in the Netherlands
    Pascucci, S. ; Magistris, T. de - \ 2013
    International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 16 (2013)3. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 1 - 16.
    edible insects - meat substitutes - technologies - acceptance - consumers - level
    In this paper we analyze whether information bias is affecting consumers' WTP for radical food innovations. We collect data in the Netherlands on consumers' WTP for insect-based products. We used product attributes directly affected by information and EU legislation such as the visualization of insects on the products, the use of logo and health claims, different information treatments on positive environmental and social effects of eating insects as meat-substitutes. Results indicate that visualization negatively influenced consumers' WTP while information treatments do not mitigate this effect. We derive that EU legislators need to move fast in clarifying the status of insect-based foods.
    Factors influencing European consumer uptake of personalised nutrition. Results of a qualitative analysis
    Stewart-Knox, B. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Robinson, J. ; Rankin, A. ; Orr, K. ; Duffy, M. ; Poinhos, R. ; Almeida, M.D.V. de; Macready, A. ; Gallagher, C. ; Berezowska, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Navas-Carretero, S. ; Riemer, M. ; Traczyk, I. ; Gjelstad, I.M.F. ; Mavrogianni, C. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2013
    Appetite 66 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 67 - 74.
    genetic research - food - attitudes - nutrigenomics - acceptance - risks - perceptions - benefits - hazards - focus
    The aim of this research was to explore consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition and to compare these across three different levels of “medicalization”: lifestyle assessment (no blood sampling); phenotypic assessment (blood sampling); genomic assessment (blood and buccal sampling). The protocol was developed from two pilot focus groups conducted in the UK. Two focus groups (one comprising only “older” individuals between 30 and 60 years old, the other of adults 18–65 yrs of age) were run in the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Germany (N = 16). The analysis (guided using grounded theory) suggested that personalised nutrition was perceived in terms of benefit to health and fitness and that convenience was an important driver of uptake. Negative attitudes were associated with internet delivery but not with personalised nutrition per se. Barriers to uptake were linked to broader technological issues associated with data protection, trust in regulator and service providers. Services that required a fee were expected to be of better quality and more secure. An efficacious, transparent and trustworthy regulatory framework for personalised nutrition is required to alleviate consumer concern. In addition, developing trust in service providers is important if such services to be successful
    Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition
    Ahlgren, J. ; Nordgren, A. ; Perrudin, M. ; Ronteltap, A. ; Savigny, J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Nordström, K. ; Görman, U. - \ 2013
    Genes & Nutrition 8 (2013)4. - ISSN 1555-8932 - p. 349 - 355.
    nutrigenomics - acceptance
    Consumers often have a positive attitude to the option of receiving personalized nutrition advice based upon genetic testing, since the prospect of enhancing or maintaining one’s health can be perceived as empowering. Current direct-to-consumer services over the Internet, however, suffer from a questionable level of truthfulness and consumer protection, in addition to an imbalance between far-reaching promises and contrasting disclaimers. Psychological and behavioral studies indicate that consumer acceptance of a new technology is primarily explained by the end user’s rational and emotional interpretation as well as moral beliefs. Results from such studies indicate that personalized nutrition must create true value for the consumer. Also, the freedom to choose is crucial for consumer acceptance. From an ethical point of view, consumer protection is crucial, and caution must be exercised when putting nutrigenomic-based tests and advice services on the market. Current Internet offerings appear to reveal a need to further guaranty legal certainty by ensuring privacy, consumer protection and safety. Personalized nutrition services are on the borderline between nutrition and medicine. Current regulation of this area is incomplete and undergoing development. This situation entails the necessity for carefully assessing and developing existing rules that safeguard fundamental rights and data protection while taking into account the sensitivity of data, the risks posed by each step in their processing, and sufficient guarantees for consumers against potential misuse
    Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables
    Wild, V.W.T. de; Graaf, C. de; Jager, G. - \ 2013
    Appetite 64 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 89 - 96.
    childrens food preferences - high dietary-fat - european countries - young-children - pro children - acceptance - fruit - infants - rats - intervention
    Children’s consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children’s intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7 weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200 g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6 months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35 months; SD ± 8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58 g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL.
    Development and cross-cultural validation of a shortened social representations scale of new foods
    Onwezen, M.C. ; Bartels, J. - \ 2013
    Food Quality and Preference 28 (2013)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 226 - 234.
    processing technologies - consumer perceptions - fit indexes - acceptance - construct - involvement - expectations - willingness - models - trait
    The original 27-item social representations scale, developed by Bäckström et al. (2004), consists of five dimensions: suspicion, adherence to technology, adherence to natural food, eating as an enjoyment, and eating as a necessity. The aim of the present study is twofold. First, in study 1, we assessed the psychometric properties of the original social representations scale in the United Kingdom (n = 1010), the United States (n = 1001) and Germany (n = 1000) and compared the results with a shortened 15-item scale. Second, in study 2, we tested a shortened 15-item revised version of the social representations scale in the Netherlands (n = 494), Poland (n = 502) and Spain (n = 500). We conducted reliability analyses and first-order confirmatory factor analyses to test the reliability and validity of the scales in both studies. Results from study 1 showed that the original scale had poor fit statistics, and the shortened scale had adequate to good fit statistics in the three countries. However, this shortened scale still showed some limitations in terms of internal reliability. Results from study 2 showed that the revised shortened scale had adequate to good fit statistics and reliabilities in all three countries. Thus, in spite of the substantial reduction of the social representations scale, the short form shows cross-culturally much better psychometric properties than the original version. Implications and directions for future research are described.
    A cross-national consumer segmentation based on contextual differences in food choice benefits
    Onwezen, M.C. ; Reinders, M.J. ; Lans, I.A. van der; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Jasiulewicz, A. ; Guardia, M.D. ; Guerrero, L. - \ 2012
    Food Quality and Preference 24 (2012)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 276 - 286.
    latent class analysis - market-segmentation - choice questionnaire - health - convenience - acceptance - attitudes - motives - issues - fruit
    One of the greatest challenges to developing more successful marketing strategies in the food sector is gaining an understanding of the diversity of consumer needs. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on consumers’ self-stated general importance ratings of a range of food benefits. It also aims to explore whether these segments are predictive for the importance that these consumers attach to food benefits at different consumption moments and in different consumption situations and whether these segments are predictive for consumers’ perceptions of specific food products in terms of these food benefits. A large survey (N = 2083) was administered in four European countries. The present study shows that meaningful cross-national consumer segments can be identified on the basis of the importance that consumers attach to benefits related to health, convenience, satiety, sensory aspects, affect and personal norms. Furthermore, the study shows that the consumer segments identified on general importance ratings differ in the importance they attach to benefits across different moments and situations of consumption and across perceptions of different healthy food products versus unhealthy food products. The findings indicate that consumer segmentation based on general food choices is meaningful for policymakers and marketing managers, as this general segmentation provides information on specific consumer choices.
    The Impact of Balanced Risk-Benefit Information and Initial Attitudes on Post-Information Attitudes
    Dijk, H. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Jonge, J. de; Rowe, G. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2012
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 42 (2012)8. - ISSN 0021-9029 - p. 1958 - 1983.
    genetically-modified foods - gene technology - perception - negativity - trust - polarization - pesticides - acceptance - resistance - persuasion
    In a realistic social context, people are confronted with both positive and negative information, yet research on this topic is relatively scarce. We present 2 studies examining the role of initial attitudes on the impact of one-sided vs. balanced positive and negative information on attitudes toward food production methods. The first experiment demonstrated that one-sided information influenced postinformation attitudes congruent to the direction of the message content. The second experiment showed that the effect of balanced information on post-information attitudes may depend on initial attitudes. These results demonstrate that negativity effects are dominant for people with initial positive attitudes, but change into positivity effects for people with initial negative attitudes. Implications for communicating both positive and negative information are discussed.
    Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis
    Gupta, N. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Lans, I.A. van der; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2012
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research : an Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology 14 (2012). - ISSN 1388-0764
    repertory grid methodology - genetically-modified foods - consumers perceptions - emerging technologies - risk perceptions - united-kingdom - attitudes - acceptance - benefits - opinion
    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public
    Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda
    Kikulwe, E.M. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Falck-Zepeda, J. - \ 2011
    Appetite 57 (2011). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 401 - 413.
    modified food - gm foods - acceptance - benefits - number - crop - pay
    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers’ willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology.
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