Human NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase inhibition by flavonoids in living cells
Lee, Y.Y. ; Westphal, A.H. ; Haan, L.H.J. de; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. - \ 2005
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 39 (2005)2. - ISSN 0891-5849 - p. 257 - 265.
hamster ovary cells - dt-diaphorase - quinone oxidoreductase - acceptor oxidoreductase - antitumor quinones - human plasma - cancer risk - quercetin - reductase - rat
Procedures for assessing enzyme inhibition in living cells are an important tool in the study of the relevance of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and interactions in the human body. This paper presents the effects of flavonoids on NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity, by a newly developed method to measure NQO1 inhibition in intact cells. The principle of this method is based on the resorufin reductase activity of NQO1. The change in fluorescence in time was used to determine NQO1 activity in intact Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells genetically engineered to overexpress human NQO1. Applying this method to determine the inhibitory effects of reported in vitro NQO1 inhibitors (dicoumarol, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, chrysin) showed that for all inhibitors tested, the IC50 in intact cells was at least 3 orders of magnitude higher than the IC50 in cell lysates. This result demonstrates that in vitro studies with purified NQO1 or with extracts from disrupted tissues are of limited value for obtaining insight into the situation in living cells. Possible factors underlying this discrepancy are being discussed. For the first time, we determined NQO1 inhibition by flavonoids in cells without disruption of the cells or addition of cofactors, enabling the assessment of enzymatic activity and the interaction of modulators of enzymatic activity in an intracellular situation.
Studies on the DT-diaphorase-catalysed reaction employing quinones as substrates: evidence for a covalent modification of DT-diaphorase by tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone
Osman, A.M. ; Boeren, J.A. - \ 2004
Chemico-Biological Interactions 147 (2004)1. - ISSN 0009-2797 - p. 99 - 108.
one-electron - rat-liver - acceptor oxidoreductase - mechanism - reductase - nitrobenzimidazoles - cytotoxicity - conversion - protein - nad(p)h
In this study, the kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km, of rat liver DT-diaphorase were determined for a series of p-benzoquinones, with methyl, methoxy, cyano, hydroxy and halo substituents. The results show that there is no correlation between the experimentally determined rates of p-benzoquinone reduction by DT-diaphorase and the calculated chemical reactivity of the examined substrates as expressed by the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, E(LUMO). However, a reasonable correlation was found between the natural logarithm of Vmax/Km and the partition coefficient of the p-benzoquinones (r=0.81). Furthermore, tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone, one of the tested quinones is shown to be an inhibitor of rat DT-diaphorase. The presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the incubation mixture protects DT-diaphorase against the inactivation by tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone, probably by interacting with the quinone. Maldi-Tof analysis of the incubation mixture of the purified DT-diaphorase and tetrachloro-p-benquinone showed that every subunit of the enzyme shifted about +414 amu, whereas the dimer shifted about +849 amu relative to control values. This indicates a covalent modification of the rat liver DT-diaphorase by tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone.