Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Towards a Theory of Claim Making: Bridging Access and Property Theory
Kronenburg García, Angela ; Dijk, Han van - \ 2019
Society & Natural Resources (2019). - ISSN 0894-1920
access - Claim making - land - natural resources - property - theory

This article proposes a framework for studying and understanding how people make claims to land and other natural resources. We argue that a focus on claim-making practices of actors (individuals, groups, institutions, companies, the state), and the processes of appropriation, accessing and contestation that come along with it, best responds to Sikor and Lund’s call to examine “the grey zone” between access and property. We identify and discuss three practices of claim making: “grounding claims” is the practice of inscribing or altering the landscape with visible markers connoting ownership; “talking claims” is when speech is used strategically to make, justify and contest claims; and “representing claims” is when claims are represented on material objects (maps, title deeds) that are detached from the resource. We contribute to debates on enclosure, large-scale land acquisitions and resource grabbing by providing a lens of claim making through which these processes can be conceptualized.

Rights or ability : Access to plant genetic resources in India
Patnaik, A. ; Jongerden, J.P. ; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P. - \ 2018
Journal of World Intellectual Property 21 (2018)3-4. - ISSN 1422-2213 - p. 157 - 175.
ability - access - commons - intellectual property rights - plant genetic resources - Intellectual property rights
The difficulties that stakeholders face in accessing plant genetic resources have been a concern of many scholars since the introduction of intellectual property rights. One of these issues is that of access, which is mostly approached from a rights perspective. Here it is argued that such a rights perspective limits a critical reflection on the possibilities for enhancing accessibility to the Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs) on three grounds and to go beyond this limitation, we introduce an ability perspective. The ability perspective brings into focus how farmers organise their access to PGRs and is researched in four PGRs conservation banks in India; one ex situ and three in situ. An informal system of conservation (in situ) and sharing through informal networks is found to provide better access mechanisms for the small and marginal farmers in India, while access to conserved resources stored at the three in situ banks created biosocial
relations and biosocial commons. However, each case studied had certain disadvantages in respect of granting access to the farmers, so additional mechanisms to facilitate better access to the conserved resources are suggested.
Multi-stakeholder initiative governance as assemblage: Roundtable on sustainable palm oil as a political resource in land conflicts related to oil palm plantations
Kohne, F.M. - \ 2014
Agriculture and Human Values 31 (2014)3. - ISSN 0889-048X - p. 469 - 480.
private governance - certification - biodiversity - standards - knowledge - biofuels - access - policy
Multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) claim to make production of commodities more socially and environmentally sustainable by regulating their members and through systems of certification. These claims, however, are highly contested. In this article, I examine how actors use MSI regulation with regard to land conflicts with a focus on the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). MSIs are a resource that actors in land conflicts can use to generate evidence that gives them leverage in their negotiations. To do so, actors employ the interrelations between two kinds of land conflict: localized land conflicts between local land users, and disputes between more distant actors over aggregated land-use related to the sustainability of palm oil production. To demonstrate this, I use the notion of assemblage in two case studies from Sumatra, Indonesia. Thinking in terms of assemblage allows the contradictory but interrelated practices that shape MSIs to be understood. In distinct locally embedded processes, actors enact MSIs in contexts of unequal power relations, from which MSI governance emerges. The way in which access to an MSI is distributed among contending actors shapes MSI enactments and thus its governance. The unequal distribution of access to the RSPO results in a governance that favors companies over communities.
Producer organizations, family farms and market connection. Lessons for emerging biodiesel supply chains in Brazil
Belo Leite, J.G. Dal; Bijman, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Slingerland, M.A. - \ 2014
Outlook on Agriculture 43 (2014)2. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 101 - 108.
collective action - institutions - arrangements - africa - future - access - policy
Producer organizations (POs) are often recognized as a pathway to boost rural development by enhancing farmers' access to market opportunities. Smallholder production and marketing of new crops (such as those for biodiesel feedstock) are constrained as farmers and buyers face high transaction costs. By investigating cases of POs outside the biofuel industry, the authors explore the extent to which POs could reduce transaction costs. The findings indicate that POs are capable of linking farmers effectively to markets in cases in which high value is added to farm products and/or farmers are highly specialized. However, the scope for POs in linking farmers to biodiesel markets is limited due to organization-specific characteristics, the low value added of the feedstock, plus multiple trade-offs with current farm activities.
Impacts of changes in mangrove forest management practices on forest accessibility and livelihood: A case study in mangrove-shrimp farming system in Ca Mau Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Ha, T.T.P. ; Dijk, J.W.M. van; Visser, L.E. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 36 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 89 - 101.
land - conservation - resources - northwest - politics - village - access - policy
This paper documents how the implementation of forest tenure policy affects the decision-making of farmers in mangrove-shrimp farming systems with regard to their access to and management of mangrove forest in Ca Mau, Mekong Delta, which is the largest remaining mangrove forest in Vietnam. Policies on land allocation, land tenure and use-rights are important since they potentially promote sustainable mangrove-shrimp management. Forest management policy in Vietnam has been changed to promote equality of benefit sharing among stakeholders and devolved State forest management to the household level. However, to what extent its implementation can stimulate both mangrove conservation and livelihood improvement is still being debated. We use access and its social mechanisms to investigate how State Forest Companies (FC) and farmers can benefit from mangrove exploitation. The study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2010 using both qualitative and quantitative methods and using a participatory approach. After group discussions and in-depth interviews with a wide range of stakeholders, we interviewed 86 households in four communities using structured questionnaires. Results show the imbalance in access to finance, markets, and differences in authority between the two actors, farmers and FC. The discussion focuses on the possibilities of “win–win” outcomes, i.e. land tenure regimes promoting the devolution of sustainable forest management to farm households to balance benefits of both mangrove conservation and livelihood improvement.
Low-cost housing developments in South Africa miss the opportunities for household level urban greening
Chackleton, C. ; Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Kaoma, M. ; Chishaleshale, M. ; Shackleton, S. ; Gambiza, J. ; Gumbo, D. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 36 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 500 - 509.
small towns - open space - city - tree - inequality - services - policies - america - ecology - access
Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees. Whilst many countries have urban greening programmes for public spaces and streets, few have considered the status and potential contribution of trees from resident's own gardens. This paper reports firstly on the policy environment for urban forestry and greening in South Africa and secondly on the maintenance, use and appreciation of trees on private homesteads of residents of new and older low-income suburbs as well as informal housing areas from three small towns in South Africa. In particular we examine if the most recent centrally planned and built low-income housing schemes (called RDP suburbs in South Africa) have considered and incorporated plans or spaces for urban greenery in peoples’ homesteads. We found that broad environmental and sustainability concerns and statements are common in urban development and housing policies, but specific guidelines for implementation are generally absent. More specifically, urban forestry and tree planting are rarely mentioned in the broader land use and environmental policies other than the national forest act and subsequent regulations, but even there it is relatively superficial. In the study towns the prevalence, density and number of species of trees was lowest in the new RDP suburbs relative to the township and informal areas. Consequently, the contribution of tree products to local livelihoods was also lower in the RDP areas. Yet there were no differences in the level of appreciation of the value and intangible benefits of trees between residents from the three different suburbs. This shows that the failure to plan for and accommodate trees in new low-cost housing developments is missing an opportunity to improve overall urban sustainability and liveability and constraining the potential flows of tangible and intangible benefits to urban residents. Making opportunities for such in older suburbs is challenging because of space limitations and cost implications of retrospective provisions, but incorporation into plans for new low-cost housing development should be possible.
Farmers on the move : mobility, access to land and conflict in Central and South Mali
Nijenhuis, K. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): M.M.A. Kaag. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737205 - 290
boeren - mobiliteit - politieke processen - landgebruik - grondrechten - landbouw bedrijven - conflict - toegang - land - mali - farmers - mobility - political processes - land use - land rights - farming - conflict - access - land - mali
In contrast to their sedentary image, farmers in Central and South Mali are surprisingly mobile. Many have settled in scattered farming hamlets where they are rapidly expanding the areas under agriculture. This study focuses on farmers’ mobility in relation to accessing land in two regions in Mali where farming conditions are very different regarding rainfall, population growth and opportunities for income generation. It is shown that differences in farming conditions in the two regions have shaped the different temporal and spatial dimensions of farmers’ mobility. This mobility is, however, not just a reaction to changing farming conditions but also part of local political processes, including conflict, that mediate farmers’ access to land. By highlighting the crucial role of farming conditions and farmers’ mobility in these political processes, this study adds a fresh geographical dimension to ways of thinking about access to land, land use and conflict in West Africa and beyond.
Unravelling property relations around forest carbon
Mahanty, S. ; Dressler, W.H. ; Milne, S. ; Filer, C. - \ 2013
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 34 (2013)2. - ISSN 0129-7619 - p. 188 - 205.
papua-new-guinea - environmental services - cambodia - deforestation - payments - offsets - access
Market-based interventions to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) enable the carbon stored in land and forests to be traded as a new and intangible form of property. Using examples from Cambodia, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea, we examine the property negotiations underpinning this new forest carbon economy. We show that the institutions and land use negotiations needed to ‘produce’ forest carbon interact recursively with existing property claims over land and forests. Even where customary rights are formally recognized (PNG, Philippines), claims to forest carbon are still complicated by ambiguities and complexities surrounding rights to forested land. Meanwhile the new value attached to forest carbon can stimulate efforts to appropriate land and forest resources associated with it, creating new power relations and property dynamics. This interplay between forest carbon and underlying contested property claims in rural forest settings creates an unstable basis for forest carbon markets and raises questions about future access to forested land.
Comparing urban sanitation and solid waste management in East African metropolises: The role of civil society organizations
Tukahirwa, J. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2013
Cities 30 (2013). - ISSN 0264-2751 - p. 204 - 211.
institutional pluralism - participation - partnerships - tanzania - access
Sanitation and solid waste management systems have recently received major attention through the United Nation Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Increasingly, the role of civil society organizations – most notably Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) – in providing sanitation and solid waste management services to underserved, marginalized, poor or hardly accessible areas and communities is widely celebrated, as fully public and private schemes are thought to be less capable and willing to serve these areas and groups effectively. But little is known about the actual performance of NGOs and CBOs in urban environmental service provisioning in East African cities. This study explores and compares the extent and success of civil society organizations in providing urban sanitation and solid waste services for the poor in the capitals of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Using ideas of modernized mixtures and institutional pluralism we clarify the particular role of civil society institutions among a plurality of urban environmental service arrangements in East African cities. Major differences are found in CBO/NGO involvement in sanitation and solid waste provisioning, in the socio-economic characteristics of NGO/CBO service recipients and non-recipients, and in levels of appreciation of these systems.
The deep waters of land reform: land, water and conservation area claims in Limpopo Province, Olifants Basin, South Africa
Liebrand, J. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. ; Wester, P. ; Koppen, B. van - \ 2012
Water International 37 (2012)7. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 773 - 787.
property - management - governance - access - market - rights
Through investigating the reactions of commercial farmers to land and water reforms in the Trichardtsdal-Ofcolaco area, Limpopo Province, Olifants Basin, South Africa, from 1997 to 2006, it is shown that water claims are key to land redistribution processes, and that commercial farmers make strategic use of arguments for nature conservation and ecological stewardship to defend their claims to water. Given these observations, caution is warranted with respect to the implementation of land and water reforms as separate policy packages; it may be more effective to design water and conservation policies as an integral part of land reform programmes.
REDD Policy Impacts on Indigenous Property Rights Regimes on Palawan Island, the Philippines
Dressler, W.H. ; McDermott, M. ; Smith, W. ; Pulhin, J. - \ 2012
Human Ecology 40 (2012)5. - ISSN 0300-7839 - p. 679 - 691.
carbon offsets - decentralization - resources - land - management - governance - access - state - power
Several Southeast Asian states have been working feverishly to design and implement REDD policy frameworks to fulfil their commitment to global climate change mitigation. In doing so, state agencies will be challenged to design REDD plus policies that value and conserve forest carbon in ways that align with national policies and local priorities for managing forest landscapes defined by complex property rights regimes. However, as with other market-based policies, the expeditious delivery of REDD could bypass critical analysis of potential interactions with national tenure regimes, customary property rights, and local livelihoods. Drawing on the case of Palawan Island—a forested frontier island in the Philippines—we examine how nascent REDD policies can articulate with state sanctioned tenure, customary tenure, and forest uses in changing livelihood contexts. This paper draws on research among Tagbanua and Pala’wan people to illustrate how complex and changing tenure structures, commodity markets and livelihood dynamics may influence how REDD plus interventions affect indigenous customary lands and forest use. We argue that the ability of indigenous forest users to maintain stored carbon and improve livelihoods is contingent upon the ‘socio-material’ form of carbon—a commodity defined in relation to the resources and social processes of which it is part.
Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences
Reyes, A. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Kuyvenhoven; Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Henk Moll. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730398 - 185
ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - boeren - krediet - landbouwkrediet - toegang - financiële instellingen - financieel landbouwbeleid - informele sector - markteconomieën - groenteteelt - fruitteelt - chili - zuid-amerika - development economics - rural development - farmers - credit - agricultural credit - access - financial institutions - agricultural financial policy - informal sector - market economies - vegetable growing - fruit growing - chile - south america

Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with: (1) to identify the main factors that influence access to credit for market-oriented farmers, (2) to determine whether informal financial institutions act as complements to or substitutes for farmers’ strategies for funding, (3) to determine the effect of credit constraint by formal financial institutions on farm productivity, and (4) to identify the factors limiting investment in farms.

In approaching these objectives two innovative methods are used throughout. First, qualitative information collected in interviews is used to identify three categories of credit constraints from both the demand and supply side of the credit market, namely, quantity, risk, and transaction-cost constraints. Second, a panel-data structure is used in all econometric analysis in this study, which allows us to obtain estimators that are more efficient than those based on cross-sectional analysis only.

Results show that 16.4% and 13.6% of the sample felt credit constrained in 2006 and 2008, respectively, with most farmers being quantity rationed (10.7% and 9.6%, respectively). A much lower share of farmers is constrained by risk (2.8% and 3.4%, respectively) and transaction cost (2.8% and 0.6%, respectively). Despite of its low level, credit constraint status has a significant effect on investment decision. In contrast, credit constraints do not have an impact on farm productivity. These outcomes reveals long term market imperfections, most probably because the only providers of long-term credit are commercial banks for whom long-term lending is considerable risky.

Impact of intensification of different types of livestock production in smallholder crop-livestock systems
Udo, H.M.J. ; Aklilu, H.A. ; Phong, L.T. ; Bosma, R.H. ; Budisatria, I.G.S. ; Patil, B.R. ; Samdup, T. ; Bebe, B.O. - \ 2011
Livestock Science 139 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 22 - 29.
rural-development - central java - poultry - asia - aquaculture - indonesia - benefits - animals - access - market
Intensification of livestock production is widely advocated to meet the increasing demands for livestock products and to contribute to improving the livelihoods of rural households. This paper discusses the impact of livestock intensification on smallholder farms using village poultry, integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems, small ruminants, and dairying case-studies. Driving forces for intensification in crop-livestock systems act at international, national, regional, and agro-eco system levels. Whether or not individual households respond to these drivers depends on the availability of household resources, the family situation, and livelihood alternatives. As livestock systems intensify, the relative importance of the various functions of livestock changes. The case-studies confirmed that, in terms of ‘returns’, there is a livestock ladder with the smallest benefits accruing from village poultry and the largest benefits provided by dairy cattle. Small animals are an appreciated secondary activity, or an essential source of security and small income for the very poor. The potential of intensification of small animal systems to substantially increase incomes of rural households appears to be low. Nevertheless, small animals are more suitable for micro-credit and livestock loans-in-kind programmes than large ruminants. Innovations in livestock production will only be adopted by smallholders if they fit farming household priorities and resources.
Forest tenure reform: exclusion of tribal women's rights in semi-arid Rajasthan, India
Bose, P. - \ 2011
International Forestry Review 13 (2011)2. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 220 - 232.
natural-resources - property-rights - access - gender - power
The current trend in forest tenure reform promotes identity-based categories, such as indigenous people, on the assumption that this provides better access to forest resources for marginalized groups. India's historic Forest Rights Act of 2006 recognizes the traditional rights of the scheduled tribes and other forest-dependent people dwelling in and around forestlands. This paper examines the politics of individual and collective access to forestland and the political representation of Bhil tribal women in the semi-arid Banswara district, Rajasthan, India. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 54 informants, and two focus group discussions. A rights-based access approach was used to analyse outcomes of forest tenure reform on tribal women's access to forestland, and inclusion in, and/or exclusion from, collective decision making about forestland management. The findings indicate that the new identity-based forest tenure reform is mere tokenism and hinders rather than promotes tribal women's political empowerment and access to forest-based resources
Single women, land and livelihood vulnerability in an communal area in Zimbabwe
Paradza, G.G. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (AWLAE series no. 9) - ISBN 9789086861460 - 295
ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - huwelijk - gezinnen - gezinsstructuur - gezamenlijk eigendom - gemeenschappelijke weidegronden - eigendom - toegang - toegangsrecht - zimbabwe - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - alleenstaanden - burgerlijke staat - development studies - women - rural women - woman's status - marriage - families - family structure - coownership - common lands - ownership - access - right of access - africa south of sahara - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - single persons - civil status
Single women, land and livelihood vulnerability in an communal area in Zimbabwe
Paradza, G.G. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): B. O'Laughlin; J. Stewart. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854746 - 307
development studies - women - rural women - woman's status - marriage - families - family structure - coownership - common lands - ownership - common property resources - farming - rural areas - land ownership - access - right of access - zimbabwe - africa south of sahara - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - single persons - civil status - ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - huwelijk - gezinnen - gezinsstructuur - gezamenlijk eigendom - gemeenschappelijke weidegronden - eigendom - gemeenschappelijk bezit - landbouw bedrijven - platteland - grondeigendom - toegang - toegangsrecht - zimbabwe - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - alleenstaanden - burgerlijke staat
Pastoralism within land administration in Kenya: The missing link
Lengoiboni, M. ; Bregt, A.K. ; Molen, P. van der - \ 2010
Land Use Policy 27 (2010)2. - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 579 - 588.
property-rights - rangelands - africa - access - tenure
In land administration (LA), the right to exercising property/ownership rights on land is based on cadastral processes of adjudication, survey and rights registration. Private ownership rights are now being taken up in pastoral areas, where they must contend with pastoralists’ land rights. Pastoral land use requires seasonal migrations determined by climatic conditions. This study aimed to find out how well the existing land laws and property rights in LA are able to serve the requirements of pastoralists land use, identify mismatches and put forward possible solutions. A case study was carried out in the Samburu–Laikipia–Isiolo–Meru landscape in Kenya. Data on the degree of livestock dependency among pastoralist communities, the spatial extent and patterns of dry season migrations, the resulting encounters between herders’ and non-pastoralist land use actors, and the perceptions of land rights held by actors were collected through a variety of methods and analysed. The results show that pastoralism is still active. The migration corridors reveal that herders maintain extensive dry season mobility, even though some of the corridors currently overlap with areas where land is privately owned by non-pastoralist land use actors. Moreover, the results show that most non-pastoralist land use actors have their land rights registered, but seasonal encounters with migrating pastoralists persist as pastoralists continue to exercise customary rights of communal use. We conclude that existing land laws and property rights in LA are suitable for sedentary land use, but do not address how to serve pastoralists land rights in time and space. The pastoralist's migration routes and patterns obtained indicated that it is possible to predict where pastoralists will be at a given time/drought period. This information could be used by decision makers and land administrators to identify where and when pastoralists’ land rights apply. This could provide the foundation for including pastoralists’ spatiotemporal land rights in LA. Arguments emphasize that adjudication, surveys and registration of rights should focus not only on ownership and full control of land, but also on defined periods when spatiotemporal mobility and access rights could be granted to pastoralists
A procedure for the metagenomics exploration of disease-suppressive soils
Elsas, J.D. van; Speksnijder, A. ; Overbeek, L.S. van - \ 2008
Journal of Microbiological Methods 75 (2008)3. - ISSN 0167-7012 - p. 515 - 522.
microbial community structure - gene-cluster - uncultured microorganisms - environmental libraries - natural-products - diversity - dna - bacteria - expression - access
The microbiota of, in particular, disease-suppressive soils contains a wealth of antibiotic biosynthetic loci that are inaccessible by traditional cultivation-based techniques. Hence, we developed a methodology based on soil microbial DNA, which allowed the metagenomics-based unlocking of the relevant genes. Here, a streamlined soil metagenomics protocol is presented. The protocol consists of an optimized method to extract bacterial cells from a Rhizoctonia solani AG3 suppressive loamy sand soil followed by DNA extraction and purification, and the preparation of a clone library in an efficient host/vector system. Methods for the functional and genetic screening of the library for antibiotic production loci are also described. Using the suppressive soil, we thus produced, screened and tested an approximate 15,000-membered metagenomic library of fosmids in an Escherichia coli host. Functional screens, based on dual culturing of clone arrays with R. solani AG3 and Bacillus subtilis 168, were largely negative. Genetic screens, based on hybridizations with soil-generated probes for polyketide biosynthesis, non-ribosomal protein synthesis and gacA, revealed several inserts, of around 40-kb in size, with potential antibiotic production capacity. We present the full sequences of three selected clones. We further examine the challenges that still impinge on the metagenomic exploration of disease-suppressive soil.
Open source GIS for HIV/AIDS management
Vanmeulebrouk, B. ; Rivett, U. ; Ricketts, M.L. ; Loudon, M. - \ 2008
International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (2008). - ISSN 1476-072X
geographical information-system - health-care - public-health - technology - internet - access - border
Background: Reliable access to basic services can improve a community's resilience to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, work is being done to upgrade the physical infrastructure in affected areas, often employing a strategy of decentralised service provision. Spatial characteristics are one of the major determinants in implementing services, even in the smaller municipal areas, and good quality spatial information is needed to inform decision making processes. However, limited funds, technical infrastructure and human resource capacity result in little or no access to spatial information for crucial infrastructure development decisions at local level. This research investigated whether it would be possible to develop a GIS for basic infrastructure planning and management at local level. Given the resource constraints of the local government context, particularly in small municipalities, it was decided that open source software should be used for the prototype system. Results: The design and development of a prototype system illustrated that it is possible to develop an open source GIS system that can be used within the context of local information management. Usability tests show a high degree of usability for the system, which is important considering the heavy workload and high staff turnover that characterises local government in South Africa. Local infrastructure management stakeholders interviewed in a case study of a South African municipality see the potential for the use of GIS as a communication tool and are generally positive about the use of GIS for these purposes. They note security issues that may arise through the sharing of information, lack of skills and resource constraints as the major barriers to adoption. Conclusion: The case study shows that spatial information is an identified need at local level. Open source GIS software can be used to develop a system to provide local-level stakeholders with spatial information. However, the suitability of the technology is only a part of the system ¿ there are wider information and management issues which need to be addressed before the implementation of a local-level GIS for infrastructure management can be successful.
EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment
Achterbosch, T.J. ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Roza, P. - \ 2008
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Area 2, Development issues ) - ISBN 9789086152667 - 68
handel - vrijhandel - internationale handel - handelspolitiek - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - voedselgranen - armoede - toegang - handelsonderhandelingen - wereldmarkten - handelsprotectie - india - europese unie - trade - free trade - international trade - trade policy - trade liberalization - trade relations - food grains - poverty - access - trade negotiations - world markets - trade protection - european union
This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of the study is devoted to analysing the impact of tariff slashes under an FTA on merchandise trade between the EU and India. Of particular interest are the implications for agricultural markets, given the tension between agricultural liberalisation and India's policy goals relating to self-sufficiency in food grains and poverty reduction. The analysis employs GTAP, a global general equilibrium model using a recent database which has 2004 as its reference year. The results suggest that India's interests in a regional trade agreement with the EU are downplayed by the fact that India's economy is not well integrated in global markets. Impacts on the EU are minor and further reduced if a Doha agreement is in place when the FTA is implemented. Results indicate the rationale for a strongly asymmetric arrangement: it would be in the interest of both partners if the EU provides large concessions to India for market access, while India maintains the bulk of current border protection. An EU - India FTA delivers little scope for achieving efficiency gains via adjustments to the pattern of international specialisation. An EU - India agreement on merchandise trade is unlikely to embody substantial preferential treatment with regard to market access. Probably, India can find more suitable FTA partners. Agriculture is a key sector for India in the consideration of equity and growth purposes of a FTA with EU.
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