Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Description of the phosphorus sorption and desorption processes in lowland peaty clay soils
    Schoumans, O.F. - \ 2013
    Soil Science 178 (2013)6. - ISSN 0038-075X - p. 291 - 300.
    semiarid altered wetland - acid soils - phosphate adsorption - agricultural land - organic-matter - flooded soils - iron-oxides - sandy soil - aluminum - release
    To determine phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface water, information is needed about the behavior of P in soils. In this study, the sorption and desorption characteristics of lowland peaty clay soils are described based on experimental laboratory studies. The maximum P sorption capacity is comparable to that of acid sandy soils if based on the amount of oxalate-extractable aluminum and iron. A fraction of the maximum amount of sorbed P is bound reversibly (Q), which can be measured with an iron-impregnated paper. The fraction of the maximum reversibly sorbed P depends on the amount of oxalate-extractable aluminum and iron. In the topsoil, the maximum of the fraction of reversibly bound P (Qm) is about one third of maximum P sorption capacity; and in the subsoil, about two thirds. All sorption and desorption parameters are related to soil characteristics of peat samples.
    Sulfaat in veenweiden: gebiedsvreemd of gebiedseigen?
    Hendriks, R.F.A. ; Twisk, J.W.R. ; Gerven, L. van; Harmsen, J. - \ 2013
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 2013 (2013)mei. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 1 - 8.
    waterbodems - geochemie - veenweiden - bodemchemie - zure gronden - waterbeheer - krimpenerwaard - water bottoms - geochemistry - peat grasslands - soil chemistry - acid soils - water management - krimpenerwaard
    Sulfaat is een belangrijke stof in sloten in veenweidegebieden. Het wordt in de zuurstofloze waterbodem door micro-organismen omgezet in sulfide, dat zich bindt aan ijzer. Daardoor komt fosfaat vrij, wat slecht is voor de ecologische kwaliteit van het slootwater. De gedachte was altijd dat de inlaat van gebiedsvreemd water in de polders de grootste bron van sulfaat is. De laatste jaren is duidelijk geworden dat het sulfaat vooral afkomstig is uit de veenweidebodem zelf. In de Krimpenerwaard gaat het om 75%. Het inlaatwater blijkt de sulfaatconcentraties in de gemiddelde veensloot zelfs omlaag te brengen!
    Evaluation of an approach for the characterization of reactive and available pools of twenty potentially toxic elements in soils: Part I – The role of key soil properties in the variation of contaminants’ reactivity
    Rodrigues, S.M. ; Henriques, B. ; Ferreira da Silva, E. ; Pereira, M.E. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2010
    Chemosphere 81 (2010)11. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 1549 - 1559.
    iberian pyrite belt - heavy-metals - acid soils - organic-matter - trace-elements - mercury - extraction - sediments - desorption - speciation
    Harmful effects of potentially toxic elements (PTE’s) in soils relate to their geochemically reactive fraction. To assess the degree of the reactivity, specific extractions or models are needed. Here we applied a 0.43 M HNO3 chemical extraction to assess reactive pools of a broad range of PTE’s in 136 contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Furthermore we derived Freundlich-type models based on commonly available soil properties (pH, organic carbon and clay) as well as extended models that used other properties such as amorphous Al and Fe oxides and evaluated their possible use in risk assessment. The approach allowed to predict the reactivity of As, Hg, Co, U, Ba, Se, Sb, Mo, Li, Be (r2: 0.55–0.90) elements not previously included in such studies, as well as that of Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr (r2: 0.73–0.90). The inclusion of pH, organic carbon and clay improved the performance of all models except for Be and Mo, although the role of clay is not completely clear and requires further investigation. The ability of amorphous metal oxides to affect the reactivity of As, Hg, Cu, Ni, Cr, Sb, Mo and Li was expressed by the models in agreement with known geochemical processes leading to the retention of PTE’s by the solid matrix. Hence, such approach can be a useful tool to account for regional differences in soil properties during the identification of risk areas and constitute a significantly more powerful tool than the analysis of total pools of PTE’s in soils.
    Multiple benefits of manure: the key to maintenance of soil fertility and restoration of depleted sandy soils on African smallholder farms
    Zingore, S. ; Delve, R.J. ; Nyamangara, J. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2008
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 80 (2008)3. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 267 - 282.
    organic-matter - cattle manure - resource-allocation - crop production - western kenya - acid soils - management - zimbabwe - tropics - variability
    Manure is a key nutrient resource on smallholder farms in the tropics, especially on poorly buffered sandy soils, due to its multiple benefits for soil fertility. Farmers preferentially apply manure to fields closest to homesteads (homefields), which are more fertile than fields further away (outfields). A three-year experiment was established on homefields and outfields on sandy and clayey soils to assess the effects of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer application in combination with manure or mineral phosphorus (P) on maize yields and soil chemical properties. Significant maize responses to application of N and manure were observed on all fields except the depleted sandy outfield. Large amounts of manure (17 t ha¿1 year¿1) were required to significantly increase soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, available P, and base saturation, and restore productivity of the depleted sandy outfield. Sole N as ammonium nitrate (100 kg N ha¿1) or in combination with single superphosphate led to acidification of the sandy soils, with a decrease of up to 0.8 pH units after three seasons. In a greenhouse experiment, N and calcium (Ca) were identified as deficient in the sandy homefield, while N, P, Ca, and zinc (Zn) were deficient or low on the sandy outfield. The deficiencies of Ca and Zn were alleviated by the addition of manure. This study highlights the essential role of manure in sustaining and replenishing soil fertility on smallholder farms through its multiple effects, although it should be used in combination with N mineral fertilizers due to its low capacity to supply N.
    Aluminium fractionation of European volcanic soils by selective dissolution techniques
    Garcia-Rodeja, E. ; Novoa, J.C. ; Pontevedra, X. ; Martinez-Cortizas, A. ; Buurman, P. - \ 2004
    Catena 56 (2004). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 155 - 183.
    organic-matter - acid soils - humus complexes - extractable aluminum - northeastern japan - variable charge - release rates - forest soil - solubility - horizons
    Several selective dissolution methods were used to differentiate Al forms in 12 soils formed from volcanic materials (64 andic, vitric and organic horizons) in Iceland, Azores (Portugal), Tenerife (Spain) and Italy. The soils differ in many properties because of differences in parent materials, climatic conditions, soil age and history of land use. 'Inorganic' fractions of Al were characterized using pyrophosphate (Al-p), acid oxalate (Al-o) and cold NaOH (Al-n) extractions. The difference in Al-o-Al-p, and Si extracted using acid oxalate, shows important differences among soils from different sources: allophane is richer in alumina in the Andosols from Azores and Tenerife than in those from Iceland and Italy. Cold NaOH generally extracted the same quantity of Al as acid oxalate, but in the soils from Tenerife Al-n exceeds Al-o, indicating the presence of gibbsite or poorly ordered halloysite. To characterize the Al bonded to the organic matter fraction, extractions with pyrophosphate, CuCl2 and LaCl3 were used. Except in one soil from Tenerife (N10), CuCl2 extracted less Al than pyrophosphate. In organic-rich mineral horizons, Al-LA, Al-Cu and Al-p increase with organic carbon content. Using unbuffered KCl and LaCl3, the amount of Al extracted increased with decreasing soil pH, but there was no similar relationship with unbuffered CuCl2. The general sequence of efficiency of the extractants was Al-p>Al-Cu>Al(La)greater than or equal toAl(K) in organic matter-rich horizons. Al-Cu constituted 30% of Al-p in all soils, indicating that CuCl2 extracts a very specific Al fraction. Al-p and Al-Cu are positively related to organic C. Al-p/Al-o, and Al-p-Al-Cu in andic horizons also increase with organic C. Phosphate retention and pH in NaF were related to Al-o and Al-n. The soils of Iceland have larger P retention than the others, and vitric horizons from Tenerife have higher pH in NaF and smaller Al pools than the other soils. For many horizons, there is a strong relationship between Al-Cu and components that determine soil CEC (organic matter and allophane), suggesting a possible action of CuCl2 on noncrystalline alummosilicates. This should be taken into account if CuCl2 is used to estimate Al in humus complexes. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Iron and sulphate as possible key factors in the restoration ecology of rich fens in discharge areas
    Kemmers, R.H. ; Delft, S.P.J. van; Jansen, P.C. - \ 2003
    Wetlands Ecology and Management 11 (2003)6. - ISSN 0923-4861 - p. 367 - 381.
    bodemchemie - veengronden - bodemwaterbeweging - calcium - zure gronden - soil chemistry - calcium - acid soils - peat soils - soil water movement
    Seven reference areas in the Netherlandswere selected to trial restoration measuresin acidified rich fens in discharge areas.In about half of the projects the measuresthat aimed to restore the high base statusof the topsoil failed. The aim of thepresent study was to identify the keyfactors and processes in base regulation ofrich fen systems, in order to underpinfuture restoration. We sampled soil andinterstitial water from distinct soilhorizons and analysed it for variablesinvolved in geohydrochemical processes. Wemonitored interstitial water chemistry andredox potentials to calibrate and validatea chemical speciation model, that we usedfor the interpretation of our observations.It appeared that soil pH, Ca2+saturation and iron contents weresignificantly lower at sites whererestoration efforts had failed. At the sametime, soils of these sites were verystratified instead of homogenous. Onlysoils with high iron contents recovered ahigh Ca2+ saturation. All sites werecharacterised by considerable downwardwater fluxes through the soil. Chemicalspeciation modelling was a useful tool forthe interpretation of processes underlyingour observations and helped elucidate thefactors and processes that control therecharge of the CEC by base cations. The modelling results suggested that the mainprocess in proton neutralisation ofsuccessful sites is the production ofinternal alkalinity by reduction of ironoxides. Additional redox capacity can besupplied by the ample presence ofsulphates. From our results we hypothesisethat the CEC will only be rechargedsuccessfully with base cations in thepresence of sufficient redox capacity ofthe soil. It seems that redox processesfacilitate the ionic exchange of protonsfor Ca2+ ions. Sites where restorationefforts failed changed from discharge areasto recharge areas, which caused irondepletion by leaching. We conclude thatproper understanding of the pedological andgeohydrochemical processes that control thebase status of soils is a prerequisite forsuccessful nature restoration. The role ofsoil processes cannot be ignored as itseems that the production of internalalkalinity upon reduction exceeds theexternal supply of alkalinity bygroundwater flow.
    Release rates of Al from inorganic and organic compounds in a sandy podzol, during laboratory experiments
    Salm, C. van der; Westerveld, J.W. ; Verstraten, J.M. - \ 2000
    Geoderma 96 (2000)3. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 173 - 198.
    bodemoplossing - bodem - aluminium - zure gronden - adsorptie - soil solution - soil - aluminium - acid soils - adsorption
    Research with respect to release rates of Al and Al concentrations in the soil solution has led to two contrasting hypotheses, stressing either the importance of kinetically constrained dissolution reactions or the role of complexation of Al to soil organic matter. The existence of two contrasting hypotheses is partly due to the fact that the interpretation of existing results is hampered by the lack of specificity of the extractants used to quantify the organic and inorganic pools of Al and by the fact that simultaneous measurements on the release of Al and the change in Al pools are missing. This study was conducted to obtain more information on the release rates of Al from various amorphous pools and to evaluate the validity of the above hypotheses. To overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings both release rates of Al and changes in the various,Al pools were measured during the experiment. Experiments were conducted for Ap, Bs and C horizons from a sandy podzol. Results indicated that Al was released from both the inorganic Al pool (oxalate minus pyrophosphate extractable Al) and the strongly bound organic Al pool (pyrophosphate minus CuCl2 extractable Al) according to a first-order reaction. The decline in the weakly bound organic Al pool (CuCl2 extractable minus adsorbed Al) could be described by a rapid dissolution of part of the pool, combined with an equilibrium reaction describing the complexation of Al to organic sites. Rate constants were highest for the non-complexed part of the weakly bound organic Al pool, intermediate for the inorganic Al pool and lowest for the strongly bound organic Al pool. Large differences exist in rate constants of the organic pools between the three horizons. Differences between the rate constants of the inorganic Al pool for the three horizons were not significant.
    Biological nitrogen fixation of soybean in acid soils of Sumatra, Indonesia
    Waluyo, S.H. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): W.M. de Vos; L. 't Mannetje; L.T. An. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082954 - 151
    glycine max - sojabonen - bodembiologie - stikstoffixatie - stikstofbindende bacteriën - rhizobium - bradyrhizobium - inoculatie - entstof - biochemische technieken - dna-fingerprinting - stamverschillen - stammen (biologisch) - zaadbehandeling - omhullen - zure gronden - bodemaciditeit - bekalking - sumatra - indonesië - glycine max - soyabeans - soil biology - nitrogen fixation - nitrogen fixing bacteria - rhizobium - bradyrhizobium - inoculation - inoculum - biochemical techniques - dna fingerprinting - strain differences - strains - seed treatment - pelleting - acid soils - soil acidity - liming - sumatra - indonesia

    The aim of this study is to improve soybean cultivation in transmigration areas, especially in Sitiung, West Sumatra. However, these soils are very acid, and have a high P-fixing capacity. To reduce the amounts of fertilisers, normally 5 - 7 ton lime ha -1 and 100 kg P as TSP, seed, pelleted with lime (60 kg ha -1 ) and TSP (10 kg ha -1 ), was introduced. In this way only 2 ton lime ha -1 are required.

    Soybean can fix nitrogen (BNF) in symbiosis with ( Brady ) Rhizobium bacteria. However, these acid soils in general, have low numbers of ( Brady ) Rhizobium . By inoculating the soils with ( Brady ) Rhizobium , BNF of soybean, and yield, were considerably improved.

    A study was made of the indigenous ( Brady ) Rhizobium population in view of the following:

      Although at the beginning the numbers may be low, by repeated soybean cultivation, the numbers will increase, and they may interfere with inoculation of effective ( Brady ) Rhizobium strains.These indigenous ( Brady ) Rhizobium are adapted to local stress conditions, and they may be useful for the improvement of strains, to be used as inoculants.

    Using molecular techniques, indigenous strains derived from soil samples from old soybean areas (Java) and from new soybean areas (Sumatra) were classified in more detail. Most likely B. japonicum is the dominant strain in Java while in Sumatra B. elkanii is more present. A Sinorhizobium fredii -like strain was isolated from one soil sample from Java.

    Water management for rice cultivation on acid sulphate soils in the Plain of Reeds, Vietnam
    Husson, O. ; Hanhart, K. ; Mai Thanh Phung, ; Bouma, J. - \ 2000
    Agricultural Water Management 46 (2000). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 91 - 109.
    rijst - zure gronden - waterbeheer - vietnam - kattekleigronden - rice - acid sulfate soils - acid soils - water management - vietnam
    Quantification and simulation of errors in categorical data for uncertainty analysis of soil acidification modelling
    Finke, P.A. ; Wladis, D. ; Kros, J. ; Pebesma, E.J. ; Reinds, G.J. - \ 1999
    Geoderma 93 (1999). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 177 - 194.
    zure gronden - zure regen - cartografie - ruimtelijke variatie - schaalverandering - landen van de europese unie - acid soils - acid rain - mapping - spatial variation - scaling - european union countries
    Uncertainty assessment in modelling soil acidification at the European scale: a case study
    Kros, J. ; Pebesma, E.J. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Finke, P.A. - \ 1999
    Journal of Environmental Quality 28 (1999)2. - ISSN 0047-2425 - p. 366 - 377.
    zure gronden - zure regen - modellen - nederland - acid soils - acid rain - models - netherlands
    Modelling impacts of atmospheric deposition, nutrient cycling and soil weathering on the sustainability of nine forest ecosystems
    Salm, C. van der; Vries, W. de; Olsson, M. ; Raulund-Rasmussen, K. - \ 1999
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 109 (1999). - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 101 - 135.
    bosbouw - zure depositie - bodemchemie - zure gronden - voedingsstoffen - modellen - zweden - denemarken - nederland - forestry - acid deposition - soil chemistry - acid soils - nutrients - models - sweden - denmark - netherlands
    Biological management for productive and sustainable cropping systems on acid upland soil in the humid tropics : final report of a project funded under the European Communities STD3 programme 1994 - 1997; contract TS3* - CT94-0261
    Whitmore, A.P. ; Cadish, G. ; Hairiah, K. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : AB-DLO (Nota / Research Institute for Agrobiology and Soil Fertility (AB-DLO) 89) - 78
    teeltsystemen - middelgebergte - hooggelegen gronden - zure gronden - humide tropen - cropping systems - upland areas - upland soils - acid soils - humid tropics
    Evaluation of water management strategies for sustainable land use of acid sulphate soils in coastal low lands in the tropics
    Bosch, H. van den; Phi, H.L. ; Michaelsen, J. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Report / DLO-Staring Centrum 157) - 177
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - bodemwater - drainage - tropen - indonesië - vietnam - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - soil water - drainage - tropics - indonesia - vietnam
    The use of upscaling procedures in the application of soil acidification models at different spatial scales
    Vries, W. de; Kros, J. ; Salm, C. van der; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Reinds, G.J. - \ 1998
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 50 (1998)1-3. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 223 - 236.
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - modellen - onderzoek - geostatistiek - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - models - research - geostatistics
    Different soil acidification models have been developed for use on different scales, i.e., NUCSAM for the local scale, RESAM for the regional (national) scale and SMART for the continental scale. This paper focuses on the uncertainties associated with scale transfer by a simpler model description by (i) temporal aggregation of process descriptions, (ii) neglection of processes associated with vertical aggregation of soil layers and (iii) the use of less detailed formulations of processes (process aggregation) and by spatial aggregation of input data. Results obtained for simulations in acid (sandy) soils indicate that (i) temporal aggregation and process aggregation have a limited impact on the long-term (decades) annual response of soil solution chemistry to atmospheric deposition, (ii) vertical aggregation mainly affects predictions of solutes which show a strong concentration gradient with depth and (iii) spatial aggregation hardly affects the average output for a given forest/soil combination. However, ignoring the variability in input parameters, largely affects the frequency distribution of model outputs in a region. Results imply that model simplification is an adequate step in the upscaling of modelling results from a local to a regional scale.
    SMASS - a simulation model of physical and chemical processes in acid sulphate soils; Version 2.1
    Bosch, H. van den; Bronswijk, J.J.B. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 1998
    Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre (Technical document / DLO Winand Staring Centre 21) - 161
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - fysicochemische eigenschappen - bodemeigenschappen - bodemchemie - infiltratie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - kwel - modellen - onderzoek - chemische processen - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - physicochemical properties - soil properties - soil chemistry - infiltration - hydraulic conductivity - seepage - models - research - chemical processes
    The Simulation Model for Acid Sulphate Soils (SMASS) has been developed to predict the effects of water management strategies on acidification and de-acidification in areas with acid sulphate soils. It has submodels for solute transport, chemistry, oxygen transport and pyrite oxidation. The model must be used together with the water transport model SWACROP. It combines physical and chemical processes. The output includes the acidity and chemical quality of soil and groundwater, and the occurrence of toxic compounds. This user's manual presents an outline of input and output files, guidelines for installation on a VAX-VMS computer, and the description of an application.
    Tillage and water management for riceland productivity in acid sulfate soils of the Mekong delta, Vietnam.
    Minh, L.Q. ; Tuong, T.P. ; Mensvoort, M.E.F. van; Bouma, J. - \ 1997
    Soil & Tillage Research 42 (1997). - ISSN 0167-1987 - p. 1 - 14.
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - bodem - uitspoelen - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - soil - leaching
    Acid sulfate soils are characterized by low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, sulfate, iron and hydrogen sulfide. Removal of at least part of these substances is a prerequisite for land use, at least in severely acid soils. In this study, the effectiveness of harrowing and flushing with surface water for the removal of toxic substances from the topsoil of acid sulfate soils (ASS) with different toxicity levels was investigated. During the flood recession period, at three experimental sites ranging from slightly, to moderately to strongly acid, two flushing treatments (once or three times, denoted as F1 and F3, respectively) combined with two harrowing treatments (also once or three times, denoted as H1 and H3, respectively) were applied. Soils were classified as very fine Typic Sulfaquepts. At all three sites, when F1 was practiced, H3 did not have a significantly lower soluble aluminum concentration compared with H1. In slightly ASS, the differences between H1 and H3 and between F1 and F3 were not significant. Under moderately acid conditions, the soluble aluminum concentration after H3 was not significantly different from after H1, but it was significantly lower after F3 compared with F1. In severe ASS, H3 combined with F3 gave a significantly lower soluble aluminum concentration compared with F3H1. In addition to soluble Al, Al at the exchange complex was also investigated. The combinations of flushing and harrowing did not significantly change Al at the exchange complex. The F3H3 treatment resulted in a significantly greater rice yield compared with other treatments (F3H1, F1H3 and F1H1). In order to minimize the contamination of surface water, the flood recession period is the optimal time for flushing aluminum out of ASS.
    Contamination of surface water as affected by land use in acid sulfate soils in the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam.
    Minh, L.Q. ; Tuong, T.P. ; Mensvoort, M.E.F. van; Bouma, J. - \ 1997
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 61 (1997). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 19 - 27.
    zure gronden - kattekleigronden - bodem - uitspoelen - aluminium - rivieren - waterlopen - kanalen - water - oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - Vietnam - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - soil - leaching - aluminium - rivers - streams - canals - water - surface water - water pollution - water quality - Vietnam
    Bypass flow and its role in leaching of raised beds under different land use types on an acid sulphate soil.
    Minh, L.Q. ; Tuong, T.P. ; Booltink, H.W.G. ; Mensvoort, M.E.F. van; Bouma, J. - \ 1997
    Agricultural Water Management 32 (1997). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 131 - 145.
    infiltratie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - kwel - zure gronden - kattekleigronden - infiltration - hydraulic conductivity - seepage - acid soils - acid sulfate soils
    A better understanding of leaching processes in raised beds is useful in assessing management options for acid sulphate soils. Field and laboratory studies were carried out to quantify the effects of soil physical properties and bypass flow on leaching processes of new, 1-year-old and 2-year-old raised beds for yam and pineapple cultivation in a Typic Sulfaquept in Tien Giang, Vietnam. The methylene blue staining technique was used to characterize the water-conducting pores in terms of number, stained area, and total pore perimeter at 10 cm depth intervals of six 1 x 1 m subplots. Undisturbed 20 cm x 25 cm soil cores taken from the raised beds were subjected to three 30 mm h-1 rains. Volume, aluminum and sulphate concentration of the outflows were monitored. Consolidation with time decreased the area and perimeter of water-conducting pores in 2-year-old pineapple beds to about a third, and bypass flow rate to about 80% of those in newly constructed beds. Consolidation did not affect macropore network geometry in yam beds because they were subjected to annual tillage and yam tubers were uprooted regularly. Al3 and SO4/2- concentrations in the outflows of the newly constructed and 1-year-old raised beds were higher in pineapple, while those in 2-year raised beds were higher in yam
    Surface water management under varying drainage conditions for rice on an acid sulphate soil in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
    Hanhart, K. ; Ni, D. van; Bakker, N. ; Bil, F. ; Postma, I. ; Mensvoort, M.E.F. van - \ 1997
    Agricultural Water Management 33 (1997). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 99 - 116.
    verbetering - zure gronden - kattekleigronden - drainage - sloten - vietnam - improvement - acid soils - acid sulfate soils - drainage - ditches - vietnam
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