Waarom kun je door blijven eten terwijl je eigenlijk al vol zit?
Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2015
Universiteit van Nederland
voedselconsumptie - overeten - voedingsgedrag - fysiologie - neurofysiologie - verslaving - biologie - food consumption - overeating - feeding behaviour - physiology - neurophysiology - addiction - biology
Je hebt al een amuse, voorgerecht, hoofdgerecht en toetje op, en dan is-ie daar ineens: de kaasplank. Hoe is het mogelijk dat je door kunt blijven eten terwijl je al vol zit? Renger Witkamp, hoogleraar Voeding en Farmacologie (Wageningen UR), legt je uit wat hier de verklaring voor is en waarom dat ooit nuttig was.
“My body breaks. I take solution.” Inhalant use in Delhi as pleasure seeking at a cost
Gigengack, R.A. - \ 2014
International Journal of Drug policy 25 (2014)4. - ISSN 0955-3959 - p. 810 - 818.
volatile substance misuse - street children - india - intoxication - addiction - science - rights - city
Background: Inhalant use has existed in India since the 1970s and has increased significantly over the last decades, especially among street-oriented young people. The latter constitute a heterogeneous category: children from street families, children 'of' the street, rag pickers, and part-time street children. There are also inhalant-using schoolchildren and young people in slums. Methods: Fieldwork was conducted for 1 year. Team ethnography, multi-sited and comparative research, flexibility of methods and writing field notes were explicit parts of the research design. Most research was undertaken with six groups in four areas of Delhi, exemplifying six generic categories of inhalant-using street-oriented young people. Results: Inhalants in India are branded: Eraz-Ex diluter and whitener, manufactured by Kores, are used throughout Delhi; Omni glue in one specific area. There is a general lack of awareness and societal indifference towards inhalant use, with the exception of the inhalant users themselves, who possess practical knowledge. They conceive of inhalants as nasha, encapsulating the materiality of the substances and the experiential aspects of intoxication and addiction. Fragments of group interviews narrate the sensory appeal of inhalants, and an ethnographic vignette the dynamics of a sniffing session. These inhalant-using street children seek intoxication in a pursuit of pleasure, despite the harm that befalls them as a result. Some find nasha beautiful, notwithstanding the stigmatization, violence and bodily deterioration; others experience it as an overpowering force. Conclusion: A source of attraction and pleasure, inhalants ravage street children's lives. In this mysterious space of lived experience, their self-organization evolves. Distinguishing between hedonic and side effects, addiction helps to understand inhalant use as at once neurobiological, cultural, and involving agency. The implications are that India needs to develop a policy of treatment and employment to deal with the addiction. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transitions in smoking behaviour and the design of cessation schemes.
Grasman, J. ; Grasman, R.P.P.P. ; Maas, H.L.J. van der - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)10. - ISSN 1932-6203
nicotinic acetylcholine-receptors - quit smoking - tobacco use - withdrawal - addiction - cigarettes - abrupt
The intake of nicotine by smoking cigarettes is modelled by a dynamical system of differential equations. The variables are the internal level of nicotine and the level of craving. The model is based on the dynamics of neural receptors and the way they enhance craving. Lighting of a cigarette is parametrised by a time-dependent Poisson process. The nicotine intake rate is assumed to be proportional with the parameter of this stochastic process. The effect of craving is damped by a control mechanism in which awareness of the risks of smoking and societal measures play a role. Fluctuations in this damping may cause transitions from smoking to non-smoking and vice versa. With the use of Monte Carlo simulation the effect of abrupt and gradual cessation therapies are evaluated. Combination of the two in a mixed scheme yields a therapy with a duration that can be set at wish.
Effecten van zorgboerderijen en andere dagbestedingsprojecten voor menden met psychiatrische en verslavingsachtergrond
Elings, M. ; Haubenhofer, D.K. ; Hassink, J. ; Rietberg, P. ; Michon, M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 376)
landbouwbedrijven - zorgboerderijen - geestelijke gezondheid - geestelijke stoornissen - verslaving - sociale zorg - psychiatrische voorzieningen - sociaal welzijn - farms - social care farms - mental health - mental disorders - addiction - social care - psychiatric services - social welfare
Zorgboerderijen bieden deelnemers uit de psychiatrie en verslavingszorg een zinvolle dagbesteding. Nederland telt inmiddels meer dan 1000 zorgboerderijen waarop de boer(in) zijn of haar bedrijf openstelt voor mensen met een zorgvraag. Zorgboerderijen vormen een relatief nieuw zorgaanbod waar tot op heden weinig onderzoek naar is gedaan. Tot dusverre ontbreekt een goed beeld van de mate waarin zorgboerderijen hun doelstelling realiseren en de rol die zijn in het leven van mensen met een psychiatrische en/of verslavingszorg achtergrond spelen. Op verzoek van het ministerie van EL&I en het ministerie van VWS is deze studie tot stand gekomen.
Clinical effectiveness of attentional bias modification training in abstinent alcoholic patients
Schoenmakers, T.M. ; Bruin, M. de; Lux, I.F.M. ; Goertz, A.G. ; Kerkhof, D.H.A.T. van; Wiers, R.W. - \ 2010
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 109 (2010)1-3. - ISSN 0376-8716 - p. 30 - 36.
experimental manipulation - heavy drinkers - incentive-sensitization - anxiety disorders - dependence - cues - addiction - smokers - vulnerability - association
A new training to decrease attentional bias (attentional bias modification training, ABM) was tested in a randomized controlled experimental study with alcohol-dependent patients as an addition to cognitive behavioral therapy. In alcohol dependence, attentional bias has been associated with severity of alcoholism, craving, treatment outcome, and relapse. Forty-three patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol dependence were randomly assigned to an ABM intervention or control training. The procedure consisted of five sessions in which patients were trained to disengage attention from alcohol-related stimuli (ABM condition) or in which they were trained on an irrelevant reaction-time test (control condition). We measured the effects of ABM on the visual-probe task, with stimuli that were presented in the ABM and with new stimuli. Craving was measured with the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire. Follow-up data were gathered for overall treatment success, and relapse up to 3 months after the intervention. ABM was effective in increasing the ability to disengage from alcohol-related cues. This effect generalized to untrained, new stimuli. There were no significant effects on subjective craving. For other outcome measures there were indications of clinically relevant effects. Results indicate that ABM among alcohol-dependent patients was effective and that it may affect treatment progression. Large-scale trials are warranted to further investigate this new field
Remifentanil in the intensive care unit: tolerance and acute withdrawal syndrome after prolonged
Delvaux, B. ; Ryckwaert, Y. ; Boven, R.M. van; Kock, M. ; Capdevila, X. - \ 2005
Anesthesiology 102 (2005)6. - ISSN 0003-3022 - p. 1281 - 1282.
analgesia-based sedation - critically-ill patients - continuous-infusion - daily interruption - fentanyl - adult - addiction - children
SEDATION in the intensive care unit should be minimized to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and its related complications.1 The drug regimen would ideally allow rapid awakening, to perform neurologic and respiratory evaluation on a daily basis.2,3 In this context, remifentanil, with its unique pharmacokinetic profile, should be considered an agent of choice.4,5 However, acute tolerance and even hyperalgesic response have been observed after opioid administration.6-8 In addition, withdrawal syndrome after cessation of opioid-based sedation has been seen in the intensive care unit setting.9-11 We report three cases of severe and fast-onset withdrawal syndrome, with signs of acute tolerance, after remifentanil-based sedation of between 2 and 30 days' duration, requiring reintroduction of remifentanil and then tapering over 24-48 h
Schuldgevoel en subjectieve competentie : condities voor verandering van gedrag
Soomer, K.L.P. De - \ 1986
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): P.B. Defares. - Wageningen : De Soomer - ISBN 9789026507045 - 229
abnormaal gedrag - verwantschap - ethiek - tabak - verslaving - tabak roken - obesitas - overgewicht - vriendschap - abnormal behaviour - kinship - ethics - tobacco - addiction - tobacco smoking - obesity - overweight - friendship
In emotion theory, much attention has been given to guilt feelings as important emotions that play a significant role in interactions with the environment. Since Freud stressed the destructive influence of neurotic guilt feelings on the adaptive resources of the individual, ample attention has been given to these negative aspects in the psychological literature. It is important to emphasize that, according to this stand, guilt feelings have harmful effects on the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals and on their capacity to engage in interpersonal and social intercourse. In contrast, the potential positive impact of guilt feelings has been neglected in the history of psychology. Positive effects of guilt feelings are obviously not to be expected in the case of neurotic and unjustified guilt feelings. However, the negative evaluation of guilt may have obscured the functionality of guilt for adaptive behavioral change.
In research on helping behavior, evidence has been found that moral transgression leads to greater compliance. According to Freedman (1970), the internal state that ties together the experimental findings, should be labeled as guilt. Guilt, the unpleasant emotion following neglected responsibility, can have positive effects for prosocial behavior. The research presented here elaborates on potential positive effects derived from guilt. Freedman draws attention to two major problems concerning guilt as an intervening variable: firstly guilt is a very rich, but somewhat vague concept, and secondly it is difficult to measure it directly. According to Freedman, various attempts to construct measures of guilt have been unsuccessful.
In an attempt to overcome the latter difficulty, a new guilt scale was developed. In a preliminary phase, 30 subjects were interviewed on their belief s and feelings concerning situations that may arouse guilt feelings. On the basis of the data, 112 statements were formulated, indicating diverse aspects of guilt. In a later phase, these statements were presented to 188 subjects, using a five-point scale format. The data were condensed by way of factor analysis. The resulting guilt scale finally comprises 14 items. Factor one reflects a negative assessment of one's own functioning concerning both physical and psychological aspects. The second factor reflects the feelings of being rejected with reference to a negative evaluation of one's own behavior. Factor I refers to distress in a moral general sense. Factor II reflects the guilt element more specifically. In order to tackle the ambiguous content validity of the guilt concept, guilt was related tot the concept of (negative) subjective competence. Bowerman's (1978) subjective competence model provides a framework for assessing negative selfreferent belief structures, indicating the degree to which the subject attributes unfavorable behavior to himself of herself. The self-referent belief structures represent attribution-sequences implying three qualitatively different attributions, namely: action-attribution, i.e. attributing an action to an actor; effectattribution, i.e. attributing an effect to an action; and affect-attribution, i.e. attributing a positive or a negative affect to an effect. Each attribution can have a more or less positive or negative value. The value of the attribution-sequence is defined by the product of the different attributions: (action-attribution) x (effect-attribution) x (affect-attribution) = subjective competence.
Additionally to an analysis of personal feelings of responsibility in terms of concrete, identifiable actions, the subjective competence model provides a new instrument for measuring cognitive defensiveness. The theory distinguishes between primitive and complex defenses. Primitive defenses resemble defenses known as denial and stopping thinking, and seem to be less susceptible to change or influence. Complex defenses resemble justifications and rationalizations, and seem to be more susceptible to change and influence. Individuals with stronger negative subjective competence will demonstrate more complex defenses, which is considered to facilitate behavioral change. On the other hand, individuals with less negative subjective competence will demonstrate more primitive defenses, which is considered to hamper behavioral change. Negative subjective competence indicates the degree of responsibility a person may feel with regard to his defective behavior and unfavorable outcomes, which he attributes to himself as an actor. To the extent that the explanation of negative subjective competence does not take the concept of guilt into account, the explanation would be morally neutral. Whenever a person's responsibility is at stake, however, a moral explanation is involved. Therefore, both guilt and negative subjective competence were operationalized as intervening variables in a research design which was applied to two different kinds of risky health behavior, namely cigarette smoking and overeating.
In an initial pilot study a tentative operationalization of the subjective competence theory was tested using 85 cigarette smokers. In a later stage a more elaborate research study was carried out with 270 cigarette smokers in order to test a research design in which anxiety, negative self esteem, and attributionstyle predict guilt feelings concerning smoking and negative subjective competence concerning smoking, both to be considered as intervening variables. Subsequently, a higher degree of guilt and negative subjective competence, together with situational determinants and population characteristics, predict the following dependent variables: a stronger intention to quit smoking, more complex and less primitive defenses, and less positive attitude towards smoking. The evidence corroborates the theory to a considerable extent, and the results obtained via path-analysis gave further support to the validity of the theoretical model.
In addition, three different degrees of guilt feelings were induced experimentally in order to test a differential effect on the readiness to change risky health behavior. In the first instance, a hypothesis concerning a curvilinear effect on change scores was not corroborated. Yet, on the basis of further analysis, using Analysis of Variance, the data indicate that the degrees of guilt induction are indeed differentially effective in enhancing the intention to behavioral change and in optimizing the structure of cognitive defenses. In fact the differences concerning primitive and complex defenses were substantial in the condition in which the middle level of guilt was induced. On the basis of the empirical findings it is concluded that the degree to which induction of guilt might contribute to behavioral change is to be considered as a function of (a) the strength of the message, (b) the susceptibility of the receiver, and (c) characteristics of the person or institution being held responsible for the message.
A similar research model was tested on the topic of overeating, using 64 subjects, partly obese and partly non-obese individuals. Negative subjective competence concerning three patterns of overeating — emotional eating, external eating, and non-restrained eating — could in an analogous fashion be predicted by anxiety, guilt and negative self-esteem. In correspondence with the previous study a higher degree of negative subjective competence predicts stronger intentions to change behavior, and similar defense structures. More guilt and more negative subjective competence clearly contribute to a much higher extent than do low guilt and low negative subjective competence to the intention to change risky health behavior. Subjects with more guilt and more negative subjective competence demonstrate a more differentiated defense system in comparison with subjects with low guilt and low negative subjective competence, who demonstrate more primitive defenses. Further research on this topic is recommended in order to investigate whether guilt feelings can be fruitfully utilized in the context of therapeutic and preventive manoeuvres, especially in the field of addiction, pertaining to smoking, eating disorders, alcoholism, and drugs abuse, or even more generally in different areas of unwanted behaviors, such as vandalism and antisocial behavior.
In the final chapter an attempt is made to apply the theory to the process of socialization. Extreme high guilt feelings, and hypersensitivity for guilt, undoubtedly represent an unwanted outcome of the socialization process, because they may lead to alienation from the self. Extreme low guilt feelings, however, and hyposensitivity for guilt, should also be considered ineffective, because they may lead to alienation from social reality. A medium degree of guilt feelings and sensitivity for guilt will be the better outcome. In this study the theory has been operationalized with respect to two specific risky health behaviors. The findings seem to justify the expectation that the theoretical model can be applied to other behaviors as well. In this manner the presented research possibly may offer a contribution to the rediscovery of the unjustly neglected constructive function, which guilt feelings may have for behavioral change.
Beinvloeding van het rookgedrag
Ban, A.W. van den - \ 1981
Stichting Harttonen - 4
tabak roken - ethiek - tabak - verslaving - tobacco smoking - ethics - tobacco - addiction