The tree under which you sit : district-level management and leadership in maternal and newborn health policy implementation in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana
Kwamie, A. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk; I.A. Agyepong. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576742 - 158
health policy - birth - pregnancy - policy - management - administration - ghana - west africa - gezondheidsbeleid - geboorte - zwangerschap - beleid - bedrijfsvoering - bestuur - ghana - west-afrika
Health system governance has to do with decision-making – who makes decisions, when, where, how and why. At the district level – the level of care which operationalises health policies – governance is critical, yet remains little understood. Governance has the ability to influence health system performance, and this is essential in maternal and newborn health, where timely decisions are required to support policy implementation. In this regard, district managers are particularly important. They are the link in the middle of the health system, connecting top-end policy formulation to bottom-end implementation. Their abilities to interpret, translate, support and challenge policy will have an effect on what gets operationalised. However, capacity weaknesses in district management and leadership are often cited as a factor in poor health system performance.
This thesis seeks to deepen understandings of district-level management, leadership and decision-making for policy and programme management and implementation for maternal and newborn health. Within this, the thesis also seeks to understand the scope for change that an intervention to strengthen management and leadership capacities can bring.
This thesis contributes to the applied field of health policy and systems research by drawing on policy implementation theory, organisational management theory and complexity theory as its theoretical basis. A realist approach methodology was undertaken to understand the contexts in which district managers are embedded, how this influences their decision-making, and what the effects of a managerial intervention are, given these contexts. The thesis followed an embedded case study flexible design. The first case study was an exploratory qualitative case study to understand how and why district managers make decisions in maternal and newborn health policy implementation. The second case study was an historical case study of district manager decision-space over time. The third case study was an explanatory qualitative case study of the management and leadership intervention. The final validation of our theorising throughout the cases was achieved through the administration of a questionnaire across all district health management teams of the Great Accra Region.
This thesis demonstrates that district managers find themselves in contexts of strong hierarchical authority and resource uncertainty – in particular, lacking financial transparency. This promotes a management and leadership typology which attunes managers towards serving the health system bureaucracy, resulting in reduced district-level responsiveness to maternal and newborn health challenges. The outcome is that district manager decision-space is narrow surrounding resource allocation decisions, and this in turn affects local planning programming and management.
The thesis further demonstrates that broader patterns of centralised governmental decision-making have affected the development of the district health system over time. Particularly, the sequencing of decentralisation processes has ensured that national-level decision-making has remained empowered in contrast to district-level decision-making. System fragmentation – through reduced Government of Ghana funds and increasingly verticalised donor funds – has also been a contributor. This accounts for the observed hierarchical authority and resource uncertainty which affects district managers. As a result of these contexts, this thesis also showed that an intervention to strengthen management and leadership capacities was limited in its sustainability.
This thesis raises the issues of health system organisation as critical to the potential of district management and leadership effectiveness. It provides evidence that weaknesses in district management and leadership arise out of the organisational governance mismatches in autonomy and responsibility. It suggests that in strengthening management and leadership, approaches which seek to address organisational capacities, not only individual capacities, are needed to convey sustainable change. Advancements in this regard have the scope to improve district manager decision-making for maternal and newborn health policy and programme implementation in the future.
Making government more reflexive : the role of regulatory impact assessment
Hertin, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Peter Feindt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576384 - 160
administrative law - administration - european union - sustainability - policy - sustainable development - eu regulations - regulations - bestuursrecht - bestuur - europese unie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleid - duurzame ontwikkeling - eu regelingen - regelingen
The thesis explores whether and how analytical activities during the policy formulation process - typically referred to as Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) - contribute to a reorientation of policy-making towards the goals of sustainable development. During the 1990s and the 2000s, many OECD countries introduced, extended or formalised proce-dures for RIA. Many of these reforms also stated to aim at giving more regard to sus-tainability issues. In the political science literature on environmental policy integration, such appraisal procedures have been considered as an important instrument to ensure that environmental effects of new measures play a more prominent role in decision-making processes.
Based on extensive empirical analysis involving a review of all RIA procedures in the EU as well as 59 case studies of individual assessments, the research aims to establish to what extent and under what conditions these procedures contribute to sustainable de-velopment in practice.
The research finds that RIA offers opportunities to give more prominence to ecological concerns in sectoral policy-making practice, but also contains a considerable risk that narrow assessment practices contribute to sidelining sustainable development. The re-search observes not only a large implementation gap, but reveals that even in cases where a substantial RIA is undertaken, the process functions very differently from what has been envisioned both in guidance documents and in the environmental policy inte-gration literature. After analysing the actual roles of assessment knowledge in policy processes, the study concludes that the positivist perspective underlying both theory and practice of policy appraisal is inadequate to account for its political and practical uses.
The thesis then moves on to adopt the more post-positivist perspective of reflexive gov-ernance which implies a fundamentally different set of expectations about the uses and effects of policy appraisal. By reinterpreting the empirical material from this theoretical lens, the study finds considerable potential for RIA to serve as a reflexive governance arrangement, but also identifies a number of structural limitations. Five approaches for making RIA more reflexive are identified: focusing on the function of opening up rather than closing down decision-making; increasing participation; defining process rather than material standards; extending the appraisal towards frame reflexivity; and understanding RIA as boundary work. The thesis concludes with the argument that the reflexive gov-ernance literature should not only develop and study new government arrangements outside the core institutions of representative democracies, but undertake more efforts to identify opportunities to reshape the working of the classical-modernist institutions in more reflexive ways to foster more integrative and sustainable policy-making/to improve environmental governance.
‘Ik geloof in het krijgen van draagvlak’
Sikkema, A. ; Ramaker, R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2015)18. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 4 - 5.
hoger onderwijs - wetenschappers - bestuur - onderwijsbeleid - higher education - scientists - administration - educational policy
In een razendsnelle procedure werd Arthur Mol eergisteren benoemd tot nieuwe rector magnificus. Wie is hij en wat wil hij? Een eerste interview met de aankomend rector.
‘We gaan ons openstellen’
Fresco, L.O. - \ 2014
WageningenWorld (2014)3. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 10 - 15.
agrarisch onderwijs - universiteiten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - bestuur - samenwerking - sociale interactie - agricultural education - universities - agricultural research - administration - cooperation - social interaction
‘Verbinding’ is het sleutelwoord van Louise Fresco, de kersverse bestuursvoorzitter van Wageningen UR. Ze wil nieuwe manieren vinden om de samenleving te betrekken bij de ontwikkeling van kennis. ‘Het is mijn droom maatschappelijke discussies vlot te trekken die nu worden lamgelegd door angst, weerstanden en complotgevoelens.’
Aalt Dijkhuizen : 'Wetenschap niet verwarren met politiek'
Dijkhuizen, A.A. - \ 2014
V-focus 11 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 6 - 8.
agrarisch onderwijs - universiteiten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - bestuur - agrarische productiesystemen - dierenwelzijn - interviews - dierlijke productie - agricultural education - universities - agricultural research - administration - agricultural production systems - animal welfare - interviews - animal production
Aalt Dijkhuizen baarde in 2012 veel opzien toen hij luid hoorbaar verkondigde dat de agrarische producties omhoog moeten vanwege de wereldwijde voedselbehoefte. Vanuit agrarische kringen ging applaus op, dierenwelzijnsorganisaties hadden felle kritiek. Beide reacties kan Dijkhuizen zich voorstellen. Alleen het onfatsoen waarmee sommige NGO’s en hun sympathisanten reageerden, vindt hij ongehoord. Op 1 maart 2014 stopt Dijkhuizen als voorzitter van de raad van bestuur van Wageningen UR. In dit interview blikt hij terug op twaalf jaar voorzitterschap.
Ctgb, groei in kwaliteit en verantwoordelijkheid
Leeuw, J.F. ; Duijn, L.P. van; Everaarts, T.C. ; Goud, J.C. - \ 2013
Gewasbescherming 44 (2013)6. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 164 - 168.
gewasbescherming - certificering - nederland - bedrijfsgegevens - kwaliteit - bestuur - eu regelingen - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - interviews - plant protection - certification - netherlands - farm accountancy data - quality - administration - eu regulations - authorisation of pesticides - interviews
Ruim 2 jaar ervaring met in de Ctgb-uitvoeringspraktijk met de nieuwe verordening, heeft Ctgb een aardige groei doorgemaakt wat betreft het aantal personeelsleden en inmiddels zijn er ook een nieuwe voorzitter en een nieuwe secretaris/directeur aangesteld bij het College. Een interview met voorzitter Johan de Leeuw en secretaris/directeur Luuk van Duijn.
Effectief beleid voor complexe problemen
Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2012
Kennis Online 9 (2012)december. - p. 10 - 11.
bestuurskunde - bestuur - governance - informatiemanagement - schaalverandering - grootte - public administration - administration - governance - information management - scaling - size
Bij problemen op het gebied van natuur en milieu, duurzaamheid en voedselketens liggen oorzaken en gevolgen per definitie op verschillende schaalniveaus, van lokaal tot de wereld, van korte tot lange termijn. Binnen het thema Scaling and Governance worden manieren ontwikkeld om ondanks die complexiteit toch tot effectief beleid te kunnen komen.
|De Bestuurlijke kaart van Nederland. Het openbaar bestuur en zijn omgeving in nationaal en internationaal perspectief (5e herz. druk)
Breeman, G.E. ; Noort, W.J. van; Rutgers, M.R. - \ 2012
Bussum : Coutinho - ISBN 9789046903063 - 240
regering - nederland - overheidsorganisaties - overheid - bestuurskunde - bestuur - rijksoverheid - staatsorganisatie - internationale betrekkingen - government - netherlands - government organizations - public authorities - public administration - administration - central government - state organization - international relations
De bestuurlijke kaart van Nederland is een eerste kennismaking met de instituties en organisaties in en rondom het openbaar bestuur. Het boek schetst de inrichting van het openbaar bestuur op de verschillende niveaus. In de eerste hoofdstukken komen de politiek-bestuurlijke instituties op nationaal of rijksniveau aan de orde, gevolgd door de ministeries. Daarna wordt aandacht besteed aan de provincies en de gemeenten, gevolgd door een bespreking van de rechterlijke macht, het functionele bestuur en de maatschappelijke omgeving van het bestuur. Ook komt de internationale context waarbinnen het openbaar bestuur functioneert aan de orde. Daarbij ligt de nadruk op de Europese Unie, aangezien deze van grote invloed is op het functioneren van het Nederlandse openbaar bestuur. Vervolgens wordt ingegaan op mondiaal opererende instituties als de Verenigde Naties. Het boek sluit af met een overzicht van ontwikkelingen en trends in het openbaar bestuur.
Zelfsturing en zelfregulering in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden : condities en ontwerpprincipes
Gerritsen, A.L. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2008
[S.l.] : S.n. - 11
zelfbeheer - autonomie - regionale ontwikkeling - bestuur - bestuurskunde - bestuursrecht - friese wouden - Nederland - self management - autonomy - regional development - administration - public administration - administrative law - friese wouden - Netherlands
In deze notitie wordt ingegaan op hoe zelfsturing en zelfregulering te bezien zijn als vormen van sturing, hoe in de bestuurskundige en juridische literatuur over voor- en nadelen gedacht wordt en wordt behandeld onder welke condities zelfsturing wel of niet kan functioneren en welke algemene principes er zijn om tot zelfsturing te komen. Deze informatie wordt gekoppeld aan wat er anno 2008 aan zelfsturingsarrangementen bestaat in het gebied Noordelijke Friese Wouden. Doel hiervan is om vanuit de bestuurskundige en juridische literatuur het denken over nieuwe sturingsarrangementen in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden te ondersteunen.
Administrative burdens in the European food industry : with special attention to the dairy sector
Bremmers, H.J. ; Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Poppe, K.J. ; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2008
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area 1, International policy ) - ISBN 9789086152674 - 83
voedselindustrie - zuivelindustrie - voedselveiligheid - bestuur - regelingen - kostenanalyse - bedrijfskunde - Nederland - food industry - dairy industry - food safety - administration - regulations - cost analysis - business administration - Netherlands
This report investigates the relationship between administrative burdens and competitiveness in the European dairy industry. A firm perspective is used. The relationship between administrative burdens and competitiveness has been broken down into four aspects: innovation, deployment of food safety and quality systems, food labelling and supply chain transparency
Jaarverslag 2007 Kennisbasisthema 'Transitieprocessen, instituties, bestuur en beleid'
Poppe, K.J. - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI - 10
bestuur - beleid - kennissystemen - sociale processen - administration - policy - knowledge systems - social processes
Dit document omvat het jaarverslag van het kennisbasisthema 'Transitieprocessen, instituties, bestuur en beleid'. Het schetst een globaal beeld van het gehele thema, gebaseerd op de voortgang van de onderliggende projecten in 2007. Daarmee refereert dit verslag aan de opbouw en instandhouding van een kerncompetentie die voor alle stakeholders van Wageningen UR van belang is. Tegelijk beschrijft het verslag ook de (mogelijke) impact van de nieuwe projectresultaten op markt, beleid, wetenschap. De genoemde kerncompetentie is: In staat zijn om veranderingen in beleid, instituties en gedrag zichtbaar, begrijpelijk en liefst ook toepasbaar te maken door creatieve ideeën te ontwikkelen voor innovaties van producten, processen en samenwerking
Transitieprocessen, instituties, bestuur en beleid
Poppe, Krijn - \ 2008
politics - change - administration - policy - society
|Bakti Pamong Praja Papua; Di era transisi kekuasaan belanda ke Indonesia
Visser, L.E. - \ 2008
Jakarta, Indonesia : Kompas Penerbit Buku - ISBN 9789797093853 - 447
geschiedenis - politiek - verandering - regering - overheidsorganisaties - bestuur - nederland - indonesië - papoea-nieuw-guinea - politieke processen - bureaucratie - history - politics - change - government - government organizations - administration - netherlands - indonesia - papua new guinea - political processes - bureaucracy
Een unieke serie verhalen over 17 Papua-bestuurders (tuan bestir), opgeleid in de laat ‘50-er jaren en vaak werkend in afgelegen gebieden en hun contacten met de bevolking tijdens tournees. Ook aan bod komen de woelige jaren ’60, de korte UNTEA-periode, de manipulatie bij de Act of Free Choice en de integratie binnen de Indonesische eenheidsstaat. Velen van hen bleven tot aan hun pensionering in de ’90-er jaren in dienst van het Indonesisch bestuur
FLEGT beyond T : exploring the meaning of 'Governance' concepts for the FLEGT process
Bodegom, A.J. van; Klaver, D.C. ; Schoubroeck, F.H.J. van; Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research centre - 56
bestuur - regering - overheidsbeleid - bosbeleid - bosbedrijfsvoering - ontwikkelingsbeleid - centraal-afrika - europese unie - governance - administration - government - government policy - forest policy - forest management - development policy - central africa - european union - governance
The FLEGT process is about the EU action plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade. This study focuses on the Governance aspects of FLEGT and was commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature ad Food Quality of The Netherlands. There is a need to gain more insight into the definitions of 'governance' which apply to the forest sector. To this end, it is useful to analyse and catalogue the most important and widely used definitions in order to help create a common understanding among national and international stakeholders.
|De Bestuurlijke kaart van Nederland. Het openbaar bestuur en zijn omgeving in nationaal en internationaal perspectief
Breeman, G.E. ; Noort, W.J. van; Rutgers, M.R. - \ 2008
Bussum : Coutinho - ISBN 9789046901175 - 234
bestuur - overheidsbeleid - organisaties - instellingen - handboeken - regering - regionaal bestuur - rijksoverheid - plaatselijk bestuur - openbare instanties - samenleving - europese unie - nederland - europa - bestuurskunde - organisatie - staatsorganisatie - administration - government policy - organizations - institutions - handbooks - government - regional government - central government - local government - public agencies - society - european union - netherlands - europe - public administration - organization - state organization
Shedding the waters : institutional change and water control in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico
Wester, P. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): L.G. Torres. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048992 - 293
waterbeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - watergebruik - watergebruiksrendement - waterbeleid - instellingen - mexico - politiek - bestuur - water management - resource management - water use - water use efficiency - water policy - institutions - mexico - politics - administration
Water resources development has led to water overexploitation in many river basins around the world. This is clearly the case in the Lerma-Chapala Basin in central Mexico, where excessive surface water use nearly resulted in the drying up of Lake Chapala, one of the world’s largest shallow lakes. It is also a basin in which many of the policies prescribed in international water debates were pioneered. This thesis investigates the histories and relationships between water overexploitation, water reforms and institutional transformations in the Lerma-Chapala Basin. In particular it focuses on the role of the hydraulic bureaucracy (hydrocracy) in the creation of water overexploitation and in the articulation of water reforms. It shows how water reforms have reordered modes of water control and transformed domains of water governance in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, but have not led to a reduction of water overexploitation. Three main themes are developed in the thesis, namely 1) the links between the hydraulic mission, hydrocracies and river basin closure, 2) water reforms and decentralization, and 3) water allocation and river basin politics.
This thesis conceives of water reforms as sociopolitical processes and analyses the historical, political and bureaucratic processes that engender and sustain water reforms. Such an analysis, which centers on policy actors and policy articulation, clarifies why water reforms are effectuated and how alliances are negotiated through which reforms gather momentum, or are made to fail. Grounded in the notion that water resources management is politically contested and that policies embody the governing ambitions of bureaucracies, this thesis argues that water reforms are not “inevitable”. Rather, they are produced by particular constellations and have particular effects, such as reordering modes of water control. To understand the making of water overexploitation and the articulation of water reforms it is necessary to analyze the histories of the relationships between water users, water technologies and the government agencies mediating water control. The spatial and material dimensions of hydrosocial-networks form an integral part of these histories. Such a sociotechnical perspective on water reforms is developed in this thesis to analyze changes in water governance in the Lerma-Chapala Basin.
In Chapter 2, a historical analysis of the creation of water overexploitation in the Lerma-Chapala Basin brings out how water resources development is a recursive process in which hydrocracies, water infrastructure, water and water users mutually constitute each other. Between the 1920s and 1970s, the construction of irrigation schemes and river basin development in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, coupled with the bureaucratic-authoritarian character of the Mexican state and the hydraulic mission of its hydrocracy, led to water overexploitation and the strengthening of state control over water, water users and space.
A major rupture for the hydrocracy in Mexico was the merger of the ministry of hydraulic resources with the ministry of agriculture in 1976 and the dissolution of the river basin commissions. Chapter 3 analyses how this merger reduced the autonomy of the hydrocracy and resulted in bureaucratic struggles and a politically expressed demand for renewed autonomy on the part of the hydrocrats. The chapter focuses on policy articulation to elucidate how the historical, political and bureaucratic transformations relating to water in Mexico between 1976 and 1988 led to the consolidation of a water reform package and the reconstitution of the hydrocracy in 1989. It argues that the composition of the Mexican water reforms and the commitment to them emerged from a contingent process of bureaucratic struggles and political accommodations that was strongly driven by the hydrocracy’s quest for renewed autonomy and its ambition to be the sole water authority in Mexico.
Chapter 4 analyses the articulation of the IMT policy in Mexico in the early 1990s, focusing on its emergence, standardization and acceleration. It argues that much policy making actually takes place during policy implementation and that policy making is a continuous and on-going process that is potentially self-reinforcing, but often fragile and reversible in practice. This argument is constructed by showing that the articulation of the irrigation transfer policy was not an uncontested process but one that resulted from interactions between policy actors such as hydrocrats, water user leaders, politicians and international lending agencies. This led to the development of a standardized policy package, consisting of specific policy techniques assembled through experiments, consultations and clashes in the field and negotiations at the national and international level. Feedback mechanisms coordinated by the hydrocracy led to a convergence of distributed experiences and ideas on how to make transfer work, which contributed to the acceleration of the transfer process.
Chapter 5 details the major water reforms of the 1990s as they played out in the Lerma-Chapala Basin. These reforms, such as irrigation management transfer and river basin management, were intimately linked with the overriding concern of the hydrocracy to regain its autonomy. Through these reforms, the hydrocracy regained discursive hegemony in the definition of water problems in the Lerma-Chapala Basin in the early 1990s. However, the dynamics of these reforms, which entailed a shift from authoritarian and centralized government to distributed governance, coupled with larger changes in Mexican society, resulted in institutional gridlock in the late 1990s and increased water use. While the hydrocracy furthered its territorial and governmental ambitions by using the concept of river basins as the natural units for water management, it only very partially succeeded in increasing its control over actual water use. The chapter concludes that to reduce water overexploitation, deeper shifts in governance are needed based on collaboration, combined with an equitable approach to the curtailment of primary water use.
Chapter 6 delves into river basin management, focusing on stakeholder representation in river basin management. It argues that increasing the capacity of water users to influence decision-making is crucial in river basin management reforms. It assesses emerging forums for river basin management in Mexico and South Africa and concludes that the pace of democratization of water management in both is slow. Mexico is characterized by continued government dominance and attempts to include already organized stakeholders in decision-making, while substantive stakeholder representation is lacking. South Africa is placing emphasis on social mobilization and transformation, leading to a slower implementation process and struggles over the redistribution of resources. While not a panacea, moving from stakeholder participation to substantive stakeholder representation in river basin management holds more promise of achieving equitable water management.
Chapter 7 analyzes attempts to reduce groundwater overexploitation in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, particularly in Guanajuato State, through state regulation and user self-regulation. It argues that the political economy of groundwater use is a strong impediment to reducing groundwater overexploitation. Thus, individual water users continue to have nearly unfettered control over their pumps, the federal government continues to provide cheap electricity to agriculture and the hydrocracy seeks rents through the legalization of illegal pumps. This chapter suggests that these strategies remain in place and are stronger than attempts to reduce groundwater use as the majority of the actors involved in groundwater management have a stake in the situation remaining as it is.
Chapter 8 continues the analysis started in Chapter 5 by focusing on the politics of surface water management in the Basin after 2000, in particular water transfers from irrigation districts to Lake Chapala and the negotiation processes surrounding the revision of the 1991 water allocation agreement. The continued decline of Lake Chapala from 1999 onwards and the water transfers to the Lake led to increased conflicts between states and water users in the Basin and complicated renegotiating the 1991 agreement. The changing dynamics of water user representation in water governance from the field to the basin are explored through an analysis of a farmer initiative to influence decision making at the river basin level in response to the water transfers. While a new water allocation agreement was signed in 2004, no provisions were made for environmental flows or for compensations to farmers for reductions in water allocations. This brings out how difficult it is to readjust water allocations after basin closure, let alone reduce water use and secure environmental water requirements, even if parties are willing to negotiate.
Chapter 9 presents the main findings and conclusions of the thesis. Two important findings are that the articulation of water reforms was only very partially driven by river basin closure and that the reforms did not lead to a reduction of water overexploitation. Rather, the sociopolitical analysis in this thesis of the water reforms pursued in the Lerma-Chapala Basin brings out that an important driver of the water reforms was the objective of the hydrocracy to strengthen its bureaucratic autonomy and control over domains of water governance. The active role of the Mexican hydrocracy in the articulation of water reforms shows that it supported change processes that it initiated and controlled and that would bring benefits to the hydrocracy. Its marked disinterest in making environmental sustainability and social equity the priorities of water reforms needs to be seen in this light. As long as these concerns do not bring benefits to the hydrocracy, and without strong political and social pressures being brought to bear on the hydrocracy to make these concerns its priorities, water overexploitation and the further concentration of water rights will continue. The thesis concludes that an explicit recognition of the powerful interests linked to water use and finding ways to bring these interests to the negotiating table is a necessary first step for making the “water transition”.
Jaarverslag 2006 Kennisbasisthema 'Transitieprocessen, instituties, bestuur en beleid'
Poppe, K.J. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI - 8
bestuur - beleid - kennissystemen - sociale processen - administration - policy - knowledge systems - social processes
Dit document omvat het jaarverslag van het kennisbasisthema 'Transitieprocessen, instituties, bestuur en beleid'. Het schetst een globaal beeld van het gehele thema, gebaseerd op de voortgang van de onderliggende projecten in 2006. Daarmee refereert dit verslag aan de opbouw en instandhouding van een kerncompetentie die voor alle stakeholders van Wageningen UR van belang is. Tegelijk beschrijft het verslag ook de (mogelijke) impact van de nieuwe projectresultaten op markt, beleid, wetenschap. De genoemde kerncompetentie is: In staat zijn om veranderingen in beleid, instituties en gedrag zichtbaar, begrijpelijk en liefst ook toepasbaar te maken door creatieve ideeën te ontwikkelen voor innovaties van producten, processen en samenwerking
Vital Differences : on public Leadership and societal innovation
Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 48
bestuur - leiderschap - sociale verandering - innovaties - kennis - onderzoek - participatie - regionale ontwikkeling - bestuurskunde - sociale processen - systeeminnovatie - governance - administration - leadership - social change - innovations - knowledge - research - participation - regional development - public administration - social processes - system innovation - governance
Under the denominator of transitions or sometimes even system innovations, significant processes of change are in progress. When these processes affect major social tasks such as sustainable development, it is referred to as 'societal innovation'. For example innovations like space for rivers, care farms, Greenport Venlo, agroparks, ‘Healing Hills’ (‘Helende Hellingen’) or the Oostervaardersplassen lakes. In this speech Katrien Vermeer concentrates mainly on analyzing the dynamics behind these processes of change of societal innovation. She is particularly interested in what the government actors contribute to this, from her position in the field of study into public administration
Governing urban water flows in China
Zhong, L. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048312 - 195
waterbeheer - instellingen - china - innovaties - transformatie - bestuur - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - stedelijke gebieden - besluitvorming - institutionele economie - governance - water management - institutions - china - innovations - transformation - administration - natural resources - urban areas - decision making - institutional economics - governance
China has been witnessing an unprecedented period of continuous high economic growth during the past three decades. But this has been paralleled by severe environmental challenges, of which water problems are of key importance. This thesis addresses the urban water challenges of contemporary China, by focusing especially on the institutional traditions and innovations in Chinese water policies and governance, basically for two additional reasons. First, the large majority of studies regarding China’s urban water sector have focused on technological innovations and – to a lesser extent – the economic costs, leaving institutional dimensions often unaddressed. This thesis is one of the first to look more systematically into several institutional innovations that take place in contemporary urban water governance around China. Second, China’s water problems are closely linked to many societal questions and debates that characterise current transitional China, such as the equal distribution of costs and benefits in a market economy, democracy and participation, effective governance and the relation between state and market. Our institutional analyses aim to focus exactly on the linkage between water challenges and these other main developments. Inspired by a series of theoretical considerations in environmental sociology, this thesis, on the one hand, develops an Ecological Modernization-based theoretical framework for studying institutional transformations of China’s urban water sector. As such, it interprets the current institutional innovations as a (potential) trend of ecological modernization in China. On the other hand, this thesis provides implications for the development of a more China-specified Ecological Modernization theory. And as such it contributes to the reframing of Ecological Modernization theory to make it relevant beyond western Europe. Traditionally, the Chinese state had a monopoly in managing and arranging the urban water sector, both in terms of water supply and waste water treatment. Along with the Chinese economic reforms since the 1980s and its movement from a centrally planned economy towards a market-based economy, this state monopoly is changing dramatically. This change can be labelled the modernization of urban water governance. Using an Ecological Modernization perspective, this thesis investigates three major environmental-induced institutional innovations of Chinese urban water sector, thereby focusing on the changing roles of and relations between the state, economic actors and civil society. First, China has gradually increased attention to, research on and experiments with the application of economic instruments, as well as the involvement of the private sector, in urban water management. Although we seem to be at only an early stage of both innovations, which prevents us from drawing any final conclusion regarding their impacts on the Chinese water sector, it has become clear that the traditional full governmental provision of water services has changed dramatically in China. Economic and market dynamics are increasingly playing important roles; prices of water and waste water treatment have increased dramatically, subsidies are more and more abandoned (with some exceptions for vulnerable groups and crucial state functions), and economic actors appear on the stage of policy implementation and sometimes even policy formulation. While in principle many of these innovations seem to contribute to more efficient and effective urban water provision, much room for improvement remains, also because of the current lack of attention to institutional design by the Chinese authorities. Second, the Chinese state is redefining the state-market relations within the urban water sector in order to deal with – among others - the environmental dimensions of water services (such as natural resource protection, efficient infrastructure, and pollution control). Not only the liberalization and commercialization of conventional governmental water utilities but also the emergence and spread of private sector involvement in water service provision contribute to new roles and responsibilities of state and market actors, and to new modes of urban water governance. Various models of public-private partnerships are being tried and implemented across China, where a (potential) market is being formulated for capital raising and financing, constructing infrastructure and facilities, and executing service provisions. This comes along with debates and struggle over tasks and responsibilities left for the state, both at the national and the local level. And with that also more fundamental debates on the nature of water, ranging between a public good and a private good. Thirdly, the new institutional arrangement of public hearings for setting water tariffs provides evidence that civil society starts to become involved in governmental decision-making processes, although this new institution has a different outlook and performance from public hearings developed in Western countries. Our investigations into price public hearings in various Chinese cities witness that the Chinese government seems to be moving towards to a trend of more open, transparent and accountable governance, although the impact of these public hearings is still controversial and differs from city to city. Issues of democracy and equity are constantly debated and defined in the practical operationalization of these institutional arrangements. Price public hearings do not stand on its own. This tendency of further civil society involvement can also be found in other developments, such as the increasing room for maneuver for NGOs (e.g. with respect to major water issues such as dams) and innovations in the new Environmental Impact Assessment law. In sum, this thesis on the one side has provided evidences that contemporary China is witnessing at least experiments with a modernization of water governance that can be understood in terms of ecological modernization. For instance, decentralization, the involvement of various non-state actors, further reform of state-market relations, increasing use of economic and market dynamics, and a wider contribution of civil society and public participation are typical developments that reflect an ecological modernization agenda and theory. On the other side, this thesis shows differences between what can be labeled a Western style Ecological Modernization framework and the actual practice of urban water governance reform in China, due to the different economic, political and societal variables in China. This implies the need for specifying where Western style ecological modernization practices differ from what we can expect in state-in-transition, and arguable also the need for a Chinese style Ecological Modernization theory. This thesis does not attempt to formulate such a theory, but does provide some of the ingredients and building stones for that.
Headquarters-subsidiary relationship governance in emerging markets of Central Eastern Europe : a study in Poland
Gusc, J.S. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Harry Bremmers. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047582 - 215
management - multinational corporations - investment - trade relations - transition economies - investment policy - entrepreneurship - businesses - administration - poland - central europe - corporate governance - bedrijfsvoering - multinationale corporaties - investering - handelsrelaties - overgangseconomieën - investeringsbeleid - ondernemerschap - bedrijven - bestuur - polen - centraal-europa - deugdelijk ondernemingsbestuur
Multinational enterprises often seem to be on a ‘roller coaster’ when managing their operations in transition economies, especially because of the volatile business and political environment. The study analyses the subtle equilibrium between formal control and day-to-day coordination in the Headquarters-Subsidiary (HQ-S) relationship of more than 70 subsidiaries of large multinational companies in Poland, taking the cultural differences between the headquarters and subsidiary country into account. It is concluded that in the best performing multinationals, strategic and operational control mechanisms are tightly organised, building a platform on which intensive coordination and attuning occurs to deal with the day-to-day management challenges. Interestingly, also for entering new markets, a prospector strategy focusing on innovation shows better results than copying of competitors. However, it also reveals that there is no simple and uniform recipe for managing subsidiaries. The road from governance to performance is not a one-way street, creating flexibility and learning capabilities at the subsidiary level clearly contribute to the success of international operations.