Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Protocol beoordeling stoffen Meststoffenwet : versie 3.2
Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet, - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 71) - 70
kunstmeststoffen - afval - wetgeving - protocollen - regelingen - bijproducten - fertilizers - wastes - legislation - protocols - regulations - byproducts
The Fertiliser Act regulates the trade in and use of fertilisers in the Netherlands. Only designated fertiliserscan be traded freely. In general, the Act prohibits the use of wastes and by-products as fertilisers, assecondary raw materials for fertiliser production or for the production, via co-digestion in a biogas productionplant, of digestate destined for use as fertiliser. However, a statutory provision has been adopted thatpermits the use of approved and designated wastes and by-products as fertilisers or as secondary rawmaterials for fertiliser or digestate production. Before wastes and by-products may be designated, they arereviewed to assess their fertilisation value and any environmental risks associated with these uses. Theassessment criteria and evaluation procedures are described in detail in a protocol. The protocol alsodescribes the administrative procedure and summarises the data needed for the review and assessment
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands : update 2015
Franeker, J.A. van; Kühn, S. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E.L. - \ 2016
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C091/16) - 50
fulmarus - sea birds - wastes - water pollution - marine environment - monitoring - netherlands - zeevogels - afval - waterverontreiniging - marien milieu - nederland
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands - Update 2014
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES C123/15) - 55 p.
marine environment - water pollution - pollution - wastes - monitoring - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - verontreiniging - afval
Sea floor litter monitored using catches of the International Bottom Trawl Survey
Hal, R. van - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C083/15) - 26
marine environment - wastes - water pollution - monitoring - marien milieu - afval - waterverontreiniging
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires from the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state and trends of the marine waters on a regular basis and the effect of measures, monitoring programs for MSFD descriptors and indicators have been established by the Member states. GES is described by 11 descriptors, and marine litter is one of them. The Dutch monitoring program for this descriptor includes amongst others the collection of data on the presence and distribution on litter on the seafloor. This data should be collected by statutory task fish surveys using standardized bottom trawling gears, as used in the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS). This report presents the results of the seafloor litter monitoring during the IBTS survey of Quarter 1 2015. Seafloor litter data is collected during this survey since 2013, and the new data is presented in perspective of the data collected in previous years. This is done for the composition and the spatial distribution of the seafloor litter from the catch.
Prof. Jacqueline Bloemhof over streven naar duurzame logistiek
Bloemhof, J.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
voedselketens - logistiek - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - verliezen - afval - voedselverspilling - food chains - logistics - sustainability - losses - wastes - food wastage
Een CO2-neutrale toeleveringsketen zonder afvalverliezen is nog een luchtkasteel. De verwezenlijking hiervan is een proces van de lange adem waarin goede ideeën en ervaringen stap voor stap naar duurzaamheid moeten leiden.
Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres
Oyoo, R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Arthur Mol. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738424 - 179
volksgezondheidsbevordering - afval - milieueffect - stadsomgeving - stedelijke gebieden - verontreiniging - afvalverwerking - oost-afrika - sanitation - wastes - environmental impact - urban environment - urban areas - pollution - waste treatment - east africa

Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres


If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health. Just as many urban authorities in other developing countries, most cities in the vicinity of Lake Victoria (East Africa) have been unsuccessful in providing adequate solid waste and sanitation services to their residents. To effectively manage urban waste flows, the current and future trends for the solid waste and sanitation flows and their environmental impact need to be assessed. A model was developed that represents waste flows management through the social and natural systems of East African cities. This simulation tool was designed to enable the projection of future waste flow trends and their environmental impacts under different management regimes. The results for the model simulations indicate that the annual organic load to the inshore of Lake Victoria increased twofold between 2001 and 2011. The model projections also show that a lack of optimal measures to mitigate various waste flows would further deepen the current environmental crisis in the near future. The executed multi-criteria analysis reveals that mixtures of diverse waste technologies and management regimes matching with local socio-economic and environmental conditions have a positive impact on East African cities’ environmental quality. The integration of resource recovery into the formal waste management sector is found to improve the environmental performance of waste sector in East African cities. These results contribute to the development of an integrated policy support approach, which aims at strengthening the sustainable management of urban waste flows in East African cities. This could then form the basis for improving the urban environmental quality in these cities. Also, in agreement with the modernised mixture approach, this study can conclude that applying a mix of diverse waste technologies and management regimes, and matching these with the local conditions in each city will have positive impacts on East African cities’ environmental quality. This diversity in waste technologies and management strategies for waste flows should be driven by modernised mixture principles. This would safeguard the water quality for Lake Victoria from pollution by waste, and improve the well-being of humans depending on the lake.

Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands - Update 2012 and 2013
Franeker, J.A. van; Kuhn, S. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E. ; Meijboom, A. - \ 2014
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C122/14) - 56
fulmarus - zeevogels - afval - waterverontreiniging - nadelige gevolgen - microplastics - mariene gebieden - monitoring - sea birds - wastes - water pollution - adverse effects - marine areas
Fulmars are purely offshore foragers that ingest all sorts of litter from the sea surface and do not regurgitate poorly degradable diet components like plastics. Initial size of ingested debris is usually in the range of millimetres to centimeters, but may be considerably larger for flexible items as for instance threadlike or sheetlike materials. Items must gradually wear down in the muscular stomach to a size small enough for passage to the intestines. During this process, plastics accumulate in the stomach to a level that integrates litter levels encountered in their foraging area for a period of probably up to a few weeks. The Dutch monitoring approach using beached fulmars was developed for international implementation by OSPAR.
Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste
Bing, X. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst; Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570870 - 205
logistiek - huishoudens - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kunststoffen - modelleren - transport - kosten - logistics - households - wastes - sustainability - plastics - modeling - transport - costs

Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste”

PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing

Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and processed for recycling.

Plastic waste has a complex composition and is polluted, thus requires a substantial technical effort to separate the plastics from the waste and to sort these into recyclable materials. There are several alternatives in the existing collection methods (curb-side and drop-off) and separation methods (source separation and post-separation). It is challenging to select a suitable combination of these methods and to design a network that is efficient and sustainable. It is necessary to build a suitable, efficient and sustainable recycling network from collection to the final processor in order to provide solutions for different future scenarios of plastics household waste recycling. Decision support is needed in order to redesign the plastic waste reverse logistics so that the plastic waste recycling supply chain can be improved towards a more sustainable direction. To improve the efficiency in the recycling of plastic packaging waste, insights are required into this complex system. Insights solely on a municipal level are not sufficient, as the processing and end market are important for a complete network configuration. Therefore, we have investigated the problem at three levels: municipal, regional, and global. Decision support systems are developed based on optimization techniques to explore the power of mathematical modelling to assist in the decision-making process.

This thesis investigates plastic waste recycling from a sustainable reverse logistics angle. The aim is to analyse the collection, separation and treatments systems of plastic waste and to propose redesigns for the recycling system using quantitative decision support models.

We started this research project by identifying research opportunities. This was done through a practical approach that aimed to find future research opportunities to solve existing problems (Chapter 2). We started from a review of current municipal solid waste recycling practices in various EU countries and identified the characteristics and key issues of waste recycling from waste management and reverse logistics point of view. This is followed by a literature review regarding the applications of operations research. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem and that research opportunities can be found by considering different decision levels simultaneously. While analyzing a reverse supply chain for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) recycling, a holistic view and considering characteristics of different waste types are necessary.

Municipal Level

In Chapter 3, we aim to redesign the collection routes of household plastic waste and compare the collection options at the municipal level using eco-efficiency as a performance indicator. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency, and collection points, etc. The results show that the source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection, assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner.

In Chapter 4, we develop a comprehensive cost estimation model to further analyze the impacts of various taxation alternatives on the collection cost and environmental impact. This model is based on such variables as fixed and variable costs per vehicle, personnel cost, container or bag costs, as well as emission costs (using imaginary carbon taxes). The model can be used for decision support when strategic changes to the collection scheme of municipalities are considered. The model, which considers the characteristics of municipalities, including degree of urbanization and taxation schemes for household waste management, was applied to the Dutch case of post-consumer plastic packaging waste. The results showed that post-separation collection generally has the lowest costs. Curb-side collection in urban municipalities without residual waste collection taxing schemes has the highest cost. These results were supported by the conducted sensitivity analysis, which showed that higher source-separation responses are negatively related to curb-side collection costs.

Regional Level

Chapter 5 provides decision support for choosing the most suitable combination of separation methods in the Netherlands. Decision support is provided through an optimized reverse logistics network design that makes the overall recycling system more efficient and sustainable, while taking into account the interests of various stakeholders (municipalities, households, etc.). A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which minimizes both transportation cost and environmental impact, is used to design this network. The research follows the approach of a scenario study; the baseline scenario is the current situation and other scenarios are designed with various strategic alternatives. Comparing these scenarios, the results show that the current network settings of the baseline situation is efficient in terms of logistics, but has the potential to adapt to strategic changes, depending on the assumptions regarding availability of the required processing facilities to treat plastic waste. In some of the tested scenarios, a separate collection channel for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is cost-efficient and saves carbon emission. Although the figures differ depending on the choices in separation method made by municipalities, our modeling results of all the tested scenarios show a reduction in carbon emissions of more than 25 percent compared to the current network.

Chapter 6 studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. The aim was to quantify the impact of multimodality in the network in order to provide decision support for the design of more sustainable plastic recycling networks in the future. A MILP model is developed in order to assess different plastic waste collection, treatment, and transportation scenarios. A baseline scenario represents the optimized current situation, while other scenarios allow multimodality options (barge and train) to be applied. With our input parameter settings, results show that transportation costs contribute to approximately 7 percent of the total costs, and multimodality can help reduce transportation costs by almost 20 percent (CO_2-eq emissions included). In our illustrative case with two plastic separation methods, the post-separation channel benefits more from a multimodality strategy than the source-separation channel. This relates to the locations and availability of intermediate facilities and the quantity of waste transported on each route.

Global Level

After the regional network redesign, Chapter 7 shows a global network redesign. The aim of this chapter was to redesign a reverse supply chain from a global angle based on a case study conducted on household plastic waste distributed from Europe to China. Emissions trading restrictions are set on processing plants in both Europe and China. We used a mixed-integer programming model in the network optimization to decide on location reallocation of intermediate processing plants under such restrictions, with the objective of maximizing total profit under Emission Trading Schemes (ETS). Re-locating facilities globally can help reduce the total cost. Once carefully set, ETS can function well as incentive to control emissions in re-processors. Optimization results show that relocating re-processing centers to China reduces total costs and total transportation emissions. ETS applied to re-processors further helps to reduce emissions from both re-processors and the transportation sector. Carbon caps should be set carefully in order to be effective. These results give an insight in the feasibility of building a global reverse supply chain for household plastic waste recycling and demonstrate the impact of ETS on network design. The results also provide decision support for increasing the synergy between the policy for global shipping of waste material and the demand of recycled material.


Chapter 8 summarizes the findings from chapters 2 to 7 and provides brief answers to the research questions. Beyond that, the integrated findings combine the results from different decision levels and elaborate the impacts of various system characteristics and external factors on the decision making in order to achieve an improved sustainable performance. Main findings are:

Regarding the impact of carbon cost, the results from different chapters are consistent in terms that emission cost is only a small part of the total cost, even when carbon cost is set at its historically highest figure. When carbon price is set to a different value, impact of carbon cost on the change of optimization results is higher on the upstream of the reverse supply chain for plastic waste than the downstream.In Emission Trading scheme (ETS), carbon cap has a larger impact on eco-efficiency performance of the global network than carbon price.On one decision level, models can help to find the ``best option". For example, in the collection phase, the average total collection costs per ton of plastic waste collected for source-separation municipalities are more than twice of the post-separation municipalities' collection costs due to the frequent stops made and idling time at each stop. From the regional network perspective, post-separation scenarios have higher costs and environmental impact than source separation due to the limited number of separation centers compared to the numerous cross-docking sites for source-separation. When combining decision levels, however, it is difficult to find one ``best option" that fits all, as there are contradictory results when looking at the same factor from different decision levels. Through decision support models, we provided clear insights into the trade-offs and helped to quantify the differences and identify key factors to determine the differences.Population density differences in various municipalities influence the performance of curbside collection more than drop-off collection.

This information is valuable for decision makers to consider in the decision making process. Finally, managerial insights derived from sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste are summarized in conclusion section.

Collecting marine litter during regular fish surveys
Sluis, M.T. van der; Hal, R. van - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C065/14) - 19
visserij - afval - noordzee - mariene gebieden - inventarisaties - fisheries - wastes - north sea - marine areas - inventories
This report presents the results of the marine litter monitoring on the IBTS survey of 2014 and the BTS survey of 2013. Since 2013 marine litter is collected during the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) and Dutch Beam Trawl Survey (BTS) following a protocol developed by ICES. The composition and the distribution of the sea floor marine litter from the catch is analysed and the results are compared with the results from the IBTS and BTS surveys of last year.
Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa
Vliet, B.J.M. van; Buuren, J.C.L. van; Mgana, S. - \ 2014
London and New York : Routledge (Routledge studies in sustainable development ) - ISBN 9780415833776 - 176
volksgezondheidsbevordering - rioolwater - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - technologie - beleid - afvalbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - oost-afrika - sanitation - sewage - wastes - sustainability - sustainable development - technology - policy - waste management - urban areas - east africa
Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures of waste and sanitation systems and to ensure wider access, increase flexibility and ecological sustainability. It shows how the problem is not the current diversity in waste and sanitation infrastructures and services and variety of types and scales of technology, of formal and informal sector involvement, and of management and ownership modes. The book focuses instead on the lack of an integrative approach to managing and upgrading of the various waste and sanitation configurations and services so as to ensure wider access, flexibility and sustainability for the low income populations who happen to be the main stakeholders. This approach, coined "Modernized Mixtures", serves as a nexus throughout the book. The empirical core addresses the waste and sanitation challenges and debates at each scale - from the micro-level (households) to the macro-level (international support) - and is based on the results of a five-year-long interdisciplinary, empirical research program. It assesses the socio-technical diversity in waste and sanitation and provides viable solutions to sanitation and waste management in East Africa. This book provides students, researchers and professional in environmental technology, sociology, management and urban planning with an integrated analytical perspective on centralized and decentralized waste and sanitation configurations and tools for improvement in the technology, policy and management of sanitation and solid waste sectors.
Scenarios study on post-consumer plastic packaging waste recycling
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. ; Groot, J.J. ; Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun ; Jansen, M. ; Luijsterburg, B. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1408) - 118
kunststoffen - afval - afvalbeheer - verpakkingsmaterialen - milieueffect - degradatie - recycling - plastics - wastes - waste management - packaging materials - environmental impact - degradation
We all use plastics on a daily basis. Plastics come in many shapes, sizes and compositions and are used in a wide variety of products. Almost all of the currently used plastic packaging are made from fossil resources, which are finite. The production of plastic packages causes environmental impacts, whereas the correct use of these packages will reduce product losses and hence reduce the much more negative environmental impacts associated with product losses. Wrongly discarded plastic objects have a negative impact on the environment, as these materials degrade only very slowly, creating problems such as the infamous ‘plastic islands’ in our oceans. Fortunately, recycling technologies are now emerging for plastic waste, enabling the reuse of these materials in a second life as a package or a utensil. Plastic packaging waste (PPW) is complex in many ways. First of all, there are many different types of plastics, all with their own characteristics and compositions. To enable the re-use of PPW, it has to be sorted into separate fractions. Each type of plastic can then be dealt with in an appropriate way. Second, the collection of PPW is also very complex. In the Netherlands there are many different PPW flows, from industry, offices and households for example. Each has its own collection system and household collection systems differ from one municipality to the next. To add to this complexity there is also the deposit refund system for large PET bottles, run by the soda producers via the supermarkets. Everybody deals with PPW on a daily basis. Most of us think recycling is a good idea. But when we want to decide what the best and most efficient method of recycling is, we are all impaired by a lack of data. A clear view of our best options is inhibited by the existing infrastructure and ‘the way it has always been done’. Also, the subject of recycling touches on our moral opinions about ‘doing the right thing’ and assumptions about the ‘correct’ way of dealing with our plastic waste. And politics also play a role. To unravel the complexity of plastic packaging waste recycling and figure out the best way(s) to improve our recycling system we need science. We need technological, economical, logistical and environmental data to gain insight into recycling systems. By describing the system in detail we can learn how to optimise it. An improved recycling system will provide us with an easier and more efficient re-use of our plastic waste.
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring along Dutch and North Sea coasts - Update 2010 and 2011
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2013
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C076/13) - 61
fulmarus - zeevogels - ecotoxicologie - mariene gebieden - afval - noordzee - sea birds - ecotoxicology - marine areas - wastes - north sea
Zwerfvuil op zee veroorzaakt ernstige economische en ecologische schade. De economische gevolgen zijn het grootst voor kustgemeentes, toerisme, scheepvaart en visserij. Dieren komen om of lijden door verstrikking in, of het opeten van afval, waarbij microscopisch kleine stukjes mogelijk gevolgen hebben voor hele voedselketens tot het niveau van de menselijke consument. In het Noordzeegebied werd het probleem van zwerfvuil duidelijk erkend toen de aangrenzende landen in 2002 besloten om OSPAR de opdracht te geven zwerfafval op te nemen in het systeem van ‘Ecologische Kwaliteits Doelstellingen (EcoQOs). In die periode werd in Nederland al graadmeter onderzoek verricht om zwerfvuil op zee te monitoren aan de hand van de hoeveelheid plastic afval in magen van een zeevogel, de Noordse Stormvogel (Fulmarus glacialis). Stormvogels fourageren alleen op open zee, en eten allerlei soorten afval van het zeeoppervlak en spugen onverteerbare delen zoals plastic niet uit in de vorm van braakballen.
Phosphorus fertilisers from by-products and wastes
Oenema, O. ; Chardon, W.J. ; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Dijk, K.C. van; Schoumans, O.F. ; Rulkens, W.H. - \ 2012
fosformeststoffen - bijproducten - afval - dierlijke meststoffen - biochar - afvalverwerking - phosphorus fertilizers - byproducts - wastes - animal manures - waste treatment
New sanitation : bridging cities and agriculture
Zeeman, G. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461733252 - 23
nieuwe sanitatie - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - afval - kringlopen - volksgezondheid - anaërobe behandeling - terugwinning - new sanitation - waste water - waste water treatment - wastes - cycling - public health - anaerobic treatment - recovery
This inaugural lecture revolves around recovering raw materials such as phosphate, nitrogen, organic substances, energy and water from domestic waste and wastewater. If separated at source using less water, these materials can be recovered more efficiently and used as fertilisers in agriculture, for example. This is an important move at a time when raw materials are becoming increasingly scarce.
MSFD GES Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter. Marine Litter. Technical recommendations for the implementation of MSFD requirements
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2011
Luxembourg : Joint Research Centre / Institute for Environment and Sustainability (Publications Office of the EU 25009) - ISBN 9789279218019 - 91
afval - marien milieu - zeeproducten - afvalverwerking - wastes - marine environment - marine products - waste treatment
Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Jansen, M. - \ 2011
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1261) - ISBN 9789461730640 - 16
verpakkingsmaterialen - afval - afvalhergebruik - kunststoffen - extractie - oplosmiddelen - recycling - packaging materials - wastes - waste utilization - plastics - extraction - solvents
An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was to study the technical feasibility of using this extraction technology and to study the quality of the produced cleaned plastic flakes. Two types of dirty plastic flakes from household waste were used; transparent to white flexible film flakes and PET-bottle flakes.
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring along Durch and North Sea coasts
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2011
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C037/11) - 51
waterverontreiniging - schepen - afval - kunststoffen - milieumonitoring - fulmarus - marien milieu - mariene ecologie - aquatische ecologie - zeevogels - noordzee - ecotoxicologie - water pollution - ships - wastes - plastics - environmental monitoring - marine environment - marine ecology - aquatic ecology - sea birds - north sea - ecotoxicology
Wastes from ships are an important source of litter in the marine environment in the Southern North Sea and cause serious economic and ecological damage. Inadequacies in the ship to shore waste delivery procedures are considered a major factor in illegal discharges. The European Union addressed the problem with the Directive on Port Reception Facilities. Monitoring the effect of this EU Directive is required. A long term marine litter monitoring program based on plastic abundance in stomachs of a seabird, the Northern Fulmar, exists in the Netherlands. The Dutch monitoring approach using fulmars was further developed for international implementation by OSPAR as one of its 'Ecological Quality Objectives' (EcoQO's) for the North Sea. This report, in addition to Dutch monitoring data, also provides a North Sea wide EcoQO update to 2009.
Message in a bottle: learning our way out of unsustainability
Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085855798 - 42
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kunststoffen - afval - afvalstortplaatsen - onderwijs - natuur- en milieueducatie - sustainability - plastics - wastes - waste disposal sites - education - nature and environmental education
Inaugural lecture of Prof. dr. ir. Arjen E.J. Wals upon taking up the posts of Professor of Social Learning and Sustainable Development, and UNESCO Chair at Wageningen University on May 27th 2010. Lecture about the consequences of unsustainable usage of plastics.
Fulmar Litter EcoQO Monitoring in the Netherlands 1979-2008 in relation to EU Directive 200/59/EC on Port Reception Facilities
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2010
Texel : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C027/10) - 40
waterverontreiniging - afval - afvalbeheer - afvalstortplaatsen - afvalverwerking - schepen - vuilnis - havens - aquatische ecologie - noordzee - water pollution - wastes - waste management - waste disposal sites - waste treatment - ships - refuse - harbours - aquatic ecology - north sea
Operational and cargo related wastes from ships are an important source of litter in the marine environment in the southern North Sea and cause serious economical and ecological damage. Inadequacies in the ship to shore waste delivery procedures are considered a major factor in illegal discharges. The European Union therefore addressed the problem with the Directive on Port Reception Facilities (Directive 2000/59/EC). Obligatory waste delivery to shore and indirect financing of the costs are key-elements of the Directive to stimulate and enforce proper disposal of shipwaste in harbours. Monitoring the effect of the EU Directive is required. In the Netherlands, the Ministry of VenW commissions regular updates of Dutch data in the Fulmar-Litter monitoring database maintained by IMARES.
Mest als waardevolle grondstof : enkele technologische opties
Sanders, J.P.M. ; Kasteren, J.H. van - \ 2010
Utrecht : InnovatieNetwerk (Rapport / InnovatieNetwerk nr. 10.2.233) - ISBN 9789050594196 - 29
mest - afval - dierhouderij - intensieve veehouderij - manures - wastes - animal husbandry - intensive livestock farming
Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden om mest niet als afvalstof te zien, maar als product waarvan iets nieuws gemaakt kan worden. Drie doorbraakopties werden bestudeerd met daarbij de kosten en de baten.
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