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Circular Solutions : Part IV From Waste to Resource
Annevelink, E. ; Bos, H.L. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Haas, W. de; Kuikman, P.J. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Sikirica, N. - \ 2016
TO2 Federatie - 65
biobased economy - waste utilization - recycling - refuse - waste management - innovations - biobased economy - afvalhergebruik - recycling - vuilnis - afvalbeheer - innovaties
The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.
Recovery of nutrients from biogas digestate with biochar and clinoptilolite
Kocaturk, N.P. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. Stoumann Jensen; Lijbert Brussaard, co-promotor(en): S. Bruun; Kor Zwart. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578234 - 130
biochar - clinoptilolite - digestate - nutrients - waste management - fractionation - growth - biochar - clinoptiloliet - digestaat - voedingsstoffen - afvalbeheer - fractionering - groei
The liquid fraction of digestate contains nutrients which makes it a valuable fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems. However, direct application of digestate may raise practical and environmental problems. Therefore, processes to concentrate nutrients have been proposed aiming not only to treat the liquid fraction of digestate to overcome the problems related to direct application, but also to recover the nutrients of which natural reserves are being depleted such as phosphorus and potassium.
In this thesis, the focus was on the evaluation of the use of clinoptilolite and biochar for nutrient recovery from the liquid fraction of digestate; and to investigate the further use of these nutrient-enriched materials as fertiliser.
This thesis showed that sorption with clinoptilolite and biochar can be a promising technology to recover nutrients from liquid fraction of digestate. Using biochar and clinoptilolite provides concentration of nutrients and, thereby, volume reduction which allows for savings on storage, transport and application of the voluminous liquid fraction of digestate. The end-products are digestate-enriched clinoptilolite and enriched biochar can act as N fertilisers.
Sanitation planning in developing countries : added value of resource recovery
Kerstens, S.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): Ingo Leusbrock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576889 - 316
sanitation - developing countries - recovery - urban planning - waste water treatment - waste treatment - waste management - environmental technology - volksgezondheidsbevordering - ontwikkelingslanden - terugwinning - stedelijke planning - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalverwerking - afvalbeheer - milieutechnologie
Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery
Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia.
The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitation interventions complicates the sanitation planning process. Conventional sanitation systems consume energy, chemicals and land or produce a sludge that requires disposal, whereas a range of opportunities exists that enables valorization of resources from our “waste”. To support policy makers in planning sanitation that considers sustainability dimensions (social, environment and economy), a new sanitation framework was developed. This framework resolves trade-offs of sanitation alternatives across spatial and temporal scales in three steps. First, it identifies feasible wastewater and solid waste systems in relation to the type of residential area. Secondly, the anticipated population development, current access and formulated targets are an input to generate the number of required systems, their location and associated implementation costs. The required systems are visualized in geographical maps, while budgets are allocated to responsible implementing institutions. Thirdly, the potential demand from “back-end users” of sanitation products, such as agriculture for compost and phosphorus, aquaculture for produced duckweed and industries for recovered plastic and paper, to substitute conventionally produced materials is determined. These three steps are then combined to quantitatively evaluate the (1) environmental impact, (2) operational costs and benefits, and (3) the potential of selected sanitation alternatives to close material cycles. A case study of the Citarum River was performed in which (monetized) benefits such as health, welfare and revenues from the sale of recovered resources were compared with the costs of different (conventional and resource recovery) sanitation systems. The study showed that the economic Benefit to Cost Ratio (BCR) of resource recovery technologies is bigger than BCR of conventional (low cost) technologies, while improving the water quality. It thus shows that resource recovery is a potential driver to accelerate sanitation development. The framework was illustrated using Indonesia as an example, but its application can benefit the quality of millions of lives worldwide.
Handbook for sorting of plastic packaging waste concentrates : separation efficiencies of common plastic packaging objects in widely used separaion machines at existing sorting facilities with mixed postconsumer plastic packaging waste as input
Jansen, M. ; Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Pretz, Th. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Reports of Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1604) - ISBN 9789462575295 - 30
recycling - packaging materials - plastics - waste management - waste treatment - sorting - sorters - verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalbeheer - afvalverwerking - sorteren - sorteermachines
Hergebruik van huishoudelijk kunststofverpakkingsafval is een ingewikkelde keten die in het algemeen uit drie stappen bestaat; gescheiden inzameling bij de burgers of nascheiding uit het huisvuil, sorteren en opwerken tot gewassen maalgoed. Dit onderzoek analyseert de tweede stap, waarin of gescheiden ingezameld kunststofverpakkingsafval of nagescheiden kunststofconcentraat wordt gesorteerd in materiaalfracties die verhandeld kunnen worden met recyclingbedrijven.
Nascheiden van verpakkingsglas uit gemengd huishoudelijk restafval : rapportage van een technische haalbaarheidsstudie
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - ISBN 9789462575301 - 29
recycling - afvalbeheer - scheiding - scheidingstechnologie - glas - haalbaarheidsstudies - afvalverwerking - waste management - separation - separation technology - glass - feasibility studies - waste treatment
Het recyclingpercentage voor verpakkingsglas is voor 2012 door Nedvang vastgesteld op 71% en voor 2013 op 79%, terwijl de Nederlandse overheid streeft naar een percentage van 90%. [Nedvang 2012 en Nedvang 2013] Ten einde dit percentage te verhogen, is Nedvang begonnen met een publiciteitscampagne “Glas in ‘t Bakkie” en heeft zij opdracht gegeven voor deze verkennende studie naar de mogelijkheden om glas uit huisvuil na te scheiden.
Aanvullende rapportage pilot drankenkartons. Terugslageffecten bij gecombineerde inzameling van kunststof en drankenkartons
Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Pretz, Th. ; Jansen, M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1471) - ISBN 9789461739902 - 43
afvalverwijdering - afvalbeheer - verpakkingsmaterialen - flessen - waste disposal - waste management - packaging materials - bottles
In de door Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research in opdracht van het Kennisinstituut Duurzaam Verpakken (KIDV) uitgevoerde Pilot Drankenkartons 2013 zijn verschillende mogelijke inzamelsystemen voor drankenkartons onderzocht, waaronder gecombineerd gescheiden inzameling van kunststofverpakkingen en drankenkartons1. Een potentieel negatief terugslageffect van de gecombineerde inzamelmethode zou een lagere sorteeropbrengst van de kunststoffen kunnen zijn. In dit aanvullend onderzoek worden de potentiële terugslageffecten van gecombineerd gescheiden inzameling van kunststof en drankenkartons verduidelijkt in termen van de hoeveelheid hergebruikt kunststof en de totale geschatte kosten. Deze aanvullende studie laat zien dat de uitvoeringswijze van de sortering bepaalt of wel of geen terugslageffect zal optreden.
Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa
Vliet, B.J.M. van; Buuren, J.C.L. van; Mgana, S. - \ 2014
London and New York : Routledge (Routledge studies in sustainable development ) - ISBN 9780415833776 - 176
volksgezondheidsbevordering - rioolwater - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - technologie - beleid - afvalbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - oost-afrika - sanitation - sewage - wastes - sustainability - sustainable development - technology - policy - waste management - urban areas - east africa
Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures of waste and sanitation systems and to ensure wider access, increase flexibility and ecological sustainability. It shows how the problem is not the current diversity in waste and sanitation infrastructures and services and variety of types and scales of technology, of formal and informal sector involvement, and of management and ownership modes. The book focuses instead on the lack of an integrative approach to managing and upgrading of the various waste and sanitation configurations and services so as to ensure wider access, flexibility and sustainability for the low income populations who happen to be the main stakeholders. This approach, coined "Modernized Mixtures", serves as a nexus throughout the book. The empirical core addresses the waste and sanitation challenges and debates at each scale - from the micro-level (households) to the macro-level (international support) - and is based on the results of a five-year-long interdisciplinary, empirical research program. It assesses the socio-technical diversity in waste and sanitation and provides viable solutions to sanitation and waste management in East Africa. This book provides students, researchers and professional in environmental technology, sociology, management and urban planning with an integrated analytical perspective on centralized and decentralized waste and sanitation configurations and tools for improvement in the technology, policy and management of sanitation and solid waste sectors.
Development of a mixed culture chain elongation process based on municipal solid waste and ethanol
Grootscholten, T.I.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Bert Hamelers. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737809 - 190
afvalbeheer - afvalverwerking - keukenafval - bio-energie - fermentatie - ethanol - waste management - waste treatment - kitchen waste - bioenergy - fermentation - ethanol
Keywords: mixed culture fermentation; Carboxylates; Caproate; Heptanoate; ethanol; OFMSW
To reduce dependence on oil, alternative fuel and chemical production processes are investigates. In this thesis, we investigated the production of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) using an anaerobic chain elongation process from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and (diluted) ethanol.By using OFMSW for the production of MCFAs, OFMSW can be valorised. Moreover, the food-fuel discussion can be avoided, as long as the ethanol is not produced from food resources. Investigations included studies about single stage and two-stage systems, methods to reduce impact of competitive processes within the desired mixed microbial culture and kinetic considerations. As result, the MCFA productivity was improved more than 100-fold compared to the productivity at the start of the investigations. Consequently, the potential of the mixed culture chain elongation process as alternative for anaerobic digestion has increased.
Scenarios study on post-consumer plastic packaging waste recycling
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. ; Groot, J.J. ; Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun ; Jansen, M. ; Luijsterburg, B. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1408) - 118
kunststoffen - afval - afvalbeheer - verpakkingsmaterialen - milieueffect - degradatie - recycling - plastics - wastes - waste management - packaging materials - environmental impact - degradation
We all use plastics on a daily basis. Plastics come in many shapes, sizes and compositions and are used in a wide variety of products. Almost all of the currently used plastic packaging are made from fossil resources, which are finite. The production of plastic packages causes environmental impacts, whereas the correct use of these packages will reduce product losses and hence reduce the much more negative environmental impacts associated with product losses. Wrongly discarded plastic objects have a negative impact on the environment, as these materials degrade only very slowly, creating problems such as the infamous ‘plastic islands’ in our oceans. Fortunately, recycling technologies are now emerging for plastic waste, enabling the reuse of these materials in a second life as a package or a utensil. Plastic packaging waste (PPW) is complex in many ways. First of all, there are many different types of plastics, all with their own characteristics and compositions. To enable the re-use of PPW, it has to be sorted into separate fractions. Each type of plastic can then be dealt with in an appropriate way. Second, the collection of PPW is also very complex. In the Netherlands there are many different PPW flows, from industry, offices and households for example. Each has its own collection system and household collection systems differ from one municipality to the next. To add to this complexity there is also the deposit refund system for large PET bottles, run by the soda producers via the supermarkets. Everybody deals with PPW on a daily basis. Most of us think recycling is a good idea. But when we want to decide what the best and most efficient method of recycling is, we are all impaired by a lack of data. A clear view of our best options is inhibited by the existing infrastructure and ‘the way it has always been done’. Also, the subject of recycling touches on our moral opinions about ‘doing the right thing’ and assumptions about the ‘correct’ way of dealing with our plastic waste. And politics also play a role. To unravel the complexity of plastic packaging waste recycling and figure out the best way(s) to improve our recycling system we need science. We need technological, economical, logistical and environmental data to gain insight into recycling systems. By describing the system in detail we can learn how to optimise it. An improved recycling system will provide us with an easier and more efficient re-use of our plastic waste.
Kunststofverpakkingsafval : van inzamelen naar spontaan hergebruik
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Groot, J.J. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 14
afvalbeheer - afvalhergebruik - kunststoffen - verpakkingen - verpakkingsmaterialen - kosten - waste management - waste utilization - plastics - wrappings - packaging materials - costs
Het hergebruikssysteem voor kunststofverpakkingsafval staat momenteel vol in de aandacht. Deze korte bijdrage aan het publieke debat beoogt geïnteresseerde lezers inzicht te geven in hoe het kunststofverpakkingsafval momenteel wordt ingezameld, hoeveel het kost en hoe het beter zou kunnen. Het uiteindelijke doel is kunststofhergebruik een wezenlijk onderdeel te laten worden van de in de toekomst noodzakelijk geachte hergebruikseconomie. Kostenneutraliteit is hierbij een belangrijk middel om dit te bereiken. De kunststofverpakkingsafvalketen moet echter nog bij alle ketenpartners worden verbeterd om kostenneutraliteit mogelijk te maken. Een gezamenlijke keten brede aanpak van alle partijen is hierbij noodzakelijk
Managing plastic waste in urban Kenya: niche innovations in production and recycling
Ombis, L.O. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Bas van Vliet. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733771 - 259
afvalbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - kenya - ontwikkelingslanden - oost-afrika - afrika - innovaties - waste management - urban areas - kenya - developing countries - east africa - africa - innovations
The problems with plastic waste in Kenyan cities are increasing to alarming levels. Especially disposable packaging made of very light plastic materials continues to burden the environment as well as compromise management capacities for waste by city authorities. In light of this, major cities of Kenya have in the last two decades registered participation of formal and informal private actors with strategies to curtail the flow of plastic waste to the environment. This study argues that such strategies can be referred to as ‘innovations’withthe potential totransform the plasticwaste scenario in Kenya and further foster an integrative regime between solid waste management and plastic production systems for plastic waste management. Strategic niche management and Multi-level perspective on socio-technical transitions that bases the success of an innovation on its actor networks, convergence of expectations and learning processes have been useful in the analysis of performance of the innovations. In-depth case studies on innovations in plastic waste management, plastic waste recycling and plastic prevention illustrate how and to what extent such innovations are able to transform the stultifying environmental condition and further become the foundation for developing an integrated regime for plastic waste management.
Public and private service provision of solid waste management in Kampala, Uganda
Katusiimeh, M.W. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732903 - 186
afvalbeheer - vaste afvalstoffen - afvalverwijdering - uganda - milieubeleid - overheidsdiensten - dienstensector - afrika - cost effective analysis - sociale economie - waste management - solid wastes - waste disposal - uganda - environmental policy - public services - services - africa - cost effectiveness analysis - socioeconomics
Following the largely unimpressive performance of the public sector in the provision of solid waste services in many cities of African countries, the search for alternative strategies for addressing this challenge became inevitable. One of the strategies is the involvement of the private sector in solid waste management. As of today, the contribution by the private sector to solid waste service provision is now a common phenomenon in most cities in developing countries. However, SWM cannot be easily left to be handled by the private sector alone because it has strong external effects and markets may not achieve socially acceptable levels of equity. Therefore, public intervention is necessary for example in form of regulation of the private sector. Public intervention has sometimes involved governments allocating huge sums of money for beautification of cities especially when major events are hosted in those cities with upgrading of waste management services given a special consideration. Even without government involvement, a proportion of people who make a living from activities in the informal sector have played a big role in solid waste management in many cities in the developing world.
Despite the active involvement of many actors in SWM and the policies and initiatives introduced and implemented in recent decades in East Africa, many urban centres are still facing major problems. Even where successes have been registered, the question is whether that success can be sustained for a long time. This study addresses the situation of household waste collection in Kampala. It is one of the key factors in ensuring the health and safety of the population. This study is part of the Partnerships for Research on Viable Environmental Infrastructure in East Africa (PROVIDE), towards sustainable waste water and solid waste infrastructures in East African cities. It contributes to the PROVIDE project by addressing issues of governance and management of solid waste in Kampala. The study’s contribution is a deeper understanding of the various actors in solid waste collection and the performance of the interventions and policies so far implemented in the solid waste management sector in Kampala. Specifically, the study compares the operations and assesses the effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection in Kampala; examines the effect of removal of communal containers popularly known as ‘skips’ in Kampala; examines how the informal sector co-exists with the formal sector in solid waste collection in Kampala and lastly examines the environmental legacies related to solid waste management from hosting the 2007 CHOGM event in Uganda.
Chapter two compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container provision and providing timely and fixed collection time tables. Contrary to popular perception, fees charged by private companies are moderate. Public sector clients are charged fees even when the service is supposed to be free. Clients of private sector providers are more satisfied than those of public sector providers. It is however, revealed that while public sector serve mainly the low incomes, the private sector serves mainly the rich. In spite of these notable differences, clients of both public and private sector perceive the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in Kampala to be very serious. The effectiveness of public and private sector operations in solid waste collection in Kampala is hampered by corruption and lack of transparency.
Chapter three examines the impact of the removal of communal containers (skips) in Kampala. From the analysis related to the choices made and the perceptions after most of the skips were removed, the major alternative to skips was the use of the commercial services, mainly private sector’s services. When asked to rate the skips system, the respondents in the surveys indicated a strong association of skips with lack of cleanliness. The lack of satisfaction with the skip system (and appreciation of the current system) was most notably recorded in high-income areas. On average the present system was much better evaluated. We found that the evaluation of skips is negatively affected by not only the income level of the neighbourhood but also the household income and education level. In addition, we found a weak positive effect of the current fees paid. The effects of income are strong enough to render the evaluation of the skips system equal, if not superior to the current system for the households with lower income and education and outside the rich areas. The removal of many of the skips not only induced the former skip-users to switch to commercial services, but also enabled many non-users of skips to avail of these services. The lowest benefits are derived from mere dumping and many households have chosen to abandon this practice in exchange for commercial solid waste collection services, typically much more expensive. Formerly many households paid people (informal workers) to take their waste to collection points, including the skips. These informal workers continued to do so, though some shifted to using commercial services especially (formal) private sector. The advent of the (formal) private sector thus led to a decrease of the demand for informal services. The evaluation by households of the waste disposal services before and after the removal of skips shows that richer households are clearly pleased with the removal, but that poorer households, particularly those with low levels of education do not feel better served than they were before.
Chapter four addresses the co-existence of formal and informal providers in solid waste collection in Kampala. Study findings show that the informal collectors distinguish themselves from the formal waste collectors by providing ‘first-line’ services only, taking garbage away from households, but not taking this all the way to the dumpsite. They avoid regulation more than large firms. As the opportunities for restricting themselves to this stage are typically enhanced by KCC that offers (free-access) container services, informal collectors can be seen as structurally linked to the formal public sector. And the informal providers provide a cheaper, but lower rated level of service, and more often (but certainly not exclusively) to poorer households. The fairly large market shares of informal collectors can be explained by their competitiveness vis-à-vis the formal private sector: their fees are substantially lower than private sector fees. The informal collectors can do so as they provide less packaging material, have little equipment, and do not carry waste far. In fact they exploit the lapse in enforcement of environmental regulation. Their continued role next to public service provision is explained by them filling a niche in taking garbage from the households to collection points, while earning incomes at par with alternative occupations.
Chapter five examines the environmental legacies of major events in cities of the developing world. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Kampala is taken as a case study. Although CHOGM was not a mega-event (in terms of infrastructure construction, masses of people attending, and intense global media coverage), for Uganda and Kampala it was a major event with international visibility. Hence, significant efforts were made by the Uganda and Kampala authorities to invest in the city in the road towards CHOGM 2007. Solid waste management was one of the main areas that received additional resources and faced institutional changes. This resulted in considerable improvements in solid waste management practices during CHOGM, as could be expected. As solid waste management often differs throughout metropolitan cities in developing countries and major events are not equally spread over these cities one can expect that environmental legacies are unequally distributed over the city. Following CHOGM, we found that there are no longer significant different perceptions in solid waste management between Central and Kawempe divisions. Central division and Kawempe division are perceived as equally clean (or equally dirty), suggesting that solid waste management innovations are gradually spreading across divisions. In a more fine-tuned comparison between citizens living close to places where the CHOGM events took place and locations more peripheral to CHOGM, the distinction in solid waste management started to fade somewhat during CHOGM, but there are signs of a reemerging distinction, indicating the erosion of leveling effects. However, this does not dispute the fact that, one year after CHOGM, solid waste management was perceived to be still significantly better than before CHOGM.
Generally, this research has shown the dynamics involved in the public and private provisioning of solid waste services. The reform initiatives introduced have had an impact on the general organization of SWM. What clearly comes out of this study are the challenges faced in public and private provisioning of solid waste services. It is also clear that certain policies like privatization if not well thought out could end up being not helpful to some sections of the population especially the marginalized ones. Finally, in agreement with the modernized mixtures approach, we can derive the conclusion that SWM initiatives and reforms are likely to have a positive impact if all actors and stakeholders are involved. The mixture of actors and strategies are required for solid waste management to improve for instance an appropriate mix of public and private service (formal and informal).
Analyse Nederlands statiegeldsysteem voor PET flessen : studie naar kosten, materiaalgebruik en energiegebruik van het Nederlandse statiegeldsysteem voor frisdrank- en waterflessen
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1316B) - ISBN 9789461732606 - 58
flessen - afvalhergebruik - afvalbeheer - afvalverwerking - kosten - energiegebruik - verpakkingsmaterialen - recycling - nederland - bottles - waste utilization - waste management - waste treatment - costs - energy consumption - packaging materials - netherlands
The Dutch deposit-refund system for large (>0.5 l) PET bottles has been analysed in terms of costs, material use and energy use. A process chain analysis has been conducted to quantify the costs, material usage and energy use of all process steps from the beverage industry to the RPET processor and all contributions that are uniquely linked to the deposit-refund system are revealed.
Value added: modes of sustainable recycling in the modernisation of waste management systems
Scheinberg, A. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730114 - 120
recycling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - afvalbeheer - vuilnis - vs - bulgarije - recycling - sustainability - waste management - refuse - usa - bulgaria
For many centuries urban waste management in Europe and Northern America consisted of private – to – private arrangements to remove waste from the city centre and so restrain the spread of cholera and other diseases, odour and nuisances. The agricultural and industrial value chains provided a destination and a motivation to extract and valorise rags, ashes, dust, excreta, metals, food scraps, and many other forms of secondary resources which had some value to someone. The business of recycling developed alongside of municipal waste management, and absorbed many discarded materials, but remained a separate sector with its own practices, institutions, and economic rationality. The management of solid waste management became primarily focused on dumping waste outside the city boundaries.
The ‘discovery’ of the relationship between open dumping and groundwater contamination in the 1960s set the stage for a round of modernisation of waste management practices and institutions in high-income countries. The widely recognised and celebrated result was the shift from open dumping and open burning of waste to the engineered “regional sanitary landfill” as a large technical facility that concentrates waste, isolates it from population centres, protects ground-water and thus allows for safe modern disposal of increasingly complex materials.
This proved to be a costly affair though, and triggered a process of ecological modernisation in solid waste management characterised by institutional and financial reforms, which elevated the cost of removal. Disposal became costly, and as cities expanded, land to dump became a scarce resource. This set the stage for incorporating valorisation into the modernised waste management landscape as an alternative to modernised disposal. The ecological modernisation process that took place in Northern Europe and North America in the 1980s and early 1990s changed the policies and practices of waste management in fundamental but seldom understood ways. Pricing of disposal in high-income countries represents a core financial reform which in turn stimulates local authorities to invest in their own recycling (composting, reuse) infrastructure as a lower-cost and environmentally attractive alternative. Municipal recycling emerges as a key modernised institution in the landscape of integrated waste management, where investment in recycling produces higher and higher recovery rates and a virtuous circle of more investment, more recovery, less waste, co-operation with the value chains which have been re-constituted as “recycling markets,” and lower system costs. In municipal recycling, the agricultural and industrial value chains function as alternative and lower-cost sinks, complementing the landfill and lowering costs for the whole waste management system.
In low- and middle-income countries, in contrast, the ecological modernisation of solid waste is problematic and incomplete, and ‘recycling’ becomes a key new area of global conflict. Priced disposal does not come about, either because of low levels of disposable income or unwillingness of elected officials to impose a burden on tax- and rate-payers, or because the motivation to modernise disposal comes from global institutions and is insufficiently embedded in genuinely local policymaking. Without it the system-internal benefits of diverting materials from disposal to valorisation are missing. Municipal recycling does not emerge, and the virtuous cycle of increasing recovery ambitions and performance is replaced by a vicious cycle of interrupted private value chain transactions, declining valorisation rates, and increasing volumes of materials requiring expensive disposal.
City authorities in low- and middle-income countries seeking to gain the financial benefits of selling materials compete with private (informal) waste pickers, recyclers, and livestock feeding operations, claim monopoly rights to materials, and criminalise value chain activities. But they are unable to organise effective valorisation themselves, as they lack knowledge and commercial channels to reach the value chains. The value chain actors are blamed for not buying materials, but also for exploiting poor workers in miserable working conditions. Valorisation businesses are unwilling to do business with municipalities who supply low-quality materials, so the value chain transactions fail, and both avoided costs of disposal and offsetting revenues from valorisation remain elusive.
Municipalities, waste system users, and the environment lose in this situation when local authorities are unable to pay landfill operating costs, and the expensive sanitary landfill infrastructure reverts to the status of a pre-modern dumpsite, which has to handle more and more waste. Agricultural and industrial value chains also suffer, because the thousands of individual and family enterprises in waste picking, recycling, and animal feeding are at risk to lose their livelihoods, or see reduced returns on their efforts due to monopoly behaviour, criminalisation, or harassment from the formal waste system actors. Mid-level value chain enterprises get fewer materials, and increasing volumes of potentially recoverable resources end up in the dump.
But there are already some examples of how changing the model can produce improved results. In a small number of cities in low- and middle-income countries, the ecological modernisation of the waste management system appears to be leading to the emergence of a new model for institutionalised valorisation, provisionally called inclusive recycling. Inclusive recycling is a model for public sector acceptance of private value chain activities of valorisation. It is a model of shared ownership, risks, and benefits, where each set of actors does what they are best at. While it builds upon the techniques for participatory planning and stakeholder engagement, as well as on technical innovations for separate collection, processing, and environmental education that characterised the development of municipal recycling in the 1980s in OECD countries, inclusive recycling does not rely on the institutional reform of priced disposal. Rather, it maintains the centre of gravity of valorisation activities in the industrial or agricultural value chains, where the knowledge and infrastructure exists to receive, process, and market materials. Instead of re-inventing recycling as a part of the municipal solid waste department’s responsibilities, inclusive recycling looks to intermediary institutions such as labour unions or recycling co-operatives to facilitate shared risks and responsibilities between local authorities and value chain actors.
Inclusive recycling can be seen in some of its emerging forms in Asia and Latin America, particularly in situations where there is a tradition of co-operation between civil society and local authorities, large numbers of waste pickers at the base of the value chain pyramid, and where the paper and metal value chains are long, healthy, and deeply rooted. In place of a single municipal recycling system, inclusive recycling is a mixed system where there are many different types of actors, economic niches, and business models. The results may be high levels of recovery and diversion from disposal, making it comparable to municipal recycling as a modernised institution. Like municipal recycling, inclusive recycling contributes to the pluralism of the modernised system, with a proliferation of actors, activities, and economic niches, which qualify it as what ecological modernization scholars have called a ‘modernised mixture’.
However, inclusive recycling is not municipal recycling, and in the absence of priced disposal, the risks for both local authorities and value chain actors remain high. Combining global knowledge with local control of ecological modernisation processes is one approach to keeping the risks limited and enlarging the space for the virtuous circle of inclusive recycling to take root and flourish.
Civil society in urban sanitation and solid waste management: The role of NGOs and CBOs in metropolises of East Africa
Tukahirwa, J. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730121 - 166
maatschappelijk middenveld - volksgezondheidsbevordering - afvalbeheer - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - stedelijke samenleving - bevolkingsgroepen met een laag inkomen - milieubeleid - steden - oost-afrika - uganda - civil society - sanitation - waste management - non-governmental organizations - community involvement - urban society - low income groups - environmental policy - towns - east africa - uganda
Urban sanitation and solid waste management are among the most significant factors that affect the poor in developing countries and contribute to their sustained poverty. It is the poorest people, particularly children, who suffer most from weak or non-existent services, through illness, distress and many early and preventable deaths. This intolerable state of affairs is caused by a combination of political, socio-economic, cultural, and technological aspects. In recent years, sanitation and solid waste management have received increasing attention as shown in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which aim at halving the proportion of the population without access to sustainable basic sanitation by 2015 and at achieving significant improvements in the lives of slum-dwellers by 2020 (MDG Goal 7). Today, with less than five and ten years to fulfill these targets,when compared to other developing continents, Africa is lagging behind and there is need for effective action to address this challenge.
This research is placed within this debate and tries to contribute to achieving the aim of universal access to sanitation and solid waste management services. The focus is on the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) in urban slums of East Africa because these organizations are considered key players in the provision of sanitary and solid waste disposal services in such areas and yet their work has not been critically assessed. Two main questions were addressed; (i) In what ways are NGOs/CBOs participating in the development and implementation of sanitation and solid waste management and what are the key factors influencing their participation? (ii) How and to what extent are the sanitation and solid waste management activities of NGOs/CBOs sustainable; accessible to the poor; and flexible and resilient under changing socio-political, institutional and economic conditions? The conceptual framework developed for answering these research questions was based on the Modernized Mixtures Approach and several other theories (such as partnership paradigm, social network theory and institutional pluralism) that serve to explain key factors influencing the role of NGOs/CBOs in such activities.
The research confirmed that NGOs/CBOs are fully involved in the provision of the two services and the idea of environmental partnership is widely shared and supported. Empirical evidence gathered showed a modernized mixture model emerging, where the conventional advocates of large-scale, privatized, and high-technological sanitation and solid waste services partner with NGOs/CBOs. This research also found that access to sanitation and solid waste services is driven by both NGOs/CBOs and the urban poor in collaboration. Social proximity is important, next to the conventional factors of spatial proximity, socio-economic characteristics and perception of the perceived competence of NGOs/CBOs. User acceptance of innovative technologies was found to be a key factor when trying to improve sanitary facilities for the urban poor.
Keywords: Sanitation, Solid Waste Management, East Africa, NGOs, CBOs, Modernized Mixtures Approach
Modernising solid waste management at municipal level : institutional arrangements in urban centres of East Africa
Majale, C. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461730060 - 178
afvalbeheer - vaste afvalstoffen - gemeenten - milieubeleid - huisvuilverwijdering - oost-afrika - waste management - solid wastes - municipalities - environmental policy - municipal refuse disposal - east africa
The task of municipal problem solving has become a team sport that has spilled beyond the borders of government agencies and now engages a far more extensive network of social actors - public as well as private, non-profit and profit. Solid waste management is one of the key tasks associated with municipal authorities. It is of particular interest because of its flexibility compared to other services at the municipal level. This means the number of options for addressing solid waste management at municipal level are considered many.
The Lake Victoria Basin allows a comparison of institutions and practices in the different urban centres that are found in the basin. The ultimate aim has been to advance plausible options for institutional arrangement to improve solid waste management at the benefit of the urban poor in the Lake Basin in East Africa.
This dissertation is the result of five years of research work done under the PROVIDE project (working on sustainable urban infrastructures in cities of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa) with funding from INREF.
The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities
Solomon, A.O. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789461730411 - 213
afvalbeheer - huishoudens - afvalverwerking - vaste afvalstoffen - steden - oost-afrika - waste management - households - waste treatment - solid wastes - towns - east africa
Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffective or not in place at all. Moreover, unsafe disposal of waste in the region is coupled with poor hygiene. There is no doubt that East African capital cities need to formulate effective ways to manage their waste.
This book is a result of PhD research within the framework of the PROVIDE project funded by INREF and carried out in East African capital cities (Dar es Salaam, Nairobi and Kampala). The work was carried out at the Environmental Policy (ENP) group with professor Gert Spaargaren and Dr. Peter Oosterveer as promotor and co-promotor. The focus of the research was to highlight the role of households in the production and management of domestic solid wastes.
Cradle 2 cradle - 3 stappen terug, 1 vooruit
Bos, H.L. ; Rabbinge, R. - \ 2010
Milieu dossier 2010 (2010)2. - p. 17 - 20.
recycling - afvalbeheer - milieubeheer - industrieel afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheid (durability) - inventarisaties - cradle to cradle - waste management - environmental management - industrial wastes - sustainability - durability - inventories
Het boek en de ontwerpfilosofie Cradle to Cradle van de Amerikaan William McDonough en de Duitser Michael Braungart mogen zich verheugen in een zeer brede belangstelling. Steden proberen nieuwe wijken volgens het C2C-concept te bouwen, de rijksoverheid vraagt zich af hoe C2C in het beleid kan worden ingepast en de beide auteurs krijgen van diverse universiteiten eredoctoraten aangeboden. Maar wat is de 'Van wieg tot wieg' filosofie nu eigenlijk precies? En wat kan het betekenen in het kader van een ontwikkeling naar een meer duurzame samenleving?
Solid Waste management in the World's Cities
Scheinberg, A. ; Wilson, D.C. ; Rodic-Wiersma, L. - \ 2010
London : UN Habitat - Earthscan (Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities ) - ISBN 9789211322187 - 256
afvalbeheer - afvalverwerking - vaste afvalstoffen - vuilnis - azië - steden - recycling - waste management - waste treatment - solid wastes - refuse - asia - towns - recycling
Afval uit de landbouw
Bondt, N. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Smet, A. de - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-nota 10-061) - 22
landbouw - tuinbouw - oogstresten - afvalbeheer - organisch afval - agrarische afvalstoffen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plantenresten - afvalverwerking - modellen - overzichten - agriculture - horticulture - crop residues - waste management - organic wastes - agricultural wastes - sustainability - plant residues - waste treatment - models - reviews
In dit onderzoek zijn voor verschillende sectoren afvalstromen in beeld gebracht: akkerbouw, vollegrondsgroenten, bloembollen, boomkwekerij, fruittteelt, paddestoelen, glastuinbouw en agrarisch natuurbeheer. Dit onderzoek richt zich op afvalstromen gerelateerd aan de organische teelt. Niet alle afvalstromen zijn in het model opgenomen zoals gevaarlijk afval of afvalstromen die ontstaan als gevolg van incidentele omstandigheden en dierlijke mest.