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Frenzied attacks. A micro-sociological analysis of the emotional dynamics of extreme youth violence
Weenink, D. - \ 2014
British Journal of Sociology 65 (2014)3. - ISSN 0007-1315 - p. 411 - 433.
criminal violence - 3rd parties - aggression - masculinity - management - night - bars
Inspired by phenomenological and interactionist studies of youth violence, this article offers an empirical evaluation of Collins's micro-sociological theory of violence. The main question is whether situations of extreme violence have distinct situational dynamics. Based on analyses of 159 interactions taken from judicial case files, situations of extreme youth violence, here called frenzied attacks, were identified on the basis of the state of encapsulation of the attackers (absorbed in the violence, their sole focus is the destruction of the victim) and the disproportionateness of the violence (the attackers continue to hurt the victims even though they do not pose a threat or a challenge to them). Qualitative and statistical analyses revealed that this emotional state results from a social figuration in which the emotional balance shifts toward complete dominance of the attackers. Thus, the occurrence of frenzied attacks is associated with the moment victims hit the ground, paralyse and start to apologize, with the numerical dominance of the attackers' supportive group and with feelings of group membership, in the form of solidarity excitement and family ties in the attackers' group. Alcohol intoxication is of influence as well, but contrary to the expectation, this effect was independent from solidarity excitement. The article concludes that Collins's theory on the emotional dynamics of violence adds a new dimension to the phenomenological and interactionist traditions of research.
Emotions in Advice Taking: The Roles of Agency and Valence
Hooge, I.E. de; Verlegh, P.W.J. ; Tzioti, S.C. - \ 2014
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 27 (2014)3. - ISSN 0894-3257 - p. 246 - 258.
decision-making - expert advice - cognitive appraisals - improving judgment - moral emotions - anger - information - consumption - behavior - aggression
Recently, advice taking has received attention in decision-making research, and some studies suggest that emotions may play a role in this process. Yet a clear account of how emotions influence advice taking is lacking. The current research introduces a parsimonious explanation by suggesting that such effects can be predicted on the basis of two emotion dimensions: valence (positivity or negativity) and agency (self-focused versus other-focused). In five experiments with different emotion inductions and different measures for advice taking, the effects of positive emotions such as gratitude and pride and of negative emotions such as anger and shame on advice taking were studied. The findings reveal that emotion valence and agency exert an influence on advice taking and that this interaction effect is mediated by the perceived ability of the advisor. Together, these findings provide a unique theoretical and empirical contribution to our understanding of emotions in advice taking.
Serotonin release in the caudal nidopallium of adult laying hens genetically selected for high and low feather pecking behavior: An in vivo microdialysis study
Kops, M.S. ; Kjaer, J.B. ; Güntürkün, O. ; Westphal, K.C.G. ; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H. ; Olivier, B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Korte, S.M. - \ 2014
Behavioural Brain Research 268 (2014). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 81 - 87.
pigeon columba-livia - gallus-gallus-domesticus - dopaminergic innervation - 5-ht1a receptor - rat-brain - efferent connections - avian telencephalon - aggression - forebrain - chick
Severe feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behavior causing welfare problems in laying hens. Divergent genetic selection for FP in White Leghorns resulted in strong differences in FP incidences between lines. More recently, it was shown that the high FP (HFP) birds have increased locomotor activity as compared to hens of the low FP (LFP) line, but whether these lines differ in central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) release is unknown. We compared baseline release levels of central 5-HT, and the metabolite 5-HIAA in the limbic and prefrontal subcomponents of the caudal nidopallium by in vivo microdialysis in adult HFP and LFP laying hens from the ninth generation of selection. A single subcutaneous d-fenfluramine injection (0.5 mg/kg) was given to release neuronal serotonin in order to investigate presynaptic storage capacity. The present study shows that HFP hens had higher baseline levels of 5-HT in the caudal nidopallium as compared to LFP laying hens. Remarkably, no differences in plasma tryptophan levels (precursor of 5-HT) between the lines were observed. d-fenfluramine increased 5-HT levels in both lines similarly indirectly suggesting that presynaptic storage capacity was the same. The present study shows that HFP hens release more 5-HT under baseline conditions in the caudal nidopallium as compared to the LFP birds. This suggests that HFP hens are characterized by a higher tonic 5-HT release.
Stress in African catfish (clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation
Manuel, R. ; Boerrigter, J. ; Roques, J. ; Heul, J.W. van der; Bos, R. van den; Flik, G. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2014
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 40 (2014)1. - ISSN 0920-1742 - p. 33 - 44.
oncorhynchus-mykiss walbaum - carp cyprinus-carpio - common carp - animal-welfare - rainbow-trout - responses - fish - l. - temperature - aggression
Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.
Contextualized Personality Questionnaires: A Case for Copulas in Structural Equation Models for Categorical Data
Braeken, J. ; Kuppens, P. ; Boeck, P. De; Tuerlinckx, F. - \ 2013
Multivariate Behav. Res. 48 (2013)6. - ISSN 0027-3171 - p. 845 - 870.
multitrait-multimethod data - item factor-analysis - multivariate data - distributions - aggression - situations - behavior - anger
For structural equation models (SEMs) with categorical data, correlated measurement residuals are not easily implemented. The problem lies mainly in the absence of a categorical analogue to the multivariate normal distribution and the absence of closed form formulas in SEMs for categorical data. We present a novel technique to handle measurement residuals that keeps the attractive SEM mainframe intact yet adds flexibility in dependence modeling without excessive computational burden. The technique is based upon the concept of copula functions and is introduced with a data set of ordinal responses originating from a contextualized personality study on aggression. Focus is on models arising in a multitrait-multimethod context, where the flexibility in dependence structures allows for method effects that can vary across the latent trait dimension. The empirical application illustrates that ignoring design-implied correlated measurement residuals can potentially influence study results and conclusions in both a quantitative as well as a qualitative way. Model parameter estimates can be biased, but more important, model inferences can be heavily distorted.
The pig's nose and its role in dominance relationships and harmful behaviour
Camerlink, I. ; Turner, S.P. - \ 2013
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 145 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 84 - 91.
seminatural environment - social recognition - familiarity - aggression - emotions - primates - welfare - odors - swine - touch
Affiliative behaviour may have an essential role in many behavioural processes. Gently nosing between group members occurs in almost all social behavioural processes of pigs (Sus scrofa), but the reasons for its performance are unclear. We examined whether nosing between pigs was related to dominance relationships or harmful behaviours such as manipulation of the tail using 80 crossbred pigs. Both males and females, housed in straw pens, were studied at 8 weeks of age (10 pigs/pen). Dominance ranks were determined by a feed competition test. The behaviour of 64 focal pigs was observed for 2 h per pig in total. Pigs nosed their pen mates on average 36 ± 3 times within 2 h, and nosing behaviour mainly consisted of nose-to-nose contact, nosing the head and nosing the body, rather than nosing the ear, groin, tail or ano-genital region. These gentle pig-directed nosing behaviours, i.e. gently touching another individual with the snout, was here defined as social nosing. Dominance relationships did not influence the amount of nosing given or received. Social nosing was largely unrelated to harmful behaviour. Nosing the tail correlated with tail biting (rs = 0.37), but only 0.3 percent of social nosing was followed by this behaviour. Pigs which delivered much nosing did not receive less aggression, and nor did they receive a heightened amount of nosing in return. We suggest that pigs may nose each other for social recognition, as affiliative behaviour, to gain olfactory signals, or to satisfy an intrinsic need to nose. In conclusion, social nosing in pigs was largely unrelated to harmful behaviours, was not related to dominance relationships and should remain largely unaffected by efforts to minimise harmful behaviours in farming systems
De inzet van kruiden om agressie bij mannelijke ongecastreerde varkens te verminderen
Asseldonk, A.G.M. van - \ 2012
Beek-Ubbergen : Institute for Ethnobotany and Zoopharmacognosy (IEZ) (Report IEZ 20120801) - 10 p.
varkenshouderij - biologische landbouw - antibiotica - varkens - beren (varkens) - agressie - diergedrag - libido - geneeskrachtige kruiden - vitex - humulus - pig farming - organic farming - antibiotics - pigs - boars - aggression - animal behaviour - herbal drugs
Vanuit het project antibioticavermindering in de biologische varkenshouderij is aan het Institute for Ethnobotany and Zoopharmacognosy (IEZ) de vraag gesteld of kruiden kunnen helpen om de agressie bij ongecastreerde mannelijke varkens (beren) te verminderen.
Roofwantsen in roos, Thema: Doorontwikkelen duurzame gewasbescherming BO-12.03-003.01-002.04
Pijnakker, J. - \ 2011
rozen - gewasbescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plaagbestrijding met natuurlijke vijanden - agressie - predatie - capaciteit - roses - plant protection - sustainability - augmentation - aggression - predation - capacity
Informatieposter over roofwantsen in roos (Thema: doorontwikkelen duurzame gewasbescherming). Bij biologische bestrijding in roos werken telers momenteel voornamelijk met roofmijten die diverse mijten en kleine insectenlarven eten. Ze zijn geschikt voor het bestrijden van spint, maar schieten tekort tegen trips en witte vlieg. De telers vragen om ‘agressievere’ natuurlijke vijanden (predatoren) tegen deze plaaginsecten
Coping strategies in farmed African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Does it affect their welfare?
Nieuwegiessen, P.G. van de; Ramli, N.L. ; Knegtel, R.M.A. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2010
Journal of Fish Biology 76 (2010)10. - ISSN 0022-1112 - p. 2486 - 2501.
individual-differences - behavioral syndromes - burchell - personalities - environment - aggression - responses - juveniles - density - styles
The objective of this study was to assess whether and how coping strategies affect the welfare of African catfish Clarias gariepinus housed at low and high densities. Group composition influenced feed intake; re-active groups (comprised of 100% re-active fish) had a lower specific growth rate (G) and feed intake and a higher feed conversion ratio (RFC) than pro-active groups. Furthermore, re-active groups had a lower energy retention than pro-active groups. The latter was fully due to differences in feed intake, since energy partitioning (on % total gross energy intake basis) was similar among the group composition treatments. Fish held at high stocking density showed a higher RFC and feeding speed and a lower energy retention and agonistic behaviour. None of the measured variables was influenced by the interaction effect. In mixed groups, G and number of skin lesions seemed to be affected by different behavioural phenotypes at low stocking density, but not at high density. These results indicate that both stocking density and group composition affect physical and behavioural responses of C. gariepinus. Furthermore, physical and behavioural data of individual fish housed in mixed groups suggest that coping strategy affects the fitness of different behavioural phenotypes at low, but not at high, stocking density
Effects of Butafosfan on salivary cortisol and behavioral response to social stress in piglets
Staay, F.J. van der; Groot, J. de; Reenen, C.G. van; Hoving, A.H. ; Schuurman, T. ; Schmidt, B.H. - \ 2007
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30 (2007)5. - ISSN 0140-7783 - p. 410 - 416.
growing pigs - unacquainted pigs - plasma-cortisol - aggression - familiarity - metabolism - welfare - weight - calves - gilts
We assessed the efficacy of Butafosfan, a component of Catosal®, in the metaphylactic treatment of stress in pigs. Four 6-week-old female littermates were taken from 12 litters. They were confronted with a pig from a different litter for 2 h. There were 24 pairs, each consisting of confronting two unfamiliar pigs in a new pen. This housing of unfamiliar pigs provides a good, but simple, model of the psychosocial stress that pigs experience when housed in large groups on pig farms. Immediately before being housed with an unfamiliar pig, 12 pairs of pigs were injected subcutaneously with Catosal® at a dose equivalent to 20 mg Butafosfan per kg body weight; the other 12 pairs received the control solution containing all ingredients of Catosal® except Butafosfan. The frequency and duration of aggressive behavior and the salivary cortisol response were measured during the first 2 h of the encounter. No adverse effects associated with Catosal® were observed. Subcutaneous injection of Catosal® reduced the stress-induced salivary cortisol response and the frequency of aggressive behavior evoked by the social stress of housing two unfamiliar pigs together.
Announcing the arrival of enrichment increases play behaviour and reduces weaning-stress-induced behaviours of piglets directly after weaning
Dudink, S. ; Simonse, H. ; Marks, I. ; Jonge, F.H. de; Spruijt, B.M. - \ 2006
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 101 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 86 - 101.
biologische landbouw - varkens - spenen - spel - agressie - groei - stress - omgevingsverrijking - organic farming - pigs - weaning - play - aggression - growth - stress - environmental enrichment - early-weaned piglets - anticipatory behavior - agonistic behavior - animal-welfare - domestic pigs - performance - dopamine - reward - productivity
Piglets have difficulties with the abrupt changes at weaning associated with conventional pig production systems. Previously, it has been shown in rats that reward and announcement of reward counteracts impact of stress effects. In the present study, it was investigated if announcement of an environmental enrichment, more than enrichment alone, could facilitate play behaviour and reduce weaning-stress-induced behaviours such as increased aggression with subsequent increased injuries and increased social manipulative behaviours (i.e., tail biting, belly nosing, mounting). Twenty-four litters of conventional housed fattening piglets were kept under three different experimental conditions: sound cue (conditioned stimulus, CS) paired with an environmental enrichment (unconditioned stimulus, US) with a maximum delay between the CS and US of 30 s (CS-US paired) in which anticipatory behaviour develops; cue-environmental enrichment unpaired (CS-US unpaired) and no cue and no environmental enrichment (No CS-US). At two weeks of age the so-called,anticipation procedure' started and ended two days after weaning. Growth, play, aggressive, social manipulative, eating and inactive behaviour, and injury rates were measured before and after weaning. Results of this study indicated that announcement of enrichment and not enrichment alone significantly increased play behaviour after weaning. In addition, announcement of enrichment and to a lesser extent enrichment alone decreased aggression before and after weaning and subsequent amount of injuries after weaning. The most important finding of this study is that the effects of an expected enrichment are more pronounced than the effects of enrichment alone. It is therefore suggested that announcing enrichment has an additional effect on the impact of enrichment alone and can be used as a new tool to reduce weaning stress in piglets.
Effects of supplemental L-tryptophan on serotonin, cortisol, intestinal integrity, and behavior in weanling piglets
Koopmans, S.J. ; Guzik, A.C. ; Meulen, J. van der; Dekker, R.A. ; Kogut, J. ; Kerr, B.J. ; Southern, L.L. - \ 2006
Journal of Animal Science 84 (2006). - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 963 - 971.
dietary tryptophan - salivary cortisol - amino-acids - growth-performance - laying hens - young-pigs - plasma - protein - aggression - decreases
Stress occurs in intensive pig farming when piglets are weaned and mixed. In this study, we investigated whether this stress might be reduced with elevated dietary levels of Trp. The effects of supplemental dietary Trp (5 g/kg of feed, as-fed basis) were tested on the neuroendocrine system, intestinal integrity, behavior, and growth performance in nursery pigs, both before and after mixing. Mixing occurred 5 d after weaning and diet introduction. On d 4, 5, and 6, Trp-fed pigs vs. control pigs showed approximately a 2-fold elevation in plasma Trp concentrations (68 ± 7 vs. 32 ± 2 µmol/L; P <0.001), a 38% increase in hypothalamic serotonin turnover as measured by 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid:5-hydroxytryptamine (P <0.001), and an 11 to 18% increase (P <0.05) in the intestinal villus height:crypt depth. Before (d 4) and at (d 5) mixing, saliva but not plasma cortisol concentrations were reduced (P <0.02) by approximately 2-fold in Trp-fed pigs vs. control pigs. Intestinal paracellular (horseradish peroxidase) and transcellular (fluorescein isothiocyanate) transport of macromolecules were not affected by dietary treatment, but mixing induced a 2-fold reduction (P <0.05) in transcellular transport. Behavioral responses (lying and standing) at mixing were not affected by dietary treatment, except on d 10 after diet introduction when Trp supplementation induced more lying and less standing (P <0.02). Average daily gain and ADFI were not different among dietary groups (P > 0.10). In conclusion, supplemental dietary Trp (5 g/kg) to piglets increased hypothalamic serotonergic activity, reduced the salivary cortisol response to mixing, improved intestinal morphology, and reduced physical activity 10 d after diet introduction. Consequently, diets containing high Trp levels improved neuroendocrine components of stress and increased gastrointestinal robustness but did not affect behavioral reactivity in nursery pigs during weaning and mixing.
Prediction of cannibalism in juvenile Oreochromis niloticus based on predator to prey weight ratio, and effects of age and stocking density
Fessehaye, Y. ; Kabirb, A. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Komen, J. - \ 2006
Aquaculture 255 (2006)1-4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 314 - 322.
clarias-gariepinus - size - fish - larvae - availability - recognition - populations - aggression - avoidance - walleyes
Factors influencing size-dependent cannibalism in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were investigated in controlled conditions. First, individual-based trials were conducted to develop a linear regression model to predict the occurrence of cannibalism based on body measurements. Oral gape (G, mm), body depth (D, mm) and weight (W, g) of 140 fish were measured and we estimated maximum prey weight (Wprey) for a given predator weight (Wpredator): Log10Wprey = 1.03Log10Wpredator - 1.13. This model was verified by conducting 76 single pair trials. The revised model based on observed cannibalism is: Log10Wprey = Log10Wpredator - 1.17. Several experiments involving a group of prey and predators were conducted to elucidate the relative importance of factors that influence cannibalism. Cannibalism was significantly affected by stocking density, age of fish and predator/prey weight ratio. Logit models of mortality data of both the individual-based and observations based on a group of predators and prey estimated R50 (the predator/prey weight ratio at which an encounter of a predator and prey resulted in a predation success of 50%) to be 14.6 and 14.8, respectively. The results of these experiments can be used to reduce fry losses due to cannibalism
The effect of stocking density, flock size and modified management on laying hen behaviour and welfare in a non-cage system
Zimmerman, P.H. ; Lindberg, A.C. ; Pope, S.J. ; Glen, E. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Nicol, C.J. - \ 2006
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 101 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 111 - 124.
feather pecking - alternative systems - commercial farms - domestic-fowl - risk-factors - aggression - prevalence - associations - cannibalism - priorities
The current large-scale experiment aimed to study laying hen behaviour under commercial stocking densities, flock sizes and management practices using a replicated design. Thirty-six flocks of beak-trimmed Shaver laying hens (113,400 birds in total), six flocks per treatment, were housed within commercial single-tier aviary systems. The six treatments comprised different combinations of stocking densities (low: 7 birds m¿2, medium: 9 birds m¿2, high: 12 birds m¿2), flock sizes (small: 2450/3150 birds, large: 4200 birds) and management conditions (standard and modified). Bird behaviour (incidence of feather pecking, aggression, preening, dustbathing and allopreening) was recorded directly by an observer when birds were approximately 32, 48 and 60 weeks of age. The initial level of feather pecking and aggression was highest in the low stocking density. Feather pecking and aggression increased with age but only in the high stocking density treatments. In the high stocking density treatments more aggression, preening and allopreening were recorded in small flocks than in large flocks and especially the small flocks under standard management conditions showed higher levels of feather pecking and aggression by the end of the laying cycle. This effect of small, high density flocks on feather pecking and aggression was counteracted by modified management conditions. Behavioural observations in this study did not show that the welfare of laying hens was compromised by housing them at 12 birds m¿2, in comparison with birds housed at 9 or 7 birds m¿2 in single-tier aviary system. However, modifications in management decreased feather pecking and aggression
Changes in body mass and hormone levels between wintering and spring staging areas in dark-bellied brent geese Branta bernicla bernicla
Poisbleau, M. ; Fritz, H. ; Lambrechts, M.M. ; Trouvé, C. ; Ebbinge, B.S. - \ 2006
Journal of Avian Biology 37 (2006)2. - ISSN 0908-8857 - p. 143 - 148.
challenge hypothesis - thyroid-hormone - social inertia - annual cycle - anser-anser - testosterone - reproduction - reserves - aggression - endocrine
We document seasonal changes in body mass and plasma hormone levels (testosterone and triiodothyronine) between winter and spring quarters in dark-bellied brent geese Branta bernicla bernicla. Body mass increased between winter and spring, whereas body size was the same for the birds sampled in winter and those in spring. Adults and males were larger and heavier than juveniles and females. Plasma testosterone levels did not differ significantly between winter and spring, and did not vary with sex, age and morphometry. Plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels were significantly higher in spring than in winter, and were higher for males than for females. However, T3 levels did not vary significantly with age and body measurements. To explain the findings, we discuss potential impacts of social dominance
Agressie bij vleeskuikenvaderdieren: literatuuronderzoek naar achterliggende oorzaken en probleeminventarisatie in de praktijk.
Riedstra, B. ; Jong, I.C. de - \ 2004
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group ASG03/0028154) - 60
vleeskuikens - pluimvee - pluimveehouderij - agressief gedrag - diergedrag - agressie - kippen - paringsgedrag - vleeskuikenouderdieren - broilers - poultry - poultry farming - aggressive behaviour - animal behaviour - aggression - fowls - mating behaviour - broiler breeders
In dit rapport wordt de problematiek rond veer- en huidbeschadigingen en uitval bij vleeskuikenmoederdieren in relatie tot agressie van vleeskuikenvaderdieren in kaart gebracht, met als uitgangspunt een volledige naleving van het Ingrepenbesluit
Effect of response to backtest and housing condition on cell-mediated and humoral immunity in adult pigs
Geverink, N.A. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Schouten, W.G.P. ; Gort, G. ; Wiegant, V.M. - \ 2004
Physiology and Behavior 80 (2004)4. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 541 - 546.
individual-differences - coping characteristics - manual restraint - breeding gilts - laying hens - cortisol - stress - behavior - strategies - aggression
Several recent studies in juvenile pigs demonstrated a relationship between the degree of resistance displayed early in life in a so-called "backtest" and parameters of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Some of the immune characteristics were reported to depend on the interaction between backtest classification and housing system. In the present study, the effects of backtest classification and housing condition on immune reactivity in adult gilts were examined. At 10 and 17 days of age, female piglets were subjected to the backtest. In this test, each piglet is restrained on its back for 1 min and the number of escape attempts is scored. Pigs classified as high resisting (HR) or low resisting (LR) were selected and housed in groups of six gilts. At 7 months of age, half of the gilts were housed in individual stalls. At 12 months of age, gilts were challenged by immunization with DNP-KLH. Control gilts were treated similarly with a placebo. Blood samples were drawn prior to immunization (Day 0) and weekly thereafter until Day 28. No significant effects of backtest type on cellular and Immoral responses against KLH were found. Furthermore, being housed in stalls as compared to groups had no consequences for the immune response and did not induce differences between HR and LR gilts. Differences in behavior and physiology found previously between HR and LR gilts, particularly in gilts in stall housing, may thus be of relatively little importance for immune-related health. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Conflict en ontwikkeling: een dubbelzinnige relatie
Frerks, G.E. - \ 2002
LOVA : tijdschrift voor feministische antropologie 23 (2002)1. - ISSN 1388-4840
ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingsstudies - conflict - agressie - veiligheid - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - vrede - development aid - development studies - aggression - safety - developing countries - development cooperation - peace
Ontwikkelingssamenwerking kan ook tot conflicten leiden. Joke Schrijvers, hoogleraar ontwikkelingsstudies, heeft de systematische reflectie over het verband tussen geweld en ontwikkeling tot een centraal punt in haar wetenschappelijk werk gemaakt
|Anthropology, Development and Modernities: Exploring discourses, counter tendencies and violence
Long, N. ; Arce, A. - \ 2000
London [etc.] : Routledge - ISBN 9780415204996 - 232
antropologie - etnografie - plattelandsontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - sociale verandering - agressie - sociaal beleid - economisch beleid - ontwikkelingslanden - anthropology - ethnography - rural development - economic development - social change - aggression - social policy - economic policy - developing countries
This collection uses anthropological perspectives to explore the diverse interpretations of modernity and development in today's world. For some, modernity and development has brought prosperity, optimism and opportunity, but for others it has brought poverty and a falling quality of life. This book provides a crucial review of the varied interpretations of development and modernity, supported by rigorous case studies from Guatemala, Sri Lanka, West Africa and contemporary Europe. Together, the chapters in this volume demonstrate the crucial importance of looking to ethnography for guidance in shaping development politics.
|Meer beschadegingen bij lichtschema:lichtschema versus continu licht
Veldkamp, T. ; Kiezebrink, M.C. - \ 1998
De Pluimveehouderij 28 (1998)22. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 20 - 21.
lichtregiem - diergeneeskunde - kalkoenen - sociaal gedrag - communicatie tussen dieren - agressie - agressief gedrag - light regime - veterinary science - turkeys - social behaviour - communication between animals - aggression - aggressive behaviour
Resultaten van onderzoek naar het effect van het 'verrijken' van de leefomgeving bij onbehandelde hanen en hennen