Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Mestbeleid voor de boeren van de toekomst
    Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2020
    Lelystad : Boerderij van de Toekomst
    circular agriculture - manures - livestock farming - agricultural policy - nutrient management
    Circulaire uitdagingen : Aanvullende aandachtspunten voor beleid in tijden van kringlooplandbouw
    Dagevos, H. ; Beekman, G. ; Haas, W. de; Lauwere, C.C. de - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research - 12 p.
    circular agriculture - administration - policy - legislation - food policy - agricultural policy - Netherlands - politics
    The relationship between Europeanisation and policy styles: a study of agricultural and public health policymaking in three EU Member States
    Candel, Jeroen ; Parsons, Kelly ; Barling, David ; Loudiyi, Salma - \ 2020
    Journal of European Public Policy (2020). - ISSN 1350-1763
    Adaptation pressure - agricultural policy - Europeanisation - food policy - policy regimes - policy styles

    The role of policy styles in policymaking has attracted renewed scholarly interest in recent years. One of the central debates in this literature revolves around the question of how to reconcile archetype national policy styles with considerable differences in modus operandi across policy sectors. A sector-specific feature that is considered a key determinant of the manifestation of archetype national policy styles in the European Union is the degree of Europeanisation of policy sectors. This paper picks up this suggestion by addressing the question of whether and how Europeanisation affects the degree to which features of an archetype national policy style are manifest within a sector. We address this question by exploring sectoral policy styles in agricultural and food-related public health policymaking across three EU Member States: The Netherlands, the United Kingdom (England), and France. Our findings suggest that the degree of Europeanisation of a policy sector does prove an important condition that helps to understand the relationship between national and sectoral policy styles. More specifically, Europeanisation has the strongest effect when sectors face a higher adaptation pressure, i.e., when there is a larger misfit between sectoral regimes and EU-induced institutional demands. We suggest various promising avenues of future research on this relationship.

    The emergence and evolution of master terms in the public debate about livestock farming: Semantic fields, communication strategies and policy practices
    Stevens, T.M. ; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. - \ 2019
    Discourse, Context & Media 31 (2019). - ISSN 2211-6958
    master term - master frame - social media - hashtag - framing - agricultural policy
    In the new public space shaped by short, fast, and networked interactions on social media, single keywords, often used in combination with a hashtag, have become important framing devices that structure conversations and communities. This study provides insight into how keywords become dominant framing devices. We conduct a longitudinal comparative case study on the emergence and evolution of two dominant keywords in the Dutch livestock debate: plofkip (booster-broiler) and megastal (mega-stable). Based on an analysis of social media messages, news articles, and policy debates and documents, we study the role of keywords in semantic fields, communication strategies, and policy practices. We present four dynamics that help to understand how keywords become ‘master terms’: (1) loaded keywords for contested politicized objects can become powerful framing devices because they carry normative meaning and yet are open enough to be applied widely; (2) if activists explicitly and consistently relate the meaning of a loaded term to realities and responsibilities in the sector, the term becomes the signifier of an activist frame; (3) counter terms and frames increase attention, broaden the involvement of actors and deepen the conversation to a value-based debate, through which keywords become master terms; (4) master terms shape policy practices, which in turn reinforces the affordance of the terms in the conversation. We propose the concept of ‘master term’ as a keyword that not only reflects, but activates and establishes a master frame around which conversations and practices revolve.
    Composite indicators and sustainable development of regional agriculture applied to the Stavropol Territory in Russia
    Chaplitskaya, Anastasia ; Heijman, W.J.M. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 2017
    APSTRACT: Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce 11 (2017)3-4. - ISSN 1789-221X - p. 81 - 88.
    sustainability - composite indicators - principle component analysis - agricultural policy
    The aim of this paper is to nderstand and evaluate agricultura; sustainability in the Stavropol Territory by means of a composite indicator. In particular, the paper applies principal component analses to calculate a composite sustainability index by integration of selected economic, social and environmental indicators. The results demonstrate the utilityof analyzing several indicators in conjunction. The results also may indicate which variables influence development of regional agriculture. This information is important in order to design Agricultural support policy and to implement an increase the sustainability of the agriculture sector.
    Agri-environmental policies and Dutch dairy farmers' responses
    Samson, Gerlinda Sabrina - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.H.H. Wesseler, co-promotor(en): C. Gardebroek; R.A. Jongeneel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436755 - 177
    dairy farming - agricultural economics - cap - agricultural policy - farm income - economic behaviour - melkveehouderij - agrarische economie - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - economisch gedrag

    This thesis focuses on analysing the Dutch dairy farmer behaviour in a changing political environment. The general objective of this research is to analyse the responses of Dutch dairy farmers in the situation of a changing agricultural and environmental policy context (i.e. changes in the subsidy payment system, milk quota abolishment and the reformed Dutch manure policy), thereby taking into account economic as well as non-economic factors. In order to study the research questions, yearly data (from the period 2001 to 2012) on various economic and non-economic variables were gathered.

    The analysis methods used are (the evaluation of) an economic simulation experiment, literature study and econometrics. Generally it is found that active Dutch dairy farmers, which are expected to continue farming in the future, followed an expansion strategy. Although the dairy farmers were facing different agricultural policy regulations, their farmer behaviour was almost consistent over the years.

    Verder vergroenen, verder verbreden : naar een effectieve bijdrage van het Europees landbouwbeleid en beleid voor agrarisch natuurbeheer aan groene opgaven
    Doorn, Anne van; Westerink, Judith ; Nieuwenhuizen, Wim ; Melman, Dick ; Schrijver, Raymond ; Breman, Bas - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2822) - 75
    duurzame landbouw - vergroening - milieubeheer - beschermde soorten - klimaatverandering - biodiversiteit - landbouwbeleid - conservering op het bedrijf - sustainable agriculture - greening - environmental management - protected species - climatic change - biodiversity - agricultural policy - on-farm conservation
    This report explores in what way greening and enhancing sustainability of agriculture could be best supported within the CAP: by greening of direct payments (1 st pillar) or by contracts for agri-environmental management (2 nd pillar). Additionally it is explored for which goals it would be meaningful to implement a collective approach for agri-environmental management, next to the current objectives of the support of internationally protected species. The most relevant issues in the Netherlands concerning the sustainable management of natural resources, climate change and biodiversity are the point of departure of the analysis. For a couple of issues it is analysed which objectives can be best reached with which measures and instruments within the CAP.
    Seed for change : the making and implementation of seed policies in Ethiopia
    Hassena Beko, Mohammed - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. van der Meulen, co-promotor(en): B. de Jonge; O. Hospes; N.P. Louwaars. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436687 - 151
    governance - agricultural policy - policy processes - agricultural sector - seed production - government policy - ethiopia - east africa - governance - landbouwbeleid - beleidsprocessen - landbouwsector - zaadproductie - overheidsbeleid - ethiopië - oost-afrika

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality seed from formal sources in Ethiopia is very limited. The current Ethiopian government has focused on agricultural development and has developed different policies both for agriculture in general and for the seed sector in particular. Following the developmental state approach, the government intensified its involvement in the seed sector to enhance agricultural development. Despite the policies and efforts of the government, a shortage of seed, a mismatch between demand and supply, the carryover of seed despite not satisfying the demand of farmers, and poor seed quality have been persistent challenges to the Ethiopian seed sector. Many studies have identified technical gaps that limit the development of the seed sector, and some of the studies have also discussed the extent to which policy responds to existing problems, and the extent to which what is in the policy documents is implemented. However, the causes of these ‘gaps’ are seldom discussed. The lack of such knowledge limits the understanding of the challenges, making it difficult to properly support the seed sector. For these reasons, this research has gone beyond the mere identification of ‘gaps’, aiming to analyse how actors and institutions influence seed policy making and implementation in Ethiopia.

    The goal of this research is twofold: to narrow the knowledge gap about policy making and implementation in the Ethiopian seed sector, and to contribute to the debate concerning how to make the seed sector function better. The central research question is: how did actors and institutions influence the formulation and implementation of seed policies in Ethiopia from 2008 to 2016? The empirical research to answer this overall research question addresses two processes: policy making and policy implementation. These include the process of revising the 2000 Ethiopian seed law and the process of implementing direct seed marketing. By analysing these two processes, the thesis unravels how actors and associated institutions have influenced seed policy making and implementation in Ethiopia. The major sources of data were interviews of actors in the seed sector, and desk research of different reports. Guided by theoretical concepts, the research used qualitative methods to generate and analyse data.

    Given the complexity of societal phenomenon, several analytical lenses have been used to examine the data in this research. In order to explain how actors negotiate the content of a policy document, including defining the problem and solution, the concept of discourse analysis is used, focusing on frame, the rounds model, and the policy arena. Similarly, to explain the process of implementing the existing policy and the outcome, the concepts of multi-level perspective on transition, transition management, non-decision making, and institutional lock-in are used. While using these analytical lenses to explain seed policy making and implementation, the concept of institutions has remained a central concept.

    Chapter 2 analyses the negotiation process, looking into the topics of seed sector governance and variety registration. The analysis reveals that different policy arenas provide opportunities for different actors to place their preferred policy options on the table, and to get them incorporated into the draft working document. While this is a positive step towards a deliberative policy making, the final decision is made by the executive branch of the government. Such a process can be explained by two informal institutions. These are the loose connection between the drafting arenas and the decision-making arenas, and the blurred separation of power between the executive and the legislature. At the Council of Ministers (CoM), where the critical decisions are made, the ministry presents its perspective, particularly on issues where disagreement exists between the ministry and other actors. The council uses the content of the draft and the justification of the ministry for endorsing the draft policy document. Moreover, the parliament can change the content of the draft policy document only if the ministry agrees with the change, regardless of the arguments and justifications provided by other stakeholders. Thus, the inputs of stakeholders are considered as long as the ministry agrees with the suggestions, and the policy decision remains in the hands of the ministry.

    Chapter 3 presents the different frames used by different actors to describe the problem of seed quality. While government officials attribute the problem of seed quality to the lack of alignment between the seed sector governance and the regional government structure, experts and bureaucrats attribute the problem to the lack of coordination at national level. As a result, they respectively suggest the decentralization and centralization of seed sector governance. These frames are embedded in the overall interest and strategy of the actors promoting the frames. The centralization frame reflects the interest of experts and bureaucrats to have a say with regards to the seed sector. They have lost this power because of the federal structure that was established formally in 1995. On the contrary, the decentralization frame is embedded in the government’s aim to implement the constitution that established the federal structure in 1995. Despite the fact that the process of revising the seed law took about four years, these actors could not agree on either of the options or find an alternative. This shows a lack of deliberation and reflexivity during the process of revising the seed law, reflecting the fact that seed policy discussion has been part of a larger debate about (de)centralization in Ethiopia since 1991. Thus, in addition to the issue of seed quality, the frames of centralization and decentralization are shaped by the old (unitary) and the new (federal) institutions of the Ethiopian government system.

    Chapter 4 focuses on the process of introducing and expanding direct seed marketing (DSM) in Ethiopia. Despite the fact that seed marketing is included in the policies on paper, the seed of major food crops is distributed through government channels resulting in inefficiency of seed distribution. The regional seed core groups introduced DSM in 2011, and by 2016 about one-third of the hybrid maize seed, the main seed marketed in Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ region (SNNPR), was sold through DSM. The presence of actors outside the seed distribution system was instrumental for introducing the concept of DSM. To start the piloting of this existing policy, the core group needed to get approval from the heads of the bureaus of agriculture (BoAs). However, such approval was not required for other new ideas, like establishing an independent regulatory body, showing how the informal institutions guide what has to be approved by bureau heads, regardless of the formal policy. In addition to the demonstrated potential of DSM to overcome the problem of seed distribution inefficiency, strategic management of the stakeholders' process was critical in expanding the area under the pilot. Many actors, including the executives, supported the expansion of DSM to many areas.

    Despite the expansion of DSM, its demonstrated potential to overcome the problem of seed supply inefficiency, the support it received from the government officials, and the general policy of market-based approach, the government has not endorsed the use of DSM beyond the pilot. Chapter 5 points out that the government excluded the issue of seed marketing from the seed regulation enacted in 2016, showing that the government has no intention to make seed marketing one of the seed delivery channels in the near future. The major reasons for this are: bureaucrats do not want to contribute to the decision making of DSM because they assume that the government has a strong political interest to remain in seed distribution; bureaucrats need the seed distribution system to achieve the targets set by the government; there is a symbiotic relationship between actors, the extension service as well as seed producers, and the seed distribution system, and so actors want to maintain the distribution system Such institutionalized thinking and practices have created an institutional lock-in that prevents bureaucrats from presenting the recommendation to government officials, thereby leading to non-decision about the future of DSM.

    Chapter 6 summarizes the action of actors in affecting policy making and implementation as influenced by two conflicting sets of institutions. The first set relates to market-based thinking versus centralized planning as leading principles for economic development. Both are used as a discourse for promoting economic development and its operationalization, which are shaping how actors view and overcome the problems of the seed sector. This also explains why policies on paper are not implemented and why new initiatives are not formally endorsed. The tension between these divergent institutions has increased because of the dual use of seed by the government: the government has used the seed to both promote economic development and maintain strong political ties with farmers. The second set of conflicting institutions relates to authoritarian versus participatory decision making. On the one hand, is the government practice of authoritative decision-making, where only the input of stakeholders is considered when it fits in with the existing policy direction of the executives. On the other hand, it is common practice to organize stakeholders to contribute to policy making and implementation. The practice of considering the policy input of others only when it fits in with the policy direction of the decision-makers, creates a sense of being forced to accept, increasing the tension between how the government decides and the role of stakeholders.

    Given the tension between the conflicting institutions, and circumstances in Ethiopia, this research suggested that choosing one approach over the other will not guarantee the development of the seed sector. There is no guarantee that the outcome of a deliberative policy making process will be a different policy option than the one opted for by one of the actors. However, the co-development of a solution for the shared seed sector problem will guarantee better ownership and thus better implementation than an imposed policy. It is also important to note that deliberative policy making and implementation is not an easy task given the current stakeholders’ landscape and the culture of authoritative decision making. Thus, the change towards deliberative policy making and implementation is not something that emerges overnight: it is a process that matures over time. This calls for the strategic management of a process of change that leads to the transformation of the seed sector into a self-reliant and resilient sector. By identifying the underlying institutions behind the challenges of the seed sector and suggesting options for improvement, this thesis contributes to the debate on how to make the seed sector function better. At a higher level, it also contributes to the debate on policy making and implementation processes in Ethiopia.

    Agricultural policy objectives on productivity, climate change adaptation and mitigation : policy assessment for the Netherlands
    Polman, Nico ; Michels, Rolf ; Boonstra, Carla ; Theune, Elmar ; Venema, Gabe ; Reinhard, Stijn ; Velden, Nico van der; Silvis, Huib ; Vrolijk, Maarten - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research memorandum 2017-045) - 33
    agricultural policy - climatic change - netherlands - landbouwbeleid - klimaatverandering - nederland
    This paper offers a systematic overview of policies that may cause synergies and trade-offs between agricultural policy objectives on productivity, climate change adaptation and mitigation for the Netherlands. Implementation of the climate policy is to a large extent based on voluntary agreements with the private sector, but supported by regulations, subsidies, tax incentives, emissions trade, extension services and demonstration projects. Synergies between objectives are exploited through policy different programmes including public private partnerships (PPP) at different institutional levels.
    Klimaatmaatregelen en het gemeentelijk landbouwbeleid : verkenning naar mogelijkheden voor versterking van klimaatmaatregelen binnen het toekomstig GLB in Nederland
    Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Kuikman, Peter - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2803) - 51
    landbouwbeleid - plattelandsontwikkeling - klimaat - maatregelen - mitigatie - agricultural policy - rural development - climate - measures - mitigation
    Feiten en cijfers vergroening GLB
    Doorn, Anne van; Smidt, Rob - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2795) - 19
    landbouwbeleid - monitoring - ecologie - europa - agricultural policy - monitoring - ecology - europe
    The greening of the European common agricultural policy has started in 2015. This report
    present facts and figures about two years of greening.
    Risicobeoordeling van contaminanten in afval- en reststoffen bestemd voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal
    Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Wijnen, H.J. van; Struijs, J. ; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Poorter, L.R.M. de - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 70) - 158
    biogas - co-vergisting - arsenicum - residuen - zware metalen - verontreinigende stoffen - pesticiden - biociden - mestbeleid - landbouwbeleid - organische verontreinigende stoffen - risicoschatting - biogas - co-fermentation - arsenic - residues - heavy metals - pollutants - pesticides - biocides - manure policy - agricultural policy - organic pollutants - risk assessment
    A number of wastes and by-products were reviewed for their suitability as substrates for co-digestion with animalmanure to produce biogas and a digestate for use as a fertiliser. The review included 21 substances proposed byLTO Noord (Dutch Farmers Union – Northern Netherlands) and Biogas Branche Organisatie (BBO, the Dutch BiogasIndustry Association) for inclusion in Annex Aa of the Fertiliser Act. At the request of the Ministry of EconomicAffairs a further 6 substances were added (21+6). In addition, 119 substances were re-reviewed in connection witha change to the reference composition for animal manure. The review focused on the possible adverseenvironmental effects of using the digestate as a fertiliser and followed the protocol for assessing the value andrisks of waste used as a fertiliser, version 2.1. The risk assessment included the inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Cu,Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, As) and organic contaminants (dioxine, PCBs, PAHs, mineral oil, residues of crop protectionproducts) as required by the Fertiliser Act. For all the wastes and by-products, data on composition were collectedfrom the literature and from analyses provided by stakeholders. Expert judgment was used where data were notavailable or were insufficient to conduct a risk assessment as prescribed by the protocol. Criteria for expertjudgment were developed for such situations. Two alternative risk assessment methods were developed for theresidues of pesticides and biocides, based partly on expert judgement. These methods were compared with themethod prescribed by the protocol. These three methods reflect different policy judgements; the protection level setby policymakers will determine which method should be used. The 21+6 substances were evaluated in accordancewith the protocol and using the three methods for evaluating the residues of pesticides and biocides. The resultswere compared with registered co-digestion materials in Flanders, Denmark and Germany. Recommendations aregiven to support policy decisions on the choice of alternative risk assessment method to be used to permit the codigestionof wastes and by-products in biogas production that produce an agronomically and environmentallyacceptable digestate for fertiliser use
    Het GLB na 2020 : schets voor een herontwerp
    Vogelzang, T.A. ; Berkhout, P. ; Doorn, A.M. van; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Smit, A.B. ; Terluin, I.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-009) - ISBN 9789462577619 - 63
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - toekomst - nederland - europese unie - cap - agricultural policy - future - netherlands - european union
    Een nieuwe economische basis voor de kudde in het Gulpdal? : zoektocht naar draagvlak voor gescheperde begrazing met streekeigen Mergellandschapen
    Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Westerink, J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel 326) - 46
    schapenhouderij - kuddes (herds) - begrazing - natuurbeheer - vegetatiebeheer - landbouwkundig onderzoek - limburg - financieren - landbouwbeleid - sheep farming - herds - grazing - nature management - vegetation management - agricultural research - limburg - financing - agricultural policy
    Het vinden van een nieuwe economische basis voor gescheperde kuddes is van belang voor het landschap, de natuur en het levend cultuurhistorisch erfgoed. Dit onderzoek draagt bij aan het nadenken over nieuwe richtingen en het vinden en opbouwen van een nieuwe ‘klantenkring’. Binnen het kader van het grotere onderzoeksproject ligt de nadruk van het onderzoek door Wageningen op het in kaart brengen van de belangen van alle betrokken partijen en het van hieruit ontwerpen van een nieuw sociaal contract waarmee de schaapskudde in het Gulpdal duurzaam in stand kan worden gehouden.
    Eigen installatie, collectieve oplossingen of een mobiel systeem : naderende zuiveringsplicht dwingt telers tot keuzes
    Beerling, Ellen - \ 2016
    horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - water management - water treatment - agricultural research - standards - agricultural policy - residues - purification plants - cooperation - emission reduction

    Vanaf 1 januari 2018 moeten glastuinbouwbedrijven zuiveringstechnieken toepassen die restwater voor 95% kunnen zuiveren van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Telers hebben daarbij de mogelijkheid om een eigen installatie, een collectieve oplossingen of een mobiel systeem toe te passen dat het restwater op afroep komt zuiveren. Ellen Beerling en Daan van Empel belichten de staat van onderzoek en beleid.

    Putting food on the table : the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security
    Candel, J.J.L. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Gerard Breeman; Robbert Biesbroek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576841 - 280
    food security - european union - governance - agricultural policy - agricultural development - food policy - policy - policy evaluation - voedselzekerheid - europese unie - governance - landbouwbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - beleid inzake voedsel - beleid - beleidsevaluatie
    'Extra regels zorgen ook voor schaalvergroting' : landbouwbeleid in spagaat
    Poppe, Krijn - \ 2015
    market competition - sustainable agriculture - sustainable animal husbandry - agricultural policy - animal welfare - food safety - agricultural economics - animal production - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - animal housing

    Aan de ene kant streeft Nederland naar een vrije wereldmarkt, waarbij concurrentie op kostprijs een belangrijke factor is. Dus zoveel mogelijk produceren voor zo weinig mogelijk geld. Aan de andere kant wil de maatschappij een landbouw gebaseerd op duurzaamheid, diervriendelijkheid en voedselveiligheid met veel ruimte voor gezinsbedrijven. Een spagaat waar het landbouwbeleid nog niet uit is. Wel constateert Reinout Burgers dat met het rechtser worden van maatschappij en politiek het beleid steeds meer in liberale richting beweegt, een beweging die – paradoxaal genoeg – juist versterkt wordt door extra regels voor duurzaamheid en diervriendelijkheid
    Landbouw als gemeen probleem
    Poppe, K.J. - \ 2015
    Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 10 - 15.
    humane voeding - voedselproductie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agrarische structuur - landbouwbeleid - landbouwprijzen - economische analyse - arbeidskosten - inkomen van landbouwers - human feeding - food production - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural structure - agricultural policy - agricultural prices - economic analysis - labour costs - farmers' income

    In het vorige nummer riep de Vlaamse landbouw-ethicus Stef Aerts op tot openbare afspraken in de keten over prijzen en tot een meer interventionistisch Europees landbouwbeleid, omdat de inkomsten van boeren te veel onder druk staan. Daarmee onderschat hij de rol van prijzen in de samenleving, stelt Krijn Poppe. Op verzoek van de redactie schreef hij bijgaand artikel over de toekomst van de landbouw als wicked (gemeen) probleem.
    Leren van Marke Mallem : lessen voor het samenspel tussen groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
    Salverda, I.E. ; Breman, B.C. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Dam, R.I. van - \ 2015
    Leernetwerk 'Samenspel burgerinitiatieven en overheden in het groene domein' - 36
    overheidsbeleid - burgers - natuurbeleid - sociale participatie - samenwerking - governance - publieke participatie - natuurbeheer - landbouwbeleid - waterschappen - government policy - citizens - nature conservation policy - social participation - cooperation - governance - public participation - nature management - agricultural policy - polder boards
    Deze brochure gaat over lessen die uit het initiatief Marke Mallem kunnen worden getrokken voor overheden die willen leren over het samenspel tussen groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden. In november 2014 heeft Alterra samen met het Waterschap Rijn & IJssel en de Stichting Marke Mallem een leerbijeenkomst over Marke Mallem georganiseerd omdat dit een inspirerend voorbeeld is van dit nieuwe samenspel. Deelnemers aan deze bijeenkomst waren beleidsmedewerkers van waterschappen, gemeenten en natuur- en landschapsorganisaties. Doel van de leerbijeenkomst was om uit te wisselen wat cruciale factoren waren in het proces van Marke Mallem, en wat andere overheden hiervan kunnen leren en meenemen naar hun eigen praktijken.
    Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study
    Broek, J.A. van den; Subedi, A. ; Jongeleen, F. ; Naing Lin Oo, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-018) - 74
    seed production - varieties - seeds - farmers - rural development - markets - farms - agricultural policy - myanmar - south east asia - asia - zaadproductie - rassen (planten) - zaden - boeren - plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwbeleid - myanmar - zuidoost-azië - azië
    The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an analysis of three seed value-chains and Myanmar’s seed farm system; as well as business opportunities for the private sector. The report concludes with a number of pathways for developing a vibrant seed sector in which quality seed of superior varieties can be accessed by farmers.
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