Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Feeding Dar es Salaam: a symbiotic food system perspective
    Wegerif, Marc C.A. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): P.G.M. Hebinck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432061 - 291
    agricultural society - rural society - farmers' markets - food products - agricultural products - supermarkets - rice - grain - tanzania - east africa - agrarische samenleving - plattelandssamenleving - boerenmarkten - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - supermarkten - rijst - graan - tanzania - oost-afrika

    This thesis is a sociological analysis of the agri-food system that feeds most of the over four and a half million residents of the fast-growing city of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. It is based on qualitative research that has generated a picture of the food system that supplies the important foods for the majority of residents of the city. The research took an actor orientated approach and started from urban eaters and then followed the food back through retailers, processors and transporters to the primary producers. Methodological lessons are derived from this process in particular the elaboration of the ‘ride-along’ as a research method. Foods followed include maize, rice, potatoes, green vegetables, eggs and milk. Other foods such as beef and chicken have also been touched on especially in relation to marketing and slaughtering operations.

    Instead of dismissing what has been found as ‘informal’ or trying to fit it into structuralist paradigms, from orthodox economic or political economy perspectives, I have applied a grounded theory approach in seeking to understand the core ordering principles and rationality of this system that has shown a remarkable resilience over many years. Of particular interest, especially when looking at the functioning of market places and how new actors enter into the food system, is that more important to the food system than competition are various forms of collaboration.

    This study comes at a time when global food production and distribution is dominated by powerful transnational corporations through an agro-industrial food system that is widely critiqued for its negative environmental and social impacts. Many argue that this industrial food system is unsustainable, yet its expansion can seem inevitable and alternatives are seen by many as incapable of feeding the world’s growing and increasingly urban population. ‘Value chain’ interventions have become popular among ‘development’ practitioners and policy makers seeking to integrate more producers into the global industrial food system rather than challenging that food system.

    What I have found, and present in this thesis, is a ‘symbiotic food system’ made up of multitudes of small-scale and interdependent actors that produce the food and get it to urban eaters at a city feeding scale. They do this without any vertically - or horizontally -integrated corporate structures nor with government planning and organization of the food system. This food system responds well to the needs of urban eaters, especially those in poverty, and to the interests and circumstances of small scale food producers. It is a food system that outperforms value chain interventions in returns to producers and value to eaters and has social, economic and environmental advantages when compared to the agro-industrial and corporate dominated system. This challenges assumptions that corporate food chains are necessary, or desirable, to feed cities sustainably. The symbiotic food system that feeds Dar es Salaam is not perfect, but it is working and I believe worthy of further research and interventions to create a more enabling environment for such foods systems to flourish in Tanzania and elsewhere.

    What if the trucks stop coming? : exploring the framing of local food by cooperative food retailers in New Mexico
    Constance, Cheron Z. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): L.G. Horlings; L. Shaw. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431941 - 261
    food - agricultural products - cooperatives - cooperative farm enterprises - food products - new mexico - voedsel - landbouwproducten - coöperaties - coöperatieve landbouwbedrijven - voedselproducten - new mexico

    Proponents of local food cite a variety of economic and environmental advantages of short food supply chains. Consumer interest in local food has also offered a point of differentiation for many players in the food industry, including restaurants and grocery stores. Engaging with local food has significant challenges, however, and many production and distribution systems engender and support more diffuse food provisioning, not less. Though food can travel thousands of miles from its point of origin to consumption, many cooperative (co-op) grocery stores have long sold locally-produced food and have deep ties to their supplier communities. This thesis offers case studies of two co-ops in the natural and organic food sector and examines how they think about and work with local food. The theories of embeddedness (after Polanyi) and diverse economies (from Gibson-Graham) undergird the analyses of these co-ops’ involvement with local food and how the cooperative business model relates to it.

    Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation
    Shao, Qianqian - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Maarten Punt; Dusan Drabik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430500 - 200
    agricultural trade - genetically engineered foods - food biotechnology - political economy - food products - agricultural production - agricultural products - food technology - food policy - food security - agrarische handel - genetisch gemanipuleerde voedingsmiddelen - voedselbiotechnologie - politieke economie - voedselproducten - landbouwproductie - landbouwproducten - voedseltechnologie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselzekerheid

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some policies aim to correct market failures, others aim to pursue politicians’ own interests, some are a combination. I discuss two policies in this thesis, the regulation of genetically modified (GM) food crops, and forest conservation policy.

    The relationship between GM food technology and food supply is a dilemma for policymakers in many countries. Theoretical and empirical studies show that GM food technology helps increase crop yields, reduces pesticide and fertilizer use, and generates economic, environmental, and health benefits. However, many consumers are concerned about the potential risks from using the technology and treat GM and non-GM food products as different products. The differences in public attitude towards GM food technology influence GM food policy-making. Many scientists believe that the public attitude is not purely based on scientific evidence, but is influenced by different interest groups. The two major interest groups involved in the GM food policy debate can be clustered into the GM food-supporting and non-GM food-supporting groups, depending on their attitude towards the GM food technology.

    The GM food group points to the high yields, environmental benefits, and potential for sustainable agricultural production. The non-GM food group, however, emphasizes the unconfirmed potential risks of genetic modification to human health and the environment. There are two major GM food policy regimes: the EU Member States have very strict GM food regulations, whereas the US has relatively lenient GM food policy regulations with respect to cultivation and imports. A stricter GM food policy would generate high welfare costs to countries that face food security issues, and possibly reduce a country's food self-sufficiency. Also, different GM food policy regulations give rise to different national standards, differentiate agricultural trade markets, and result in trade disputes.

    Environmental policy regulates economic activity. To balance economic interests and environmental benefits, conservation policy is often needed for the protection of natural resources. Forests as a renewable resource provide both economic and environmental benefits. Forest conservation policy often requires governments to settle the trade-off between interests of the timber industry and the environmental benefit of maintaining parts of the forests. Political conflicts may exist between a profit-maximizing timber industry lobby and an environmental lobby. An industry-biased conservation policy could cause faster exploitation of this domestic resource, while a stricter protection of the resource could result in profit reduction for the timber industry, but increase environmental benefits.

    I discuss the relationships between food security and GM food policy regulations in Chapter 2. I develop a standard political economy model of GM food policy regulations and model GM food policy as the outcome of a GM-versus-non-GM food lobbying game. I find that stricter GM food policy has negative effects on three aspects of food security: availability, access, and utilization. Politically determined GM food policy has a negative effect on the food security situation if lobbying is costly. I also discuss the situation in which the policymaker weighs the GM food and non-GM food lobbies’ contributions differently, depending on whether the food security target has been reached or not. The GM food lobby becomes more efficient in the political game than the non-GM food group when the country commits itself to improving its food security. If the non-GM food lobby is large and strong, it will make high lobbying contributions for stricter GM food policy, even when the country is food-insecure.

    Chapter 3 studies the relationship between politically determined GM food policy and domestic food self-sufficiency. I first develop a theoretical model of a small-open economy and investigate the GM food policy. The government maximizes its own payoff, which is the weighted sum of social welfare and lobbying contributions. I take maize production in South Africa as an example for illustrating the politically influenced self-sufficiency rate. I find that the food self-sufficiency rate will decrease with an increase in GM food policy regulation cost. I also specify the mechanism of policy change in this small open economy case. I include changes in the lobby groups' sizes in the model, and assess the effect on food self-sufficiency. In the case of a large non-GM food group, the government payoff does not monotonically decrease when the government weighs social welfare at a low level in the political process. The GM food policy can be strict in this case. In addition, the food self-sufficiency rate can be high when a large non-GM food group is present and the government places a low weight on social welfare. Most importantly, this case demonstrates that the food self-sufficiency rate is not always a good indicator of food availability. In some cases, the food self-sufficiency rate can increase, while food availability may decrease.

    In Chapter 4, given the two different GM food policy regimes and in light of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations, I discuss a bilateral negotiation regarding GM food trade policies. Two countries pursue an increase in trade volume for both GM and non-GM food products. With a high GM food non-tariff barrier (NTB) on the foreign GM food imports and a relatively high non-GM food NTB in the foreign country, I find that the Nash bargaining solution lies between the two countries’ optimal unilateral stances for a successful negotiation. Simulation results show that the foreign country would not like to reduce much of its non-GM food NTB in the negotiation. The level of the non-GM food NTB only influences the absolute payoffs of the domestic and foreign governments, but not the negotiation results. The outcome of the negotiation only depends on the level of GM food NTB reduction in the domestic country.

    In Chapter 5, I discuss the effects of international trade on forest conservation and welfare in a two-country model with an industry-biased policymaker and Cournot-competing firms. I find that opening to trade increases the harvest taxes compared to the taxes under autarky. The tax increase is large enough to decrease the production levels, which increases the conservation level. In addition, the numerical simulation illustrates that the industry bias parameter monotonically decreases the output and increases the welfare gains from trade. As a result, industry-biased policymaking does not necessarily have to increase the environmental costs when opening to trade.

    Three main conclusions can be drawn from this thesis. First, strict biotechnology regulations decrease the level of global food security, especially in developing countries. Second, in the GM food trade negotiations, the country that has high trade barriers has to make concessions for a successful trade agreement. Third, second-best conservation policies can still protect the environment in an open economy. This thesis does not provide solutions to either the GM-versus-non-GM or the environmental-versus-trade debates. It does, however, offer some insights into the politically determined GM food and conservation policy-making and the impact of lobbying.

    Spoor naar China wacht op exporteurs
    Zhang, Xiaoyong - \ 2016
    long distance transport - transport - exports - agricultural products - china - rail transport - logistics

    Zonde, al die treinen die vanuit Europa halfleeg terugkeren naar China, dacht Xiaoyong Zhang van Wageningen UR. China vormt namelijk een grote afzetmarkt voor Nederlandse zuivelproducten, groente, fruit en bloemen. Vervoer over de Nieuwe Zijderoute is sneller dan over zee en goedkoper dan door de lucht.

    Nederlandse handelsbalans agrarische producten
    Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Jukema, G.D. - \ 2016
    LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-012a) - 4
    handelsbalans - landbouwproducten - export - nederland - balance of trade - agricultural products - exports - netherlands
    Uit ramingen1 blijkt dat de Nederlandse agrarische export, inclusief wederuitvoer, in 2015 stijgt met 0,9% naar € 82,4 mld. De import van agrarische producten zal sterker stijgen (5,9%) dan de export en komt uit op € 56,1 mld. Het aandeel van Duitsland in de totale Nederlandse agrarische export in 2015 daalt met 0,1% naar 25,3%. Het totale Nederlandse handelsoverschot daalt naar verwachting in 2015 naar € 46,3 mld. (€ 51 mld. in 2014). Het handelsoverschot van agrarische producten neemt in 2015 af met € 2,4 mld. naar € 26,4 mld.
    Producentenorganisaties als instrument voor concurrentiekracht en innovatie : uitbreiding van perspectief door het nieuwe GLB?
    Smit, A.B. ; Prins, H. ; Litjens, M.E.G. ; Ham, A. van den; Bijman, J. ; Zaalmink, W. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2015-164a) - 55
    producentengroepen - landbouwproducten - landbouwindustrie - landbouw - tuinbouw - samenwerking - marktconcurrentie - onvolledige mededinging - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nederland - producer groups - agricultural products - agribusiness - agriculture - horticulture - cooperation - market competition - imperfect competition - sustainability - netherlands
    Producer organisations (POs) in agri- and horticulture give primary producers the opportunity to strengthen their position in the chain. Until 1 January 2014, POs were only recognised in the vegetables and fruit sector. Since then, POs can now also be organised in other agri- and horticulture sectors due to a change in EU policy. This refers to officially recognised producer organisations besides or instead of several existing horizontal cooperative organisations. This report presents the opportunities of cooperation in general and of organising a PO in the agri- and horticulture, including competition aspects which could create some barriers.
    Programa Nacional de Agrologística : informe 1: Resumen ejecutivo
    Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 87
    logistics - agroindustrial sector - agricultural products - food products - supply chain management - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - ketenmanagement - mexico
    National Agrologistics Program : report 1: Executive summary
    Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 87
    logistics - agroindustrial sector - agricultural products - food products - supply chain management - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - ketenmanagement - mexico
    The goal of the National Agrologistics Program is to define public policy measures that contribute to accomplish the potential of exporting agro-products, which will result in a transforming legacy for the sector. The horizon of this Program is the year 2030.
    Measuring tensions and intentions : mixing methods in the impact evaluation of development support to farmer organisations
    Ton, G. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575738 - 295
    boerenorganisaties - coöperaties - ontwikkelingseconomie - ontwikkelingshulp - fondsgelden - landbouwproducten - ontwikkelingsprojecten - programma-evaluatie - farmers' associations - cooperatives - development economics - development aid - funding - agricultural products - development projects - program evaluation

    Development support must be able to prove its effectiveness. Impact evaluation is a way to generate this information. The thesis is about the design of these impact evaluations and how research methods can be combined to obtain credible evidence on effectiveness. It contrasts two approaches to impact evaluation design, ‘randomistas’ (Does it work?) and ‘realistas’ (For whom does it work, and under what conditions?), and distils seven principles for research design that create synergy between these two approaches. The thesis covers various development interventions. The main research concerns a Bolivian grant fund that supports investments in processing by farmer groups. To assess the effectiveness of this fund it was necessary to develop and test a new tool to measure organisational strength of these groups, called Tension Containment Capacity and apply a new method of data analysis, Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Interestingly, grants to the older, larger and stronger organisations proved particularly unsuccessful.

    Prospects of an EU-Mercosur trade agreement for the Dutch agrifood sector
    Berkum, S. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-036) - ISBN 9789086157068 - 42
    handelsakkoorden - internationale handel - europese unie - landbouwproducten - landbouwsector - agro-industriële sector - voedselindustrie - nederland - trade agreements - international trade - european union - agricultural products - agricultural sector - agroindustrial sector - food industry - netherlands
    This report provides insights into the current trade relations between the EU and Mercosur and assesses impacts of a comprehensive trade agreement between the two blocs on the Dutch agrifood sector. Trade opportunities of Dutch fruit & vegetables and dairy products would expand if an agreement would reduce the currently high trade costs related to divergent non-tariff measures, such as pest risk analysis procedures and labelling requirements. Beef and poultry supply from Mercosur is very competitive and is expected to gain from any improved access to EU markets, resulting in more competitive pressure for the Dutch industry on its main markets.
    The roles of exploration and exploitation in the export market integration of Beninese producers at the base of the pyramid
    Adékambi, S.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572461 - 205
    marketing - landbouwproducten - export - instellingen - armoede - sheaboter - ontwikkelingseconomie - economische groei - afrika - benin - west-afrika - marketing - agricultural products - exports - institutions - poverty - shea butter - development economics - economic growth - africa - benin - west africa

    Keywords: Base of the pyramid, Bottom of the pyramid, Supply chains, Export market integration, Market learning, Developing and Emerging countries, Exploitation and Exploration, Institutional arrangements, Transaction cost economics, Livelihood performance, BoP producers

    Abstract

    Organizing supply chains that are based in producer groups that live in conditions of widespread poverty and weak institutional support (sometimes referred to as the Base of the Pyramid [BoP] producers) is challenging. These challenges have predominantly been studied in the development literature, while the marketing perspective has received less attention. Drawing on both transaction cost and market learning theories, the thesis integrates producers’ opportunity exploitation and exploration processes with the institutional framework adopted in the development literature to understand producers’ integration with export markets. Overall, the findings show that exploitation mediates between drivers investigated by development economists (quality of infrastructure, microcredit, and community culture) and integration with export markets. The results show that BoP producers’ export market integration also depends on the institutional arrangements that exporting companies offer. The results indicate that contrary to more-developed settings like those in Western Europe and Northern America, there is no need to develop both opportunity exploration and exploitation in environments characterized by scarce opportunities with relatively high purchasing powers. The findings imply that developing competencies that enable to produce the demanded quality are crucial in seizing export market integration opportunities.

    Effecten van de ontwikkeling van de luchtvaart op Lelystad Airport op voedselkwaliteit
    Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra - 32
    voedselkwaliteit - luchttransport - luchthavens - landbouwproducten - landbouw - veldgewassen - milieueffect - milieueffectrapportage - food quality - air transport - airports - agricultural products - agriculture - field crops - environmental impact - environmental impact reporting
    Voor de milieueffectrapportage Lelystad Airport is een bureaustudie gedaan naar de effecten van de ontwikkeling van de luchthaven op de kwaliteit van de landbouwproducten. Anders dan bij andere Nederlandse luchthavens, zijn er in de omgeving van Lelystad Airport veel teelten van verse bovengrondse producten voor de humane voeding, zoals spinazie, broccoli, boerenkool, sla en prei. Dergelijke gewasproducten staan bloot aan depositie via luchtverontreiniging. Gevoelig zijn vooral gewassen die pas geoogst worden in de herfst en winter omdat de genoemde landbouwgewassen dan nauwelijks of niet groeien terwijl er wel depositie is, én producten die weinig of niet gewassen worden. Voor een aantal stoffen die uitgestoten worden bij luchthavens (zware metalen, polycyclische koolwaterstoffen) zijn er normen voor landbouwproducten. Voor PAK’s in gewassen is er alleen een norm voor zuigelingen- en peutervoeding.
    Effects of an EU-US trade agreement on the Dutch agro-food sector
    Berkum, S. van; Rutten, M.M. ; Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2014
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-021) - ISBN 9789086156801 - 84
    agrarische handel - handelsakkoorden - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - europese unie - vs - agricultural trade - trade agreements - food products - agricultural products - european union - usa
    A New Methodology for Incorporating Nutrition Indicators in Economy-Wide Scenario Analyses
    Rutten, M.M. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Godeschalk, F.E. - \ 2013
    The Hague : FOODSECURE project office LEI Wageningen UR (FOODSECURE technical paper 1) - 30
    basisproducten - landbouwproducten - voedingsmiddelen - indicatoren - huishoudelijke consumptie - voedingsstoffen - evenwichtstheorie - commodities - agricultural products - foods - indicators - household consumption - nutrients - equilibrium theory
    This paper develops an innovative approach for calculating household nutrition indicators in a Computable General Equilibrium framework, using the flow of primary agri-food commodities through the global economy from farm to fork. It has been incorporated as a nutrition module in MAGNET. The method of tracing nutrients through the food system allows for making agriculture, the food supply chain and the economy as a whole nutrition-sensitive in scenario analyses. The validation of the nutrition outcomes in the base year with global data on nutrient consumption from the FAO reveals important differences which stem from differences in data and assumptions. Various solutions are identified to improve the calculations in the future. In the short run, correction factors are applied in the calculation of indicators in the nutrition module to capture and adjust the methodology for the remaining differences.
    The Emerging Geopolitics of Food: A Strategic Response to Supply Risks of Critical Imports for the Dutch Agro-Food Sector
    Ridder, M. de; Jong, S. de; Selleslaghs, J. ; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Berkhout, P. ; Heide, M. van der - \ 2013
    The Hague : The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies (HCSS) & LEI, WUR (Rapport 19 | 02 | 13) - ISBN 9789491040764 - 70
    voedsel - landbouwproducten - ruwe grondstoffen - vraag - overheidsbeleid - voedselzekerheid - handelspolitiek - internationale economie - politieke conflicten - risicobeheersing - strategisch management - food - agricultural products - raw materials - demand - government policy - food security - trade policy - international economy - political conflicts - risk management - strategic management
    Interdependencies in the field of food, agriculture, and raw materials are growing. Global population growth, rising prosperity, and changing consumption patterns in emerging economies have increased the demand for all three. Geopolitical trends shape global markets for food, agriculture, and raw materials and carry consequences for the Dutch agro-food sector. Critical sectors of the Dutch agricultural complex are dependent on imported raw materials from the rest of the world and are therefore vulnerable to supply disruptions resulting from geopolitical developments. This report explores how the Dutch government could strengthen the resilience of the Dutch agro-food system and mitigate risks to the supply of critical raw material imports.
    De agrarische handel van Nederland in 2012
    LEI, - \ 2013
    Den Haag : LEI - 8
    internationale handel - landbouwproducten - agrarische economie - economische situatie - export - import - international trade - agricultural products - agricultural economics - economic situation - exports - imports
    Rapport van het Landbouw Economisch Instituut (LEI) over de ontwikkelingen van de Nederlandse handel in agrarische producten in 2012.
    EU-breed onderzoek naar coöperaties
    Bijman, J. ; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2012
    Coöperatie 2012 (2012)613. - ISSN 1389-7462 - p. 8 - 9.
    landbouwcoöperaties - coöperaties - landen van de europese unie - vergelijkend onderzoek - marketingkanalen - landbouwproducten - internationale handel - overheidsbeleid - agricultural cooperatives - cooperatives - european union countries - comparative research - marketing channels - agricultural products - international trade - government policy
    Een vergelijkend onderzoek naar de ontwikkeling van land- en tuinbouwcoöperaties in alle lidstaten van de Europese Unie toont aan dat coöperaties in alle landen en bijna alle sectoren van groot belang zijn voor de afzet van agrarische producten, én dat dit belang nog steeds toeneemt.
    Origin labelling; Cost analysis for producers and consumers
    Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156139 - 43
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - europese unie - beleid - landbouwproducten - etiketteren - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - origin - quality management - cost analysis - european union - policy - agricultural products - labelling
    By stating the origin of a foodstuff, producers can provide consumers with information about where the food comes from. Country of origin labelling is the subject of debate from two different policy areas. One debate takes place in the framework of EU quality policy for agricultural products, the other in the framework of EU consumer policy. In one debate, origin labelling is regarded as a trade norm, while the other considers it part of food information which allows consumers to make well-founded choices between foodstuffs.
    Herkomstetikettering : Kostenverkenning voor producenten en consumenten
    Terluin, I.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI rapport : Onderzoeksveld Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086156115 - 46
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - etiketteren - beleid - consumentenvoorkeuren - europese unie - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - agricultural products - food products - origin - quality management - cost analysis - labelling - policy - consumer preferences - european union
    Met het vermelden van de herkomst op een levensmiddel kunnen producenten informatie geven aan consumenten over de plaats waar het voedsel vandaan komt. Herkomstetikettering staat vanuit twee verschillende beleidsterreinen ter discussie. De ene discussie vindt plaats in het kader van het EU-kwaliteitsbeleid voor landbouwproducten; de andere in het kader van het EU-consumentenbeleid. In de ene discussie wordt herkomstetikettering als handelsnorm gezien; in de andere als onderdeel van voedselinformatie waardoor consumenten doordachte keuzes tussen levensmiddelen kunnen maken.
    Bijlagen bij rapport Herkomstetikettering; Kostenverkenning voor producenten en consumenten
    Benninga, J. ; Immink, V.M. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Rau, M.L. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota / onderzoeksveld Internationaal Beleid 12-123) - 41
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - consumenteninformatie - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - oorsprong - kwaliteitszorg - kostenanalyse - etiketteren - beleid - consumentenvoorkeuren - europese unie - cap - nutrition labeling - consumer information - agricultural products - food products - origin - quality management - cost analysis - labelling - policy - consumer preferences - european union
    De vermelding van het land van herkomst is in de Europese Unie verplicht voor enkele agrarische producten, te weten: rundvlees, honing, verse groenten en fruit en olijfolie. In Nederland wordt het land van herkomst buiten de verplichte etikettering van deze productgroepen nog nauwelijks vermeld. Binnen het Europees Parlement wordt gedacht over uitbreiding van de verplichte herkomstetikettering naar andere productgroepen. Aanleiding voor het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (EL&I) om onderzoek te laten doen naar de waarde van de land-van-herkomstaanduiding op het etiket van voedselproducten vanuit consumentenperspectief. Daarbij is ook gekeken naar de rol die herkomstetikettering bij de aanschaf van een voedselproduct speelt.
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