Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==agriculture as branch of economy
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Landbouw als gemeen probleem
Poppe, K.J. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 10 - 15.
humane voeding - voedselproductie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agrarische structuur - landbouwbeleid - landbouwprijzen - economische analyse - arbeidskosten - inkomen van landbouwers - human feeding - food production - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural structure - agricultural policy - agricultural prices - economic analysis - labour costs - farmers' income

In het vorige nummer riep de Vlaamse landbouw-ethicus Stef Aerts op tot openbare afspraken in de keten over prijzen en tot een meer interventionistisch Europees landbouwbeleid, omdat de inkomsten van boeren te veel onder druk staan. Daarmee onderschat hij de rol van prijzen in de samenleving, stelt Krijn Poppe. Op verzoek van de redactie schreef hij bijgaand artikel over de toekomst van de landbouw als wicked (gemeen) probleem.
Actuele ontwikkeling land- en tuinbouw 2013 : samenvatting
Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Everdingen, W.H. van; Smit, A.B. ; Silvis, H.J. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI report 2013-060) - ISBN 9789086156627 - 38
bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - agrarische economie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - rentabiliteit - agrarische structuur - akkerbouw - melkveehouderij - glastuinbouw - vollegrondsteelt - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - nederland - farm results - agricultural economics - agriculture as branch of economy - farm income - profitability - agricultural structure - arable farming - dairy farming - greenhouse horticulture - outdoor cropping - pig farming - poultry farming - netherlands
De brutoproductiewaarde van de agrarische sector in 2013 is geraamd op ruim 27 miljard euro. Dat is 3,5% meer dan in 2012. De stijging is vooral te danken aan de rundveehouderij, die profiteerde van een fors hogere melkprijs. Maar ook de andere productgroepen laten per saldo een toename van de brutoproductie zien.
Landbouw moet veel meer denken in winstmargefluctuaties
Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 2011
Boerderij 96 (2011)46. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 18 - 20.
landbouw - landbouw als bedrijfstak - landbouwsector - economische samenwerking - prijsvorming - prijzen - agriculture - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural sector - economic cooperation - price formation - prices
De hele landbouwketen moet nog meer samenwerken en veel beter nadenken over de afzet, vooral ook op de langere termijn, stelt hoogleraar Joost Pennings, vakgroep Marktkunde en Consumentengedrag, Wageningen Universiteit.
Landbouwverkenning provincie Utrecht tot 2025 : huidige situatie en ontwikkeling
Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Venema, G.S. ; Vogelzang, T.A. - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector en ondernemerschap ) - ISBN 9789086155279 - 107
landbouw als bedrijfstak - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwstatistieken - prognose - melkveehouderij - fruitteelt - glastuinbouw - utrecht - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural development - agricultural statistics - prognosis - dairy farming - fruit growing - greenhouse horticulture
Het aantal land- en tuinbouwbedrijven in de provincie Utrecht zal tot 2025 met ruim een derde teruglopen tot minder dan 2.000. De agrarische productie blijft op peil. Veel bedrijven zullen verder in omvang groeien, maar blijven overwegend gezinsbedrijven. De landbouw in Utrecht bestaat voor een groot deel uit grondgebonden veehouderijbedrijven. De grootste groep zijn melkveebedrijven. Er zijn bijna evenveel 'overige graasdierbedrijven' (bedrijven met jongvee, vleesvee, schapen of paarden) maar deze zijn gemiddeld veel kleiner en economisch minder van belang. De intensieve veehouderij, waaronder de pluimvee-, varkens- en vleeskalverenhouderij, is vooral te vinden in het oosten van de provincie. De fruitteelt komt vooral in het Kromme Rijngebied voor, glastuinbouw vooral in Harmelen en Mijdrecht. Er is weinig akkerbouw, het betreft vooral snijmais als voedergewas. Circa 95% van de agrarische grond wordt gebruikt als grasland en voor snijmais, bijna 70% van de landbouwgrond is in gebruik van melkveebedrijven. Ongeveer 59% van de grond is in eigendom. De verkavelingssituatie op grotere melkveebedrijven is ongunstiger geworden. De provincie Utrecht wil voor haar Structuurvisie inzicht in het toekomstperspectief van de land- en tuinbouw. Het LEI heeft daartoe een landbouwverkenning tot 2025 opgesteld, die ingaat op de ontwikkeling van de belangrijkste sectoren en op thema's zoals waterbeheer, stadslandbouw en duurzame energie. De verkenning bevat een specificatie naar Agenda Vitaal Platteland (AVP)-gebied en is getoetst in twee workshops met agrarische ondernemers, adviseurs en beleidsmedewerkers van lokale overheden.
De gouden driehoek in actie : praktische voorbeelden van verbinding bedrijf, kennis en overheid
Vliet, J.M. van; Beers, G. - \ 2011
[S.l.] : S.n. - 112
landbouwkundig onderzoek - agrarisch onderwijs - landbouw als bedrijfstak - bedrijven - overheid - kennis - kennismanagement - nederland - agricultural research - agricultural education - agriculture as branch of economy - businesses - public authorities - knowledge - knowledge management - netherlands
Deze bundel bevat voorbeelden van het werken in de gouden driehoek; oftewel de driehoek van landbouwonderzoek/onderwijs, bedrijven en overheid. De artikelen illustreren hoe de driehoek werkt. Het zijn voorbeelden van vraag gestuurd werken, actieve en betrokken ondernemers, creativiteit van ondernemers, gezamenlijke financiering en veel aandacht voor de toepassing van onderzoeksresultaten.
Duurzame ontwikkeling van de veehouderij in Limburg
Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Smeets, P.J.A.M. ; Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Alterra-rapport 2094) - ISBN 9789086154654 - 67
veehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ruimtelijke verdeling - milieueffect - volksgezondheid - attitudes - samenleving - landbouwbeleid - duurzame veehouderij - landbouw als bedrijfstak - limburg - livestock farming - sustainability - spatial distribution - environmental impact - public health - society - agricultural policy - sustainable animal husbandry - agriculture as branch of economy
Provinciale Staten van Limburg wil inzicht in de belangrijke aspecten om te komen tot een duurzame ontwikkeling van de veehouderij in de provincie Limburg. Op basis van feiten en cijfers over de economische betekenis van het veehouderijcomplex in Limburg, de invloed van de veehouderij op milieu en volksgezondheid en de mening van Limburgers over de veehouderij is met verschillende direct betrokkenen nagedacht over de gewenste duurzame ontwikkeling en hoe deze gerealiseerd kan worden.
Boeren in Nederland. Geschiedenis van de landbouw 1500-2000
Bieleman, J. - \ 2008
Amsterdam : Boom - ISBN 9789085065401 - 671
landbouw - tuinbouw - akkerbouw - landbouw bedrijven - gemengde landbouw - zandgronden - lössgronden - melkveebedrijven - platteland - urbanisatie - welvaartseconomie - nederland - geschiedenis - landbouw als bedrijfstak - welvaartsstaat - agrarische geschiedenis - agriculture - horticulture - arable farming - farming - mixed farming - sandy soils - loess soils - dairy farms - rural areas - urbanization - welfare economics - netherlands - history - agriculture as branch of economy - welfare state - agricultural history
In Boeren in Nederland beschrijft landbouwhistoricus Jan Bieleman hoe een land van steden en industrieën toch bij uitstek een landbouwnatie is gebleven. Bieleman legt een glashelder verband tussen de verstedelijking, de groeiende welvaart en de landbouw, die daar telkens weer adequaat op wist in te spelen. Boeren in Nederland. De geschiedenis van de landbouw 1500-2000 is een sterk uitgebreide en geactualiseerde bewerking van Bielemans Geschiedenis van de landbouw in Nederland 1500-1950, dat sinds zijn verschijnen een standaardwerk is
Reconstructing Biotechnologies: critical social analyses
Ruivenkamp, G.T.P. ; Hisano, S. ; Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860623 - 367
biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - samenleving - sociologie - analyse - technologie - kracht - politiek - plattelandssamenleving - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - kwaliteit - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelde landen - ontwikkelingslanden - sociologische analyse - plantenbiotechnologie - transgene organismen - politieke economie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - kennissystemen - kritische theorie - biotechnology - food biotechnology - society - sociology - analysis - technology - power - politics - rural society - agricultural development - agriculture - quality - rural sociology - developed countries - developing countries - sociological analysis - plant biotechnology - transgenic organisms - political economy - agriculture as branch of economy - knowledge systems - critical theory
Administering multifunctional agriculture : a comparison between France and the Netherlands
Daniel, F.J. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): D. Perraud. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049166 - 178
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - financieel landbouwbeleid - subsidies - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - innovaties - landbouwsector - frankrijk - nederland - multifunctionele landbouw - landbouwpolitiek - landbouw als bedrijfstak - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - cap - agricultural policy - agricultural financial policy - subsidies - environment - sustainability - innovations - agricultural sector - france - netherlands - multifunctional agriculture - agricultural politics - agriculture as branch of economy - relations between people and state
Sinds de hervormingen van MacSharry, in 1992, heeft de Gemeenschappelijke Landbouw Beleid (GLB) nog diverse ingrijpende veranderingen (transformaties) ondergaan. Aan boeren wordt gevraagd een brede waaier van maatregelen toe te passen, inclusief die welke betrekking hebben op de verbetering van de milieuefficiency, in ruil voor het ontvangen van publieke ondersteuning. In deze studie worden deze ontwikkelingen benaderd vanuit het perspectief van de politieke sociologie; centraal daarbij staat de vraag in hoeverre deze overeenkomsten de relaties tussen boeren en de staat hebben getransformeerd. Subsidies moeten niet worden gezien als een geschenk dat wordt toegekend aan een bevoordeelde sociale groep maar als de hernieuwing van het wederkerige verband tussen maatschappij en de agrarische beroepsgroep. Deze veranderde oriëntatie van het landbouwbeleid impliceert ook bepaalde veranderingen in agrarische praktijken en normen. De plaats en rol van boeren in de maatschappij worden geherdefinieerd; dit proces wordt weerspiegeld in de normatieve aanpassing van professionele praktijken, hetgeen een van de vereiste condities is voor de hernieuwing van het pact tussen boeren en de staat. De bestudering van de ervaringen in Frankrijk en Nederland leidt, in dit proefschrift, tot het inzicht dat deze hernieuwing sterk variabel is
De keuzes van Kiezen voor Landbouw
Bruchem, C. van - \ 2006
Spil 223-224 (2006)2. - ISSN 0165-6252 - p. 20 - 24.
landbouwsector - landbouwbeleid - landbouwministeries - overheidsbeleid - landbouw als bedrijfstak - kritiek - toekomst - agricultural sector - agricultural policy - ministries of agriculture - government policy - agriculture as branch of economy - criticism - future
Vraagpunten en commentaar op de toekomstvisie op de landbouw van minister Veerman 'Kiezen voor landbouw'
De Nederlandse visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel
Smit, J.G.P. - \ 2006
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9789086151189 - 57
vis - visverwerkende industrie - visproducten - visverwerking - landbouwsector - nederland - marktstructuur - landbouw als bedrijfstak - fish - fish industry - fish products - fish processing - agricultural sector - netherlands - market structure - agriculture as branch of economy
Cijfermatig overzicht van de sectorstructuur en de marktresultaten van de visverwerkende industrie en groothandel in Nederland. De gegevens zijn gebaseerd op enquêtes van alle bedrijven in de sector, aangevuld met statistische gegevens. De cijfers hebben betrekking op het jaar 2005. De visverwerkende industrie en groothandel bestaat uit bijna 300 bedrijven. De bedrijven zijn ingedeeld in acht sectoren op basis van activiteiten, verwerkte vissoorten en de markten waarin het bedrijf actief is. Van de sectoren zijn economische kengetallen gepresenteerd en zijn indicaties gegeven van veranderingen in de omgeving van de sector. A data-based overview of the sector structure and the market results of the fish-processing industry and wholesale in the Netherlands. The data is based on surveys carried out among all businesses in the sector, supplemented with statistical data. The figures relate to the year 2005. The fish-processing industry and wholesale sectors consist of almost 300 businesses. The businesses are divided into eight sectors based on activities, processed fish types and the markets in which the businesses are active. Key economic figures are presented for these sectors, and indications are given of changes in the environment of the sector.
Transitie naar duurzame kottervisserij : economisch krachtenveld
Smit, J.G.P. ; Buisman, F.C. - \ 2006
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9789086151196 - 35
landbouwsector - visserij - visserijbeleid - landbouwbeleid - overheidsbeleid - vissersschepen - nederland - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agricultural sector - fisheries - fishery policy - agricultural policy - government policy - fishing vessels - netherlands - agriculture as branch of economy
Cijfermatig overzicht van het economische krachtenveld rond de kottervloot. De ontwikkeling tussen 1975 en 2005 wordt beschreven aan de hand van vlootontwikkeling, technische en economische productiviteit van de vloot, ketenontwikkelingen en de invloed van overheidsbeleid. Op grond van deze beschrijving zijn potentiële economic incentives geselecteerd. Statistical overview of the economic force field surrounding the cutter fleet. Development between 1975 and 2005 is described on the basis of fleet development, technical and economic productivity of the fleet, chain developments and the influence of government policy. Based on this description, potential economic incentives have been selected.
Agrocluster Oost in beeld: Een onderzoek naar het belang van en de perspectieven voor het agrocluster in Gelderland en Overijssel
Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Wisman, J.H. ; Kuhlman, J.W. - \ 2006
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Ketens ) - ISBN 9789086150816 - 149
agrarische economie - landbouwsector - nederland - toegevoegde waarde - werkgelegenheid - agrarische structuur - economische ontwikkeling - oost-nederland - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agricultural economics - agricultural sector - value added - employment - agricultural structure - economic development - netherlands - east netherlands - agriculture as branch of economy
Dit rapport geeft een beeld van het agrocluster in de provincies Overijssel en Gelderland. Het economisch belang van het agrocluster en van de belangrijkste deelclusters is gekwantificeerd in termen van toegevoegde waarde en werkgelegenheid. Ook worden de structuur en de ontwikkelingen in de deelclusters geschetst. De uitkomsten zijn vergeleken met de perspectieven zoals ze in de nota Kiezen voor Landbouw geschetst zijn. Daaruit volgen een aantal opgaven voor de deelclusters om de perspectieven te realiseren. This report provides insight into the agricultural cluster in the Dutch provinces of Overijssel and Gelderland. The economic importance of the agricultural cluster and the major sub-clusters is quantified in terms of their added value and the employment they offer. In addition, the survey also outlines the structure of and developments in the sub-clusters. The findings are compared with the prospects as outlined in the nota Kiezen voor Landbouw ('Choosing Agriculture' policy document) published by the Dutch Government. This comparison indicates a number of challenges confronting the sub-clusters in achieving their potential prospects.
Naar een Afrikaanse landbouwrevolutie. Honger en armoede de wereld uit!-nog haalbaar ook
Bindraban, P.S. - \ 2005
Spil 1 (2005)209-210. - ISSN 0165-6252 - p. 32 - 32.
landbouw - landbouwontwikkeling - ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingslanden - afrika - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agriculture - agricultural development - development aid - developing countries - africa - agriculture as branch of economy
De aandacht wordt gevestigd op Afrika, waar de ontwikkeling van de landbouw verwaarloosd wordt
Turkey in the European Union; consequences for agriculture, food, rural areas and structural policy
Oskam, A.J. ; Burrell, A.M. ; Temel, T. ; Berkum, S. van; Longworth, N.J. ; Molina Vilchez, I. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 253
landbouw - landbouw als bedrijfstak - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - inkomensverdeling - landbouwproductie - landbouwprijzen - agrarische handel - landarbeiders - landbouwindustrie - voedselindustrie - beleid inzake voedsel - landbouwbeleid - plattelandsbeleid - structuurbeleid - internationale handel - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - diergezondheid - integratie - platteland - turkije - europese unie - agriculture - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural situation - economic situation - income distribution - agricultural production - agricultural prices - agricultural trade - farm workers - agribusiness - food industry - food policy - agricultural policy - rural policy - structural policy - international trade - environment - sustainability - animal health - integration - rural areas - turkey - european union
Growing Strong, The development of the Dutch Agricultural sector (Chinese uitgave)
Post, J.H. - \ 2003
Den Haag : LEI - ISBN 9787801675040 - 177
landbouw - economie - agro-industriële sector - agrarische economie - landbouwproductie - agrarische structuur - ontwikkeling - nederland - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agriculture - economics - agroindustrial sector - agricultural economics - agricultural production - agricultural structure - development - netherlands - agriculture as branch of economy
Making contract farming work? : society and technology in Philippine transnational agribusiness
Vellema, S. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P. Richards; B.N.F. White. - Maastricht : Shaker - ISBN 9789042301856 - 246
contractlandbouw - landbouwproductie - technologieoverdracht - marketing - samenleving - technologie - landbouw - landbouwindustrie - filippijnen - economische ontwikkeling - sociale economie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouw als bedrijfstak - contract farming - agricultural production - technology transfer - marketing - economic development - socioeconomics - society - technology - agriculture - agribusiness - farm management - philippines - agriculture as branch of economy
Keywords: contract farming, agribusiness, Philippines, Southeast Asia, asparagus, hybrid maize

Contract farming is a widespread and important tool for organising agricultural production in line with corporate strategies and market demands. This book analyses how Philippine farmers and transnational agribusiness make contract farming work in two production schemes in Mindanao: the export-oriented production of high-value asparagus and the risky production of hybrid maize seed. The study encompasses a wide range of issues, ranging from business strategies, customised production and marketing processes, and transfer of technologies and skills throughout agrifood production. The book challenges straightforward managerial perspectives by its focus on the continuous drawing of boundaries between firm, farm and society. Special attention is given to the way company and contract farmers manage the social attributes of their relationship and the study raises the question what happens if institutional perceptions are incommensurable. Furthermore, this study integrates organisational concerns and technological puzzles through ethnographic study of financial and administrative transactions and conditions for profit sharing, co-ordination of farm work and divergent management styles, and the impact of risk and uncertainty on trust and organisational coherence. The analysis bridges between literatures of agrarian sociology, technology and development studies, management studies, and agronomy. The book is a valuable resource for practitioners and policy-makers in forming a view of possible futures within the context of agro-industrialisation and incorporation into global markets.

Innovatie en internationalisatie in de glastuinbouwtoelevering
Meijl, H. van; Wolters, A. - \ 2001
Tijdschrift voor sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek van de landbouw 16 (2001)1. - ISSN 0921-481X - p. 41 - 45.
marketingkanalen - innovaties - internationale handel - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - nederland - landbouw als bedrijfstak - glastuinbouw - marketing channels - innovations - international trade - farm results - netherlands - agriculture as branch of economy - greenhouse horticulture
Vanuit het Landbouw-Economisch Instituut wordt onderstreept dat de toeleveringsbedrijven voor de glastuinbouw, die niet investeren in research & development noodgedwongen afhankelijk zullen blijven van de sterk stagnerende Nederlandse markt, waar op de lange termijn de winst- en groeimogelijkheden beperkt zullen zijn
Het Weigevoel in het Groene Hart van de Randstad : een studie onder melkveehouders in het Westelijk Veenweidegebied naar hun bereidheid en mogelijkheden zich te ontwikkelen van productieboer tot plattelandsondernemer
Ploeg, B. van der - \ 2001
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; A.T.J. Nooij. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084903 - 214
melkveehouderij - veengronden - graslanden - economische sectoren - landbouwproductie - boeren - ondernemerschap - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - innovaties - ruimtelijke ordening - landbouwontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - modernisering - zuid-holland - utrecht - veenweiden - west-nederland - groene hart - economie - landbouw - plattelandsvernieuwing - sociologie - veenweidegebied - Noord-Holland - dairy farming - agricultural production - agricultural development - sustainability - farmers - entrepreneurship - economic sectors - rural development - rural areas - innovations - modernization - physical planning - peat soils - grasslands - agriculture as branch of economy - zuid-holland - peat grasslands - west netherlands - groene hart

Introduction: narrow versus wider farm development

There is a growing interest in the multifunctionality of rural space, in which both agricultural production and other functions are considered to be important. An OECD publication (1994) refers to these other functions as follows: 'Rural areas are home to a wide range of natural and man-made features - also called amenities - including wildlife and flora, ecosystems of special interest, recreational areas as well as cultivated landscapes, unique settlement patterns, historic sites, and social and cultural traditions that cannot be transferred or recreated elsewhere.' The title of the OECD publication, The contribution of amenities to rural development, is at the heart of the story told in this book. One of the points that will be brought forward is that it is not at all easy to bring about positive contributions to economic development via amenities. On the contrary, as Blöchliger says in the mentioned publication, besides our target option 4 (see box), there are three other possible interactions between amenities and rural development. Below is an overview of options for rural development in relation to destruction versus promotion of amenities.

development leads to the destruction of amenities,e.g. standardised farming practices develop at the expense of unique regional characteristics;non-development leads to the destruction of amenities,e.g. farming fades away, taking cultural landscapes along with it;preservation/promotion of amenities leads to non-development,e.g. severe constraints on farming such as prescribed high water tables in the study-area;preservation/promotion of amenities leads to development, e.g. the creation of a financial spillover from city dwellers who are 'consumers' of the countryside according to farmers who welcome the role of 'local environmental manager' (Fuller 1990).

back-lash from 3 to 2

This study

This book is about the feasibility of the win-win solution presented as option 4. This feasibility is analysed from three points of view:

farmers as emerging 'local environmental managers', representing the supply-side of wider farm development;

society present in governments, citizens and consumers interested in other kinds of products and services delivered by farmers, representing the demand-side of wider farm development;

interaction between farmers and society, especially markets as organisations that enable exchange to take place (between farmers and society).

The main sources of information for this book are:

A survey about wider farm development in 1996 among 105 cattle farmers in the peat-meadow area to the north of Amsterdam (Waterland). This survey was part of an international multidisciplinary research project to support EU Agri-Environmental Programs (regulation 2078/92). The sociological perspective on individual farmers (attitudes) and social organisations (support system for wider farm development) in Waterland was elaborated in Van der Ploeg (1999).

A follow-up survey in 1999 on 33 dairy farms in this sub-area Waterland at the northern fringe of the peat-meadow area of the western Netherlands;

A twin-survey of the foregoing, also in 1999, on 33 dairy farms among young farmers (up to 40 years) and their wives at the southern fringe of the peat-meadow area, between Rotterdam and Utrecht (Alblasserwaard/Vijfheerenlanden);

Desk research by two research institutes (Agricultural Economics Research Institute, Alterra for Research on Green Space), for four provincial governments in the Randstad area into future possibilities of land-based farming in an urban environment. This identified several factors in the development of conventional and wider farm development:

factors internal to the farming sector, including changing EU price and market policies;

factors external to the farming sector, especially the urban market for wider farm development; and

factors at the interface of rural and urban, especially the urban influence on prices for agricultural land (relatively high) and the limiting consequences of this for scale enlargement in conventional farming.

This desk research included an analysis of the (potential) effective demand for new

products and services delivered by farmers, given the existing market organisation.

An ongoing research (May 2001) by the same institutes for the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Fisheries about the consequences for farming as an economic activity and as a supporter of the so-called 'green heart' of the urbanised Randstad area. This study focuses on the central part of the peat-meadow area halfway between the study areas mentioned above.

The study areas Waterland (1,2) and Alblasserwaard (3) are front runners in the grass-roots movement for wider farm development. Both farmers' nature organisations (Waterland, Den Hâneker) are among the oldest and largest organisations of this type in the Netherlands.

It should be noted that farming in both study areas seems to be more compatible with wider farm development because of the relatively low cattle density compared with the central part of the peat-meadow district.

The reality of rural development in the Netherlands, in particular in the peat-meadow areas

In the Netherlands the first option (see box) was most clearly the case in the era of scale enlargement and specialisation in farming, when there was an emphasis on adapting sites to allow for application of uniform farming systems. This emphasis on site reconstruction was probably stronger in a manmade country like the Netherlands than in most other countries. Particularly in the period 1950-1980 most rural regions underwent changes during land consolidation and reallotment projects. Policies for water management provide an example. Agricultural production goals in most cases determined at what level water tables should be managed and, consequently, how the rural area should be reconstructed (system of waterways, dams, pumping stations or mills and drainage at field level).

After about 1980 other goals besides agricultural production became more important as factors in the design of land consolidation plans. New plans were often the outcome of clashes of interests in the rural area, although officials preferred the label 'integrated planning'. Plans were adapted to the wishes of farmers, tourists and stakeholders of nature and landscape values. For some regions the view even prevailed that farming systems should be subservient to nature and landscape goals. This applied to the so-called 'relation policy areas' (Ministry of Agriculture) and especially to some small marginal peat-meadow areas (wetlands or fens) that were brought under EU mountain farming regulations. In these areas physical handicaps for conventional farming were conserved or even brought about - e.g. high water tables in the peat-meadow areas - if this was considered necessary for nature and landscape qualities. On the other hand farmers were eligible for subsidies if they were willing to participate in a management agreement scheme (EU regulation 2078/92). This income subvention was to prevent the preservation of amenities from leading to the non-development of farms (option 3) and eventually to farming fading away and taking with it - as a backlash effect - the typical meadow landscape and natural species like meadow birds and botanical grassland (option 2).

Recently awareness is growing of nature and landscape values in rural areas outside the management zones ('white zones'). Besides the management agreements based on acceptance of constraints by farmers, now there are also schemes that reward actions by farmers that are beneficial to nature or landscape, especially in field margins but also all over the fields (e.g. protection of birds' nests). In these schemes, grass-roots farmers' nature organisations mediate between subsidising authorities and individual farmers who conclude contracts on 'nature production' (option 4).

'Development' in terms of internalising amenities in farm economics

Option 4 is a special case of internalising amenities in farm economics. It represents internalisation in which economic decisions refer to amenities as benefits (economic resources) to the farm business. Internalising amenities in farm economics takes a different direction if negative effects on amenities from farm development/functioning are regarded as a cost factor by the farmer.

Both kinds of internalisation presume changes in the context of economic decision making compared with a former situation in which so-called externalities existed, sometimes of two different kinds: (a) positive externalities such as cultural landscapes and (b) negative externalities such as the pollution of natural resources (van Kooten 1993). An example of a context change that allows for internalising a former positive externality is mentioned above in option 4 as the creation of a financial spillover from city dwellers who are 'consumers' of the countryside to farmers who accept the role of 'local environmental manager'. An example of a context change which solves former negative externalities in the Netherlands is the so-called system of mineral balances that imposes a fine on farmers who exceed norms with regard to the physical 'input minus output' rate (Mineral Surplus) on their farms. In our case-study, an even more relevant illustration is that governmental regulations for the management of surface water can be designed in favour of amenities. This is done by prescribing high water tables that are needed for sustainable organic (peat) soils and thus for the continuity of the typical peat-meadow landscape and nature. In zones with very high water tables (up to the grassroots) income compensations are given to farmers ('mountain' area regulation), but in zones with moderately high water tables (60 centimetres below surface), farmers are likely to have more financial problems due to yield reductions and relatively high production costs.

From a farmer's perspective one kind of internalisation is described in positive terms (benefits) whilst the second type is stated in negative terms (costs). From a non-farmer's perspective the two might be seen the other way round.

In the view of non-farmers, the first can be associated with expenditures, assuming their willingness to pay for amenities. The establishment of markets is crucial here, following Tomlinson (1996) who described them as institutions that enable exchange to take place, in this case between (a) farmers who commit themselves to the 'cultivation' of rurality and rendering services to visitors to the countryside and (b) urban people who derive satisfaction from their stay in a rural area or simply from the idea that farmers are taking care of rural amenities. Bryant and Johnston (1992) describe this type of 'consumption countryside' with its active role for farmers, in areas that are close to urban centres, as 'agriculture in the city's countryside'. This implies that farmers in wealthy urbanised societies can make a living out of the 'cultivation' of rurality (nature, landscape and a clean and relaxing environment) and its economic exploitation (e.g. agritourism). This type of agriculture in densely populated regions implies a delicate combination of: (1) articulation of differences between rural and urban space, (2) establishment of functional linkages between rural and urban systems (e.g. a public footpath passing farms), and (3) economic linkages to create the financial flow (spillover) from urban people to farmers.

As a consequence, farmers might have to abstain from adoption of what is labelled progress in mainstream farm development, especially if this would destroy amenities. A complication is that amenities are not always just there (in the countryside) but sometimes exist primarily as a 'social construction' (concerning rurality) in the eye of the beholder. Farmers may try to produce 'counter-social constructions' for instance by suggesting that the countryside is most attractive if it is alive and not an open-air museum. A striking illustration of contested social constructions is the introduction of automatic milking systems in dairy farming. This can be presented as a symbol of industrial farming systems clearly at odds with the idea of rurality, but in our study area it is presented by an organic farmer as a way to give back to cows the natural situation of being milked more than twice in 24 hours.

The second way to internalise amenities in farm economics for non-farmers has environmental benefits (including the prevention of environmental harm) without financial costs. If society wants farmers to behave in an environmentally friendly way, it can use a 'soft mechanism' (convincing them about standards of good farming practices) or a 'hard mechanism' (overruling by collective decision making, obligatory standards and, if necessary, charges on those 'negative externalities' which are not strictly forbidden). The 'soft mechanism' appeals to countryside stewardship, the 'hard mechanism' leaves little choice to farmers other than to evaluate farm decisions differently than before. For broad-minded farmers there is a middle course, called 'license to produce'. These farmers are searching for positive action (the creation or conservation of amenities) as a possible substitution for a future more painful 'hard mechanism' that would be imposed from outside. A major incentive might also be the desire to improve the image of agricultural products. Being broad-minded in conventional farming is not far away from wider farm development, in which 'environmental services' and quality products are perceived as means to realise additional value for the farm, especially when a farmer's orientation to the world market is (partly) replaced by an orientation to niche markets.

For non-farmers a 'free ride' to amenities might depend on their power or influence to reduce farmers' free property rights over land to conditional property rights. The reader should remember the example of the Dutch system of Mineral Balances and the conflicting interests between farmers and non-farmers regarding policies on water tables. It is highly relevant that non-farmers in recent years have gained much more influence in Dutch drainage boards (Dutch 'waterschap'), because these boards can also prescribe water tables in ditches between farm fields. Farmers in an urbanised society like the Netherlands are a small minority. Yet real possibilities for 'free rides' to rural amenities are limited for the urban majority as long as farmers cannot be replaced as 'environmental managers', as in the case of peat-meadow landscapes. Because farmers have to make a living in a market economy, there is always the danger of option 2 above, the fading away of farming, taking along with it the highly valued cultural landscape.

The city's green heart: a case of wider farm development

The peat-meadow district in the western Netherlands covers about 100,000 hectares of land and water. At some places there is a peat layer of 10 meters or even more. The land surface in this area has been sinking continuously since the time of reclamation around the year 1100. Locally the peat has already almost vanished, due to oxidation of the soil. For the conservation of peat soils it is essential to maintain high water tables in the broad ditches between the meadows. Drainage boards have legal power to prescribe such high water tables to farmers. Depending on the level at which the water tables are fixed, for conventional dairy farming peat-meadow areas represent seriously disadvantaged farm locations (wetland zones) or moderately favourable farm locations, zones in which water tables are at least 60 centimetres below grassroots.

The peat-meadow district is surrounded by several urban centres including Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam and Utrecht. The area is popularly called the cities' green heart ( Groene Hart van de Randstad ). The green heart was protected with some degree of success from urbanisation by physical planning and also by physical local conditions (high cost of building houses on soft peat soils). The green heart is a powerful symbol in Dutch politics because it is thought to prevent the Randstad cities from growing together. Besides this, the meadow landscapes, like other polder landscapes, are seen as a part of the Netherlands' national identity. The high level of bio-diversity of the peat meadows, especially on extensive grasslands, is an additional reason to protect this green heart. The district also has a function in international ecosystems, especially for migrant birds.

Farming in the district in recent history reflects some of the dominant trends in this sector during the era of industrialisation. Most important here are two trends towards uncoupling of farming:

from its natural environment (relatively) and

(b) from direct interaction with its nearby urban markets (rather drastically).

The relative uncoupling of farming from the natural environment can be illustrated most clearly by the case of fertiliser. Initially the peat-meadow district was known for its highly productive grasslands, due to the 'natural nitrogen' set free by the process of oxidation in peat soils. This comparative advantage became less important with the introduction of chemical fertilisers. On the other hand the disadvantages of the soft soil became more clearly visible when farming was mechanised, including the replacement of boat farming by tractor farming, and because of higher cattle densities induced by the use of chemical fertilisers.

The rather drastic uncoupling of farming from direct interaction with nearby urban markets can be illustrated with the disappearance (to a large extent) of some typical farming systems in the area. The most interesting farming system was found in the centre of the current Green Heart. There, until the 1960s many farms had an integrated system of cheese making based on the output from dairy farming and providing the input (skimmed milk) for pig production. These pigs were called 'butchers' pigs', as compared with 'bacon pigs' for the export market. The farming system of cheese production and dairy farming on the one hand and pig production on the other was prosperous and extremely laborious for farmers and their wives (in charge of the cheese making). It was also marked by high land use intensity (cattle density). However, there was a large diversity in land use within each farm. Fields at the back of the farm properties - deep in the polder - were often managed in an extensive way, which in turn allowed for a rich biodiversity.

Until about 1980 both uncoupling tendencies were stimulated by the prevailing forces in agribusiness and governmental policies. Since then there has been a counter-movement directed at recoupling farming with its natural environment. In some parts of the peat-meadow district, the so-called relation policy areas, extensive grassland farming was promoted by (a) restrictive policies on water table management and (b) financial support policies or management agreements. In recent years this was followed by a grass-roots movement (farmers' nature organisations) backed by government subsidies, aiming at higher qualities of nature in zones where circumstances allow rather intensive agriculture production practices.

In recent years there has also been a counter-movement aimed at recoupling farming with nearby urban centres. In government initiatives - e.g. the Valuable Landscape Project (WCL) in Waterland - and in farmer initiatives such as the city's garden ( binnentuin ) of the regional farmers union WLTO, a restoration of linkages between urban and rural systems was put on the agenda. There is a close connection between this 'social recoupling' and the 'ecological recoupling' mentioned above. Farming is to be made an ecologically and socially friendly business. Some of the proposed changes can be classified as ecological widening of farm development (e.g. nature conservation by farmers) whilst others can be characterised as the social widening of farm development (e.g. farm tourism). The orientation to special quality products with high value added is here considered deep farm development

Delimitation of wider farm development as a possible way out

The most striking change seems to be that the countryside is no longer regarded as the property of agriculture, to be adapted to the production needs of farmers, but is increasingly claimed as the property of a range of mainly urban groups (nature conservationists, tourists etc.), who believe that it is agriculture which has to adapt to the needs of amenities in the local countryside and not the other way around. Farmers, particularly in urbanised areas, are faced with a double-bind dilemma, involving conflicting external claims: (a) an urban society asking for rurality and (b) a world market urging cheap production. Internalising amenities as additional costs in farm economies can easily transform this double bind into a deadlock for farm development.

Against this background, the positive way to internalise amenities into farm economies is taken as a goal in this case-study. The combined 'cultivation' and economic exploitation of amenities is called wider farm development. Three main types are distinguished:

deep farm development, e.g. organic farming and regional quality products such as on-farm cheese making, where amenities are tied up in agricultural products provided that consumers want to pay for the additional labour, care and out-of-pocket-costs to the farmer compared to conventional products;

ecological widening, especially the management of nature, landscape and/or physical environment features such as 'clean water ditches', as an economic activity done alongside agricultural production;

social widening, particularly farmers rendering paid services to visitors to rural amenities, e.g. on-farm tourism and educational/recreational excursions to farm fields with nature management.

Conclusions

Farmers and farmers' wives show mostly a general attitude pro or con wider farm development.

Farmers who are enthusiastic about the most popular type of wider farm development (ecological widening) relatively often are positive about the unpopular type (social widening) or at least they are less negative about this option compared to other farmers.

This applies to farmers' wives as well, taking into account that they generally are more positive about social widening compared to their male partners.

This general attitude of farmers for or against wider farm development is found independent from a general attitude for or against conventional farm development (scale enlargement, intensification and specialisation in dairy farming). This does not apply to farmers' wives: positive feelings about wider farm development relatively often go together with negative feelings about conventional farm development.

Farmers who welcome ecological widening or deep farm development (especially organic farming) often say this enables them to derive more satisfaction from their occupation as a dairy farmer: it makes them a real farmer again. These farmers may be positive about social widening because as a dairy farmer the then have a license to produce.

The future growth of wider farm development will be limited primarily by a lack of effective demand for new products and services offered by farmers and less by limitations at the supply side of it, especially if many farmers and farmers' wives would refrain from involvement in wider farm development.

The empirical analysis of room for wider farm development at both (supply and demand) sides was done within the frame of current market institutions. Emergent institutions were taken into account only in a conceptual analysis.

4) A considerable economic growth of wider farm development of at least 100% seems feasible. However given the prospects of declining economic margins under 'Agenda 2000' this will not be sufficient to improve the rather poor incomes of farmer families in the peat-meadow area. Probably these incomes will go down considerably which might result in a development mentioned before as option 2: farming fades away, including cultural landscapes.

Discussion

The outcome of this study indicates the existence of a social dilemma in the green heart of an urban area. City dwellers who prefer to have a free ride in the countryside will eventually find that green pastures and cultural landscapes, in this case of a low-lying peat area, will have been replaced by swamps. Farmers and non-farmers both would be losers without an acceleration into wider farm development.

An ongoing research about perspectives for 'a green heart - with farmers - on its way to a higher level' explores possibilities for an acceleration in wider farm development in which parties (agriculture, city) will offer much more to each other.

The generous offer from the agricultural side could have two main components. The first component has a negative connotation for production-oriented farmers: the acceptance of higher water tables and consequently of higher losses in the use of grass yield in grazing and the preparation of silage. It would make this agricultural land even more marginal. On the other hand, the main benefits would be a reduction of the large emissions from decomposing peat soils of global warming gasses (CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 ), a longer life expectancy for the remaining peat layer annex typical landscape and nature, and savings in future water management for this low country confronted with a declining soil surface and a rising sea level. The second component in the generous offer from the agricultural side also has positive connotations. Quality of products and services from wider farm development can be brought to a much higher level by a systematic combination of ecological widening, social widening and deep farm development. Examples are eco-tourism at farms (ecological and social widening) and 'holistic courses' at organic farms (deep farm development and social widening). An example at regional level is a 'fine food and drink trail' (deep farm development and social widening). In each case the mechanism behind additional value added is that one activity gives a special cachet to a second type of wider farm development.

The generous offer from the city's side could be the creation of a fund with a deposit as high as the reduction in the use value of agricultural land due to measures, such as higher water tables, in favour of the countryside as a public good. From such a fund yearly payments can be made to farmers who have land in the target area for measures in favour of the public good. This fund in its management and donation can be a mixture of public and private partnership and of city and land partnership. This idea of funding as compensation for the loss in utility value of land caused by severe measures (beyond environmental baselines) was developed for the stimulation of nature-oriented farming. The severe measure proposed was the total exclusion of external input of minerals at a farm. In the peat-meadow area a more relevant severe measure is the possible prescription of high water tables in favour of the public good. This prescription without countervailing institutions would destroy farming and with it valuable elements of the public good, especially the cultural landscape and the typical nature. In the green heart of the Randstad, especially in the urban vicinity, an additional severe measure could be the establishment of rights for public access to land that always was the exclusive territory of farmers.

Multifunctionality and agricultural trade liberalisation
Burrell, A. - \ 2001
Tijdschrift voor sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek van de landbouw 16 (2001)2. - ISSN 0921-481X - p. 77 - 95.
agrarische handel - internationale handel - liberalisering van de handel - wereldhandelsorganisatie - landbouw - meervoudig gebruik - meervoudig landgebruik - functies met meervoudige doelstelling - landbouwbeleid - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agricultural trade - agricultural policy - international trade - trade liberalization - world trade organization - agriculture - multiple use - multiple land use - multiple objective functions - agriculture as branch of economy
Uitleg volgt omtrent de verschillende manieren, waarop door verschillende landen in de WTO naar de multifunctionaliteit in de landbouw wordt gekeken
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