Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Comparing optimized CO emission estimates using MOPITT or NOAA surface network observations
Hooghiemstra, P.B. ; Krol, M.C. ; Bergamaschi, P. ; Laat, A.T.J. de; Werf, G.R. van der; Novelli, P.C. ; Deeter, M.N. ; Aben, I. ; Rockmann, T. - \ 2012
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117 (2012). - ISSN 2169-897X - 23 p.
variational data assimilation - zoom model tm5 - carbon-monoxide - tropospheric chemistry - inversion - validation - sciamachy - algorithm - pollution - aircraft
This paper compares two global inversions to estimate carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for 2004. Either surface flask observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) or CO total columns from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are assimilated in a 4D-Var framework. Inferred emission estimates from the two inversions are consistent over the Northern Hemisphere (NH). For example, both inversions increase anthropogenic CO emissions over Europe (from 46 to 94 Tg CO/yr) and Asia (from 222 to 420 Tg CO/yr). In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), three important findings are reported. First, due to their different vertical sensitivity, the stations-only inversion increases SH biomass burning emissions by 108 Tg CO/yr more than the MOPITT-only inversion. Conversely, the MOPITT-only inversion results in SH natural emissions (mainly CO from oxidation of NMVOCs) that are 185 Tg CO/yr higher compared to the stations-only inversion. Second, MOPITT-only derived biomass burning emissions are reduced with respect to the prior which is in contrast to previous (inverse) modeling studies. Finally, MOPITT derived total emissions are significantly higher for South America and Africa compared to the stations-only inversion. This is likely due to a positive bias in the MOPITT V4 product. This bias is also apparent from validation with surface stations and ground-truth FTIR columns. Our results show that a combined inversion is promising in the NH. However, implementation of a satellite bias correction scheme is essential to combine both observational data sets in the SH.
Meezweven met vuile lucht
Krol, Maarten - \ 2012
air pollution - aircraft - monitoring - research projects - europe - netherlands
Monitoring van effecten van vliegbewegingen bij Den Helder Airport: resultaten 2010
Smit, C.J. - \ 2011
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C195/11) - 33
vogels - helikopters - luchtvaartuig - milieueffect - natura 2000 - habitatrichtlijn - luchttransport - waddenzee - noord-holland - nederland - birds - helicopters - aircraft - environmental impact - habitats directive - air transport - wadden sea - netherlands
Vanwege de nog steeds toenemende vraag naar vliegbewegingen vanuit de offshore-industrie bleken 22.000 vliegbewegingen onvoldoende om aan de vraag te kunnen voldoen. Daarom heeft Den Helder Airport de wens geuit het aantal vluchten uit te breiden naar 25.000. Een dergelijke behoefte zou kunnen leiden tot een groter aantal vluchten in korte tijd. Uit vervolgonderzoek dat is uitgevoerd in 2008 is gebleken dat een dergelijke clustering van vliegbewegingen niet tot andere reacties van vogels leidt dan die welke al tijdens vorige onderzoeken waren vastgesteld. Op basis daarvan is Den Helder Airport een vergunning verleend voor maximaal 25.000 vliegbewegingen per jaar.
Dis-aggregation of airborne flux measurements using footprint analysis
Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Vellinga, O.S. ; Gioli, B. ; Miglietta, F. - \ 2010
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150 (2010)7-8. - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 966 - 983.
klimaatverandering - landgebruik - emissie - aardoppervlak - methodologie - climatic change - land use - emission - land surface - methodology - boundary-layer - carbon-dioxide - scalar fluxes - quality assessment - least-squares - heat fluxes - part 1 - aircraft - surface - tower
Aircraft measurements of turbulent fluxes are generally being made with the objective to obtain an estimate of regional exchanges between land surface and atmosphere, to investigate the spatial variability of these fluxes, but also to learn something about the fluxes from some or all of the land cover types that make up the landscape. In this study we develop a method addressing this last objective, an approach to disentangle blended fluxes from a landscape into the component fluxes emanating from the various land cover classes making up that landscape. The method relies on using a footprint model to determine which part of the landscape the airborne flux observation refers to, using a high resolution land cover map to determine the fractional covers of the various land cover classes within that footprint, and finally using multiple linear regression on many such flux/fractional cover data records to estimate the component fluxes. The method is developed in the context of three case studies of increasing complexity and the analysis covers three scalar fluxes: sensible and latent heat fluxes and carbon dioxide flux, as well as the momentum flux. A basic assumption under the dis-aggregation method is that the composite flux, i.e. the landscape flux, is a linear average of the component fluxes, i.e. the fluxes from the various land elements. We test and justify this assumption by comparing linear averages of component fluxes in simple ‘binary landscapes’, weighted by their relative area, with directly aircraft observed fluxes. In all case studies dis-aggregation of mixed values for fluxes from heterogeneous areas into component land cover class specific fluxes is feasible using robust least squares regression, both in simple binary ‘landscapes’ and in more complex cases. Both the differences between land cover classes and the differences between synoptic conditions can be resolved, for those land cover classes that make up sufficiently large fractions of the landscape. The regression F-statistic and the closely associated p-values are good indicators for this latter prerequisite and for other sources of uncertainty in the dis-aggregated flux estimates that render it meaningful or not. An analysis of the effect of various sources of errors in input data, footprint estimates and of skewed land cover class distributions is presented. A validation of flux estimates obtained through the dis-aggregation method against independent ground data proved satisfactorily. Recommendations for the use of the method are given as are suggestions for further development
Regional carbon dioxide and energy fluxes from airborne observations using flight-path segmentation based on landscape characteristics
Vellinga, O.S. ; Gioli, B. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Kabat, P. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. - \ 2010
Biogeosciences 7 (2010)4. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1307 - 1321.
klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - landgebruik - emissie - frankrijk - climatic change - carbon dioxide - land use - emission - france - sensible heat - field experiment - latent-heat - aircraft - co2 - exchange - footprint - surface - errors - variability
This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES’07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The segmentation is based on topography, land use and soil type, using a.o. satellite imagery and digital maps.
This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES'07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The segmentation is based on topography, land use and soil type, using a.o. satellite imagery and digital maps. The segments are delineated using an average footprint length, based on all flights, and segment lengths, which are variable in space but not in time. The method results in segment averaged carbon and energy fluxes, which are shown to be representative of regional fluxes. Our analysis is focussed on carbon dioxide, heat and evaporative fluxes around solar noon. We will show that spatial and seasonal variations in the fluxes can be linked to the underlying landscape. In addition, a comparison between the airborne data and ground flux data is made to support our results. However, due to the incompleteness of ground data for some predominant vegetation types (even in such a data dense context), upscaling of ground data to regional fluxes was not possible. Without the comparison, we are still able to demonstrate that aircraft can provide direct and meaningful estimates of regional fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide.
Sensible and latent heat flux from radiometric surface temperatures at the regional scale: methodology and validation
Miglietta, F. ; Gioli, B. ; Brunet, Y. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Matese, A. ; Sarrat, C. ; Zaldei, A. - \ 2009
Biogeosciences 6 (2009). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1975 - 1986.
klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - temperatuur - modellen - climatic change - carbon dioxide - temperature - models - convective boundary-layer - evapotranspiration rates - eddy covariance - carbon-dioxide - water-vapor - aircraft - model - airborne - field - emissivity
The CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES) was designed to develop and test a range of methodologies to assess regional surface energy and mass exchange of a large study area in the south-western part of France. This paper describes a methodology to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes on the basis of net radiation, surface radiometric temperature measurements and information obtained from available products derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary meteorological satellite, weather stations and ground-based eddy covariance towers. It is based on a simplified bulk formulation of sensible heat flux that considers the degree of coupling between the vegetation and the atmosphere and estimates latent heat as the residual term of net radiation. Estimates of regional energy fluxes obtained in this way are validated at the regional scale by means of a comparison with direct flux measurements made by airborne eddy-covariance. The results show an overall good matching between airborne fluxes and estimates of sensible and latent heat flux obtained from radiometric surface temperatures that holds for different weather conditions and different land use types. The overall applicability of the proposed methodology to regional studies is discussed
Quick-scan vertoring fauna door laagvliegen
Grift, E.A. van der; Foppen, R. ; Loos, W.B. ; Molenaar, J.G. de; Oomen, D. ; Reijnen, M.J.S.M. ; Sierdsema, H. ; Wegman, R.M.A. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1725) - 134
vogels - zoogdieren - luchtvaartuig - helikopters - ecologische verstoring - milieueffect - natuurbescherming - nederland - verstoring - militaire activiteiten - ecologische hoofdstructuur - birds - mammals - aircraft - helicopters - ecological disturbance - environmental impact - nature conservation - netherlands - disturbance - military activities - ecological network
De effecten van militair laagvliegen (in de daarvoor aangewezen laagvlieggebieden) op vogels en zoogdieren. Het betreft hierbij zowel helikopters als straaljagers. De gebieden betreft zowel de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur als Natura 2000 gebieden. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in samenwerking met SOVON
Net regional ecosystem CO2 exchange from airborne and ground-based eddy covariance, land-use maps and weather observations
Miglietta, F. ; Gioli, B. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Reichstein, M. - \ 2007
Global Change Biology 13 (2007)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 548 - 560.
broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - weersgegevens - landgebruik - eddy-covariantie - west-nederland - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - weather data - land use - eddy covariance - west netherlands - carbon-dioxide - spatial variability - flux measurements - soil respiration - water-vapor - aircraft - forests - models - vegetation - germany
Measurements of regional net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were made over a period of 21 days in summer 2002 in the South-Central part of the Netherlands and extrapolated to an area of 13 000 km2 using a combination of flux measurements made by a Sky Arrow ERA research aircraft, half-hourly eddy covariance data from four towers, half-hourly weather data recorded by three weather stations and detailed information on regional land use.
Measurements of regional net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were made over a period of 21 days in summer 2002 in the South-Central part of the Netherlands and extrapolated to an area of 13 000 km(2) using a combination of flux measurements made by a Sky Arrow ERA research aircraft, half-hourly eddy covariance data from four towers, half-hourly weather data recorded by three weather stations and detailed information on regional land use. The combination of this type of information allowed to estimate the net contribution of the terrestrial ecosystems to the overall regional carbon flux and to map dynamically the temporal and spatial variability of the fluxes. A regional carbon budget was calculated for the study period and the contributions of the different land uses to the overall regional flux, were assessed. Ecosystems were, overall, a small source of carbon to the atmosphere equivalent to to 0.23 +/- 0.025 g C m(-2) day(-1). When considered separately, arable and grasslands were a source of, respectively, 0.68 +/- 0.022 and 1.28 +/- 0.026 g C m(-2) day(-1). Evergreen and deciduous forests were instead a sink of -1.42 +/- 0.015 g C m(-2) day(-1). During the study period, forests offset approximately 3.5% of anthropogenic carbon emission estimates obtained from inventory data. Lacking of a robust validation, NEE values obtained with this method were compared with independent state of art estimates of the regional carbon balance that were obtained by applying a semi-empirical model of NEE driven by MODIS satellite fAPAR data. The comparison showed an acceptable matching for the carbon balance of forest that was a sink in both cases, while a much larger difference for arable and grassland was found. Those ecosystems were a sink for satellite-based estimates while they were a source for the combined aircraft and tower estimates. Possible causes of such differences are discussed and partly addressed. The importance of new methods for determining carbon balance at the regional scale, is outlined.
MATADOR 2002: A pilot field experiment on convective plumes and dust devils
Renno, N.O. ; Abreu, V.J. ; Koch, J. ; Smith, P.H. ; Hartogensis, O.K. ; Debruin, H.A.R. ; Burose, D. ; Delory, G.T. ; Farrell, W.M. ; Watts, C.J. ; Garatuza, J. ; Parker, M. ; Carswell, A. - \ 2004
Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 109 (2004). - ISSN 2169-9097 - p. E07001 - E07001.
mars orbiter camera - pathfinder - vortices - aircraft - surface - storms - layer
Recent research suggests that mineral dust plays an important role in terrestrial weather and climate, not only by altering the atmospheric radiation budget, but also by affecting cloud microphysics and optical properties. In addition, dust transport and related Aeolian processes have been substantially modifying the surface of Mars. Dusty convective plumes and dust devils are frequently observed in terrestrial deserts and are ubiquitous features of the Martian landscape. There is evidence that they are important sources of atmospheric dust on both planets. Many studies have shown that on a small scale, dust sourcing is sensitive to a large number of factors, such as soil cover, physical characteristics, composition, topography, and weather. We have been doing comparative studies of dust events on Earth and Mars in order to shed light on important physical processes of the weather and climate of both planets. Our 2002 field campaign showed that terrestrial dust devils produce heat and dust fluxes two and five orders of magnitude larger than their background values. It also showed that charge separation within terrestrial dust devils produces strong electric fields that might play a significant role in dust sourcing. Since Martian dust devils and dust storms are stronger and larger than terrestrial events, they probably produce even stronger fluxes and electric fields.
Entrainment process of carbon dioxide in the atmospheric boundary layer
Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. ; Gioli, B. ; Miglietta, F. ; Jonker, H.J.J. ; Klein Baltink, H. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2004
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 109 (2004). - ISSN 2169-897X - p. D18110 - D18110.
large-eddy simulation - sensible heat - flux measurements - aircraft - turbulence - model - parameterization - moisture - budget - latent
Aircraft and surface measurements of turbulent thermodynamic variables and carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken above a grassland in a convective atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were analyzed to assess the importance of the entrainment process for the distribution and evolution of carbon dioxide in the boundary layer. From the observations we were able to estimate the vertical profiles of the fluxes, the correlation coefficients, and the skewness of the virtual potential temperature, the specific humidity, and the carbon dioxide. These profiles indicate that important entrainment events occurred during the observed period. The data were also used to estimate the budgets for heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide. By studying this observational data we find that the entrainment of air parcels containing lower concentrations of water vapor and carbon dioxide significantly dries and dilutes the concentration of these two constituents in the boundary layer. This process is particularly important in the morning hours which are characterized by a rapidly growing boundary layer. The observations show that the CO2 concentration in the boundary layer is reduced much more effectively by the ventilation with entrained air than by CO2 uptake by the vegetation. We quantify this effect by calculating the ratio of the entrainment flux of CO2 to the surface flux of CO2(beta(c)=-((wc) over bar)(e)/((wc) over bar)(o)). A value of beta(c) equal to 2.9 is estimated at around 1300 UTC from the vertical profile of the carbon dioxide flux. We corroborate this observational evidence by reproducing the observed situation using a mixed layer model. The mixed layer model also yields the variation in time of beta(c). During the morning the ventilation process is more important than the CO2 uptake by the vegetation (beta(c)>1), whereas in the afternoon the assimilation by grass at the surface becomes the dominant process (beta(c) <1). This research points out the relevance of the entrainment process on the budget of carbon dioxide in the lower troposphere and the relevance of boundary layer dynamics in controlling the diurnal variation of carbon dioxide.
Experimental determination of turbulent fluxes over the heterogeneous LITFASS area: Selected results from the LITFASS-98 experiment
Beyrich, F. ; Richter, S.H. ; Weisensee, U. ; Kohsiek, W. ; Lohse, H. ; Bruin, H.A.R. de; Foken, T. ; Gockede, M. ; Berger, F. ; Vogt, R. ; Batchvarova, E. - \ 2002
Theoretical and Applied Climatology 73 (2002)39479. - ISSN 0177-798X - p. 19 - 34.
sensible heat - land-surface - structure parameter - natural conditions - momentum - scintillation - inhomogeneity - aircraft - exchange - forest
During the LITFASS-98 experiment, local flux measurements were performed over five different types of underlying surface (grass, barley, triticale, pine forest, water) in a heterogeneous landscape using eddy covariance and profile techniques over a three week time period in June, 1998. Estimates of the area-integrated sensible heat flux during daytime were obtained from continuous measurements with a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) along a 4.7¿km path. The calculation of a mean diurnal cycle of the fluxes during the experiment revealed significant differences between the main land use classes. A land-use weighted average of the sensible heat flux was found to be in good agreement with the LAS based estimate, which in turn was supported by other regionally integrated flux estimates from budget considerations and aircraft measurements for a few case studies. The profiles of turbulent quantities measured along a 99¿m-tower significantly deviate from ¿idealised¿ profiles measured over homogeneous terrain. Peculiarities in the profile structure could be attributed to the heterogeneity of the terrain, namely to the differences in the surface characteristics of the footprint areas for the different tower levels
Scale variability of atmospheric surface layer fluxes of energy and carbon over a tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia; 1 diurnal conditions
Randow, C. von; Sá, L.D.A. ; Gannabathula, P.S.S.D. ; Manzi, A.O. ; Arlino, P.R.A. ; Kruijt, B. - \ 2002
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 107 (2002)020. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 8062 - 8062.
boundary-layer - wavelet analysis - turbulence - temperature - decomposition - similarity - modulation - canopies - aircraft - spectra
The aim of this study is to investigate the low-frequency characteristics of diurnal turbulent scalar spectra and cospectra near the Amazonian rain forest during the wet and dry seasons. This is because the available turbulent data are often nonstationary and there is no clear spectral gap to separate data into "mean" and "turbulent" parts. Daubechies-8 orthogonal wavelet is used to scale project turbulent signals in order to provide scale variance and covariance estimations. Based on the characteristics of the scale dependence of the scalar fluxes, some classification criteria of this scale dependence are investigated. The total scalar covariance of each 4-hour data run is partitioned in categories of scale covariance contributions. This permits the study of some statistical characteristics of the scalar turbulent fields in each one of these classes and, thus, to give an insight and a possible explanation of the origin of the variability of the scalar fields close to the Amazonian forest. The results have shown that a two-category classification is the most appropriate to describe the kind of observed fluctuations: "turbulent" and "mesoscale" contributions. The largest contribution of the sensible heat, latent heat, and CO2 covariance contributions occurs in the "turbulent" length scales. Mesoscale eddy motions, however, can contribute up to 30% of the total covariances under weak wind conditions. Analysis of scale correlation coefficient [r(Tvq)] between virtual temperature (Tv) and humidity (q) signals shows that the scale patterns of Tv and q variability are not similar and r(Tvq) <1 for all analyzed scales. Scale humidity skewness calculations are negative during the dry season and positive during the wet season. This suggests that different boundary layer moisture regimes occur during the dry and wet seasons.
De aantrekkingskracht voor vogels van de centrale waterpartij in het bedrijventerrein De President bij Hoofddorp; toetsing in het kader van het Luchthavenindelingsbesluit
Beintema, A.J. ; Lensink, R. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 854) - 41
luchtvaartuig - vogelbotsingen - luchttransport - luchthavens - open water - plassen - verkeersveiligheid - vogels - nederland - aircraft - bird strikes - air transport - airports - ponds - traffic safety - birds - netherlands
In het nieuw aan te leggen bedrijventerrein De President bij Hoofddorp is een waterpartij voorzien met een oppervlakte van 6 ha. In principe is dit in strijd met het nieuwe Luchthavenindelingsbesluit, dat geen wateren groter dan 3 ha toestaat binnen een straal van 6 km rond het banenstelsel van Schiphol. Ontheffing is mogelijk als aannemelijk gemaakt kan worden dat aanleg niet leidt tot aantrekking van vogels die de kans op vogelaanvaringen op Schiphol verhogen. Dit rapport gaat in op de veranderingen in de vogelbevolking in De President. Aanleg van De President leidt niet tot een verhoogd risico met betrekking tot vogelaanvaringen. De verwachting is eerder dat het bedrijventerrein, inclusief de waterpartij, minder exemplaren van risicosoorten zal herbergen dan het huidige akkerbouwgebied.
Natuur en luchtvaart: literatuurstudie naar verstoring van natuur door luchtvaart
Oost, L. ; Jonkers, D.A. ; Molenaar, J.G. de - \ 1998
Wageningen : IBN - 94
luchttransport - luchthavens - milieu - natuurbescherming - vogels - luchtverontreiniging - geluidshinder - luchtvaartuig - nederland - literatuuroverzichten - verstoring - natuur - air transport - airports - environment - nature conservation - birds - air pollution - noise pollution - aircraft - netherlands - literature reviews - disturbance - nature
HACCP in de luchtvaartcatering.
Beumer, R.R. ; Vrouwenvelder, Th. ; Brinkman, E. - \ 1994
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 27 (1994)10. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 13 - 16.
luchttransport - luchtvaartuig - dierlijke producten - kiemgetal - bacteriologie - controle - gemaksvoedsel - engineering - voedselinspectie - voedselmicrobiologie - voedselbewaring - voedingsmiddelen - bedrijfsvoering - microbiële ecologie - monitoring - voorgekookt voedsel - voorbereide voedingsmiddelen - ruimtevlucht - statistiek - kwaliteitscontroles - queuing theory - haccp - air transport - aircraft - animal products - bacterial count - bacteriology - control - convenience foods - food inspection - food microbiology - food preservation - foods - management - microbial ecology - precooked foods - prepared foods - space flight - statistics - quality controls
Bosbemestingsmethoden : resultaten van een praktijkproef
Leek, N.A. ; Wanningen, H. ; Hellinga, P.W. ; Hoksbergen, F.T.J. ; Schreuder, H.J. - \ 1989
Wageningen : "De Dorschkamp", Instituut voor Bosbouw en Groenbeheer (Rapport / "De Dorschkamp" Instituut voor Bosbouw en Groenbeheer nr. 568) - 238
bosbouw - kunstmeststrooiers - luchtvaartuig - toepassingen via de lucht - onderzoek - bosbouwkundige handelingen - kosten - rentabiliteit - nederland - bosopstanden - bemesting - forestry - fertilizer distributors - aircraft - aerial methods - research - forestry practices - costs - profitability - netherlands - forest stands - fertilizer application
Verstoring van vogels door vliegverkeer, met name door ultra-lichte vliegtuigen
Smit, C.J. ; Visser, G.J.M. - \ 1989
Texel : Rijksinstituut voor Natuurbeheer (RIN-rapport 89/11) - 12
luchtvaartuig - dieren - vogels - schade - bedreigde soorten - fauna - nederland - risico - menselijke invloed - aircraft - animals - birds - damage - endangered species - netherlands - risk - human impact
Bestrijden en opsporen van ziekten met behulp van de landbouwluchtvaart
Anonymous, - \ 1974
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 3555)
gewasbescherming - toediening via de lucht - luchtvaartuig - toepassingen via de lucht - bibliografieën - landbouw - plant protection - aerial application - aircraft - aerial methods - bibliographies - agriculture
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