Consumption of Alcoholic and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages is Associated with Increased Liver Fat Content in Middle-Aged Men and Women
Eekelen, Esther van; Beulens, Joline W.J. ; Geelen, Anouk ; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B. ; Lamb, Hildo ; Roos, Albert de; Rosendaal, Frits ; Mutsert, Renée de - \ 2019
The Journal of Nutrition 149 (2019)4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 649 - 658.
alcohol consumption - alcoholic beverages - liver fat - nonalcoholic beverages - substitution
BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Besides alcohol consumption, energy-containing nonalcoholic beverages may contribute to liver fat accumulation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the consumption of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages and their mutual replacement in relation to hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in middle-aged men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, HTGC was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Habitual consumption of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. All beverages were converted to standard servings and to percentage of total energy intake (En%). We performed linear regression to examine the association of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages with HTGC, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, ethnicity, physical activity, total energy intake, and total body fat. We studied replacement of alcoholic beverages with nonalcoholic beverages per 1 serving/d and per 5 En%/d. RESULTS: After exclusion of individuals with missing values, 1966 participants (47% men) were analyzed, with a mean ± SD age of 55 ± 6 y, BMI of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, and HTGC of 5.7% ± 7.9%. Each extra alcoholic serving per day was associated with more liver fat (1.09 times; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.12). Replacing 5 En% of alcoholic beverages with milk was associated with less liver fat (0.89 times; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.98), whereas replacement with 5 En% of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with liver fat to an extent similar to alcoholic beverages (1.00 times; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.09). CONCLUSION: In a population-based cohort, consumption of each extra daily alcoholic beverage was associated with more liver fat. In isocaloric replacement of alcoholic beverages, milk was associated with less liver fat, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages were equally associated with liver fat. This suggests that intake of alcohol and sugars may contribute to liver fat accumulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03410316.
A flavour of emotions : sensory & emotional profiling of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer
Silva, Ana Patrícia - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K. de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Gerry Jager; Manuela Pintado. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431743 - 181
alcoholic beverages - alcohol intake - consumer attitudes - food preferences - emotions - alcoholische dranken - alcoholinname - houding van consumenten - voedselvoorkeuren - emoties
Wine and beer are the most consumed alcoholic beverages worldwide and are known by the sensory pleasure and short terms effects such as relaxation and mood enhancement. However, it remains unclear what are the specific emotions evoked by wine or beer consumption. Non-alcoholic beer is considered a healthier beverage, as it does not contain alcohol, but it does not seem to be appealing to consumers since patterns of consumption are marginal compared to wine and beer consumption. One of the challenges in food research is to encourage consumers to adopt healthier choices to reduce life-style problems. Given the importance of moderate alcohol consumption in diet it seems important, from the nutritional perspective, to understand consumers´ perceptions of alcoholic versus non-alcoholic beverages.
The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of consumption experience of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer, and hence beverage choice, by using beverage-evoked emotions, in addition to their sensory perceptions.
After a literature review to know the determinants of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer consumption, we performed a qualitatitve study (n=56) to explore the conceptualisations of the beverages in terms of functional and emotional associations. Following, we studied how the product name “BEER” or “NON-ALCOHOLIC BEER” influenced liking and the emotions elicited, before and after drinking either a beer or a non-alcoholic beer, when the beverages were given to 155 consumers in a bar, named correctly and incorrectly with respect to their composition. In the further studies, we used a dynamic approach, the temporal dominance of sensations and emotions and temporal liking. In one study, two similar tasting commercial wines, were compared by 80 consumers in a bar. In the last study 71 consumers compared three commercial beers that differed only in the intensity of added hop aroma.
Beer and wine are rich in both functional and emotional conceptualisations. Beer mainly evokes high arousal positive emotions, such as energetic and adventurous. Wine mainly evokes low arousal emotions such as calm and loving. Non-alcoholic beer is a substitute and has negative and neutral emotional associations, such as disappointed and conscious. Therefore, we concluded that wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer have different conceptualisations in consumer´s mind. Drinking a non-alcoholic beer named as “non-alcoholic beer” made consumers feel less excited after drinking. When the same beverage was named “beer”, consumers liked it more and felt more fulfilled. Drinking a beer named as “beer” changed emotional profile towards to a more positive direction since after drinking consumers felt more: fulfilled, exuberant, comforted, amused, joyful, happy and good, and less grumpy. When the same beverage was named “non-alcoholic beer”, the liking did not change but six positive emotions decreased, namely consumers felt less comforted, exuberant, good, happy, joyful and loving. Based on this study we concluded that the product name is at least as important as the flavour, as it influenced emotions and liking. Measuring emotions during consumption, we found that equally liked similar tasting wines evoked the same three dominant emotions in all stages of consumption: pleased, comforted and relaxed. However, these emotions evolved with different trajectories while drinking each wine, allowing a differentiation between wines. Lastly, when the sensory characteristics of a commercial beer were manipulated by adding hop aroma, different sensory profiles were dominant but liking did not change. The temporal dominance of emotions allowed to see that in beginning of consumption of the most aromatic beer there was a shift from negative to positive emotions. In the most aromatic beer only positive emotions were dominant: relaxed, pleased and happy, whereas in the control and in the less aromatic beers besides relaxed or pleased, disappointed was also dominant. Based on this outcome it seems possible to induce different emotion profiles by manipulating the sensory characteristics.
Wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer have an elaborated conceptualisation map in consumer´s minds and they evoke positive and negative emotions, that evolve during consumption. A balance between functional and emotional conceptualisations seems to be important for product success as well as the product name. During consumption sensations and emotions can evolve differently in similar tasting beverages that consumers equally liked. The relationship between sensory specific characteristics and emotions is still limited but we believe that these practical implications may help industries to create healthier versions of products to be experienced as the happier choices.
Glutenvrij ? Pils onde de loep
Sleutels, I. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Broeck, H.C. van den - \ 2014
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 7 (2014). - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 10 - 11.
gluten - coeliakie - glutenvrije diëten - bieren - alcoholische dranken - gerst - lc-ms - analytische methoden - coeliac syndrome - gluten free diets - beers - alcoholic beverages - barley - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry - analytical methods
Gluten meten in gehydrolyseerde en gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen – zoals pils – is lastig. De door de Codex Alimentarius gevalideerde test onderschat het gehalte gluten in deze producten. Een uitgebreide LC-MS/MS-analyse geeft gedetailleerde informatie over de aanwezige coeliakie-stimulerende gluten in pils. Met deze gegevens is een geschikte test te ontwikkelen.
Een wijndrinker is geen bierdrinker
Sluik, Diewertje - \ 2014
wines - beers - alcohol intake - alcoholic beverages - social classes
Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development
Nyanga, L.K. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering, co-promotor(en): Rob Nout; T. Boekhout. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733757 - 114
ziziphus mauritiana - fermentatieproducten - alcoholische dranken - frisdranken - ziziphus mauritiana - fermentation products - alcoholic beverages - soft drinks
This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages.
A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a questionnaire and focus group discussions in each of the three districts, i.e., Mudzi, Mt Darwin and Muzarabani in Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that the masau fruit is usually gathered by women and children, and eaten raw or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu (non-alcoholic fermented beverage), jam, which are sold at local markets. It is also naturally fermented under uncontrolled conditions and distilled into kachasu. The nutritional composition of the masau fruit was analysed. The fruits are good sources of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, and essential micronutrients such as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, copper, iron, zinc and vitamin C.
In order to enable the selection of starter cultures for the production of masau wine and distillate, yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii, P. fabianii, Aureobasidium pullulans, Lactobacillus agilisand L. plantarum. The yeast species were then characterised with respect to ethanol and flavour compounds production. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds were observed during fermentation of masau juice among and within the tested Saccharomyces, Pichia and Saccharomycopsis species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other flavour compounds.
Two traditional low-tech methods for preserving starter cultures, i.e., stabilisation of yeast cultures in dried plant fibre strands, and in rice cakes, were compared with standard lyophilisation. Viable cell counts made during six months storage at 4 °C and 25 °C of lyophilised yeasts, and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands showed that the rice cake method performed significantly better than lyophilisation.
The developed library of fermentation characteristics of yeasts can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of masau product functionalities. The defined starter cultures could be preserved using the traditional approaches, which are suitable for small-scale, low-tech applications.
Characterisation of volatile components of Pinotage wines using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC–TOFMS)
Weldegergis, B.T. ; Villiers, A. de; McNeish, C. ; Seethapathy, S. ; Mostafa, A. ; Górecki, T. ; Crouch, A.M. - \ 2011
Food Chemistry 129 (2011)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 188 - 199.
solid-phase microextraction - bar sorptive extraction - south-african wines - flavor compounds - alcoholic beverages - madeira wines - white wine - quercus-petraea - aroma compounds - grape variety
As part of the ongoing research into the chemical composition of the uniquely South African wine cultivar Pinotage, the volatile composition of nine young wines of this cultivar was investigated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) using a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fibre was used to extract the volatile compounds from the wine matrix. Extracts were analysed using an in-house developed GC × GC system equipped with a single jet, liquid nitrogen-based cryogenic modulator. In the current study, 206 compounds previously reported in wine and related matrices have been detected in nine Pinotage wines. Positive identification for 48 compounds was performed using authentic standards, while tentative identification of 158 compounds was based on deconvoluted mass spectra and comparison of linear retention indices (LRI) with literature values. Identified compounds included esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, acetals, furans and lactones, sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, terpenes, hydrocarbons, volatile phenols and pyrans. Volatile compounds potentially capable of influencing wine aroma are highlighted. Many of the compounds were common to all 9 wines, although volatile components unique to specific samples were also observed. The results represent the most detailed characterisation of volatile constituents of this cultivar reported to date.
Het opgespoetste imago van alcohol
Korthals, M.J.J.A.A. - \ 2007
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 1 (2007)17. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 11.
alcoholinname - alcoholische dranken - gezondheid - gezondheidsbescherming - alcohol intake - alcoholic beverages - health - health protection
Er komt maar geen einde aan het positieve gezondheidsnieuws over alcohol. Drink elke dag een paar glazen en je kans op prostaatkanker vermindert, net als je kans op hart- en vaatziekten, nierstenen, diabetes-2 en dementie. Ook Wageningse onderzoekers vinden aanwijzingen dat een beetje drank best gezond is. Maar niet iedereen is gelukkig met het opgepoetste imago van alcohol
Haalbaarheidsstudie naar de productie en afzet van Zeeuwse cider
Schreuder, S.A.M.M. ; Ravesloot, M.B.M. - \ 2005
Randwijk : PPO Fruit (Rapport / Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Fruit 2005-05) - 53
cider - alcoholische dranken - coöperatieve marketing - marketing - voedselproductie - nederland - zeeland - cider - alcoholic beverages - cooperative marketing - marketing - food production - netherlands - zeeland
Verslag van een onderzoek om inzicht te krijgen in de technische en economische mogelijkheden van de productie van cider in Zeeland. In dat kader is een bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar de kenmerken van de ciderconsumptie en productie in diverse Europese landen.
Wijnwijsheden in vitro.
Pierik, R.L.M. - \ 1997
Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen - 22
wijnen - alcoholische dranken - wines - alcoholic beverages
Epidemiology of stroke : the role of blood pressure, alcohol and diet
Keli, S.O. - \ 1995
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D. Kromhout; E.J.M. Feskens. - S.l. : Keli - ISBN 9789054854173 - 91
hersenziekten - vaatziekten - bloedstoornissen - hart- en vaatziekten - hart- en vaatstoornissen - bloeddruk - alcoholische dranken - voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - consumptiepatronen - preventieve geneeskunde - ziektepreventie - preventie - epidemieën - epidemiologie - nederland - nederlandse antillen - brain diseases - vascular diseases - blood disorders - cardiovascular diseases - cardiovascular disorders - blood pressure - alcoholic beverages - food hygiene - nutritional state - consumption patterns - preventive medicine - disease prevention - prevention - epidemics - epidemiology - netherlands - netherlands antilles
This thesis evaluates the recent trends in stroke mortality in the Netherlands Antilles, and the role of long-term blood pressure, alcohol and diet as risk factors for stroke incidence. The official mortality statistics and population data from the Netherlands Antilles over the period 1981-1992 were used to study trends in stroke mortality. The association of long-term blood pressure, alcohol and diet were studied with data from the Zutphen Study, a longitudinal study on risk factors for chronic diseases in the Netherlands. Repeated blood pressure measurements were collected yearly between 1960 and 1970. Information on alcohol and diet was collected in 1960, 1965 and 1970 with the crosscheck dietary history method. Stroke incidence data were present for the period 1970-1985.
Age-adjusted stroke mortality declined over the period 1981-1986 in men and women in the Netherlands Antilles. Over the period 1987-1992 a slow down occurred in men, and in older women even an increase was observed. The average of individual repeated systolic blood pressure measurements over a period of 10 years was shown to be a better predictor of stroke incidence than single measurements. The latter understimated the stroke risk by 55%. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a nonsignificant 34% lower stroke risk. Consumption of one serving of fish per week was associated with a 50% lower stroke incidence compared with the consumption of less fish. Men with high intake of dietary flavonoids and men who drank their main source tea frequently had a 70% lower stroke incidence compared with men with a lower intake of flavonoids or tea. Men with high intake of beta-carotene had a 46% lower incidence of stroke, although this was not statistically significant. The effects of blood pressure, fish and flavonoids were independent from each other, and from other risk factors for stroke.
We conclude that the decrease in stroke mortality in the Netherlands Antilles came to a standstill, and that long-term blood pressure and diet are important predictors of stroke.
Ontwikkeling bepalingsmethode voor het aantonen van kleurstoffen in vieux
Oostrom, J.J. van; Ruig, W.G. de - \ 1981
Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 81.76) - 4
alcoholische dranken - kleurstoffen in voedsel - voedseladditieven - kwantitatieve analyse - kwantitatieve methoden - alcoholic beverages - food colourants - food additives - quantitative analysis - quantitative methods
Doel van dit onderzoek is: ontwikkelen van een snelle kwantitatieve isolatiemethode voor de bepaling van kleurstoffen in vieux. Dit verslag beschrijft de ontwikkeling en resultaten van bovengenoemd onderzoek.
Aspects of the manufacture and consumption of Kenyan traditional fermented beverages
Nout, M.J.R. - \ 1981
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.H. Kampelmacher. - Wageningen : Nout - 102
alcoholische dranken - bieren - bierbereiding - voedsel - voedselsamenstelling - voedingsmiddelen - kenya - mineralen - voedingswaarde - eigenschappen - kwaliteit - zout - wijnbereiding - wijnen - alcoholic beverages - beers - brewing - food - food composition - foods - kenya - minerals - nutritive value - properties - quality - salt - winemaking - wines
This study was aimed at providing fundamental information con ern ing the manufacture, composition, and consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages.In Chapter 1, the reader is introduced to Kenya, its population and climate, and several aspects of its agriculture underlying this study.Chapter 2 offers an overview of the major fermented beverages con sumed in Kenya. A distinction is made between traditional and foreign fermented beverages. Both groups of products include beers and wines, as well as spirits. The traditional fermented beverages play an important role, particularly in the rural daily life, they are cheap and are usually prepared from locally available ingre dients such as honey, maize, millets or palm-sap. Their age-old manufacturing techniques are known through oral tradition and are often quite primitive. The final products are obtained by way of uncontrolled fermentations, and are mostly consumed in a stage of active fermentation.Except for the spirits, the traditional fermented beverages have only a short shelf-life since excessive souring soon renders them unacceptable.Most foreign fermented beverages have been introduced into Kenya during the period of colonial administration; nowadays, a number are manufactured locally, on a large industrial scale.In Chapter 3, mention is made of recent measures taken by the Kenyan Government to curb alcoholism through prohibition and clo sure of beer halls, and to increase productivity. These measures tend to favour the illegal trade in traditional fermented bever agesand,in particular, the consumption of illicit traditional spirit of dubious quality.The aims of the ensuing study are formulated in Chapter 4, and include providing insight in the consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages, their nutritive value, and their possible harmfulness to health. Furthermore, a study will be made of ways of improving upon the quality and shelf-life of a selected traditional beer of superior nutritive value.In Chapter 5, an estimate is made of the total consumption of alcoholic beverages in Kenya. It is shown that the traditional fermented beverages represent a major proportion of the total con sumption of alcohol. This is not surprising since the traditional products are relatively cheap and can be afforded by the majority of the Kenyan public.In the same chapter, it is observed that the consumption of alco hol in Kenya is moderate, compared with other countries. The nutrient content of selected traditional and foreign beverages is compared in Chapter 6. It is concluded that the traditional beer Busaa has the highest nutritive value, particularly when considering its protein, vitamin B 2 , and niacin contents. The nutritive value of the traditional spirit Chang'aa is the least. The consumption of Chang'aa occupies a major proportion of the total quantity of alcohol consumed in Kenya. The chemical composition of this spirit is studied in some further detail in Chapter 7. In particular, the fusel oil content of Chang'aa is studied, as well as the effect of ingredients and distilling techniques on its occurrence in this spirit.In Chapters 8, 9, and 10 several aspects of the manufacture of the traditional beer Busaa are dealt with. In Chapter 8, some microbiological aspects of the traditional manufacture of this beer are discussed. In particular, attention is given to the dominant yeasts and bacteria, involved in the stages of fermentation and subsequent spoilage. In Chapter 9, experimental work is described, aimed at the development of a process for the manufacture of bottled and preserved Busaa. The malt used as ingredient for Busaa is usually obtained from finger millet. In most other African countries however, sorghum is used for such purpose. Although sorghum is easily available in Kenya as well, the Busaa brewers nevertheless prefer the use of finger millet malt for the brewing of Busaa. In Chapter 10 therefore, the germination characteristics and the brewing potential of finger millet and sorghum are compared. Barley is also included in this comparative study, since it is grown in Kenya as ingredient for the manufacture of foreign lager beers. In Chapter 11, the major findings from the study are discussed, and conclusions and recommendations are formulated with regard to a possible control of the consumption of traditional fermented beverages. On the one hand, these are aimed at a reduction and subsequent gradual abolishment of home-brewing of traditional fermented beverages. On the other hand, the consumption of cheap traditional fermented beverages of high nutritive value such as Busaa, is advocated to be allowed to continue off-licence on a restricted scale. Such products should offer a cheap, high-grade substitute for other, less appropriate, products which would eventually be phased out. It is finally observed that an upgrading of the quality and shelf-life of the former beverages would facilitate an adjustment of the present consumption pattern.