Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Rijswijck, I.M.H. van; Dijksterhuis, J. ; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M. ; Abee, T. ; Smid, E.J. - \ 2015
    Yeast 32 (2015)1. - ISSN 0749-503X - p. 89 - 101.
    ziziphus-mauritiana fruits - filamentous growth - yeast - alcohols - wine - catabolism - fungi
    Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21¿days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed.
    Utilization of carbon isotope enrichments (ð¹³C) of alkanes as faecal markers to estimate diet composition of goats fed with heathland vegetation
    Ferreira, L.M.M. ; Daniel, J.B. ; Celaya, R. ; Santos, A.S. ; Osoro, K. ; Rodrigues, M.A.M. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2014
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 191 (2014). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 26 - 38.
    chain fatty-acids - n-alkanes - labeled supplement - grazing behavior - recovery rates - cuticular wax - mixed forages - sheep - alcohols - c-13
    This study aimed to evaluate the possible utilization of carbon isotope enrichments (d13C) of n-alkanes as faecal markers for estimating diet composition of goats fed with diets composed of different proportions of browse (Erica umbellata, Erica cinerea, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, and Ulex gallii) and herbaceous feeds (Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens). Diet composition was estimated from d13C of n-alkanes (C27 and C29–C33) in plant species and faeces alone and/or their combination with alkanes, long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols, using least square optimization procedures. Large variation between plant species in their d13C profiles was observed with the level of enrichment varying from -31.20‰ to -38.40‰ and tending to be higher for the odd-chain d13C compared to even-chain ones (-34.12 ± 1.90‰ vs. -35.13 ± 1.39‰, respectively). Results suggest that d13C values of alkanes provided different discriminatory information to that given by other markers. No differences were found between the faecal recovery of 13C and 12C in individual alkanes, showing evidence that no differential degradation in the gastrointestinal tract occurred between isotopes for any of the alkanes. These results indicate that d13C values of alkanes can be used without the need to apply any faecal correction factor as they are relative values. Accuracy of diet composition estimates based on d13C data alone was lower (P <0.05) than when using alkanes, LCFA and LCOH. Moreover, data showed that the inclusion of d13C in the input data used in diet composition calculations resulted in lower (P <0.05) accuracy of the estimates in several combinations. Results indicate limitations on the use of d13C values of alkanes, possibly because differences between plant species in their profiles may have been not sufficiently wide to obtain accurate estimates of diet composition.
    In situ compatibilization of starch-zein blends under shear flow
    Habeych Narvaez, E.A. ; Goot, A.J. van der; Boom, R.M. - \ 2009
    Chemical Engineering Science 64 (2009)15. - ISSN 0009-2509 - p. 3516 - 3524.
    corn starch - mediated oxidation - polymer blends - prediction - protein - water - strength - alcohols - kinetics
    Starch-zein blends show poor adhesion between the two phases. Aldehyde starch was investigated as compatibilizer for these blends. Wheat starch was oxidized under mild conditions using sodium hypochlorite in the presence of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) and NaBr to prepare aldehyde starch. The oxidized starch was characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Rapid Visco-Analyzer. Starch-zein blends plasticized with water and glycerol were prepared using simple shear flow in an in-house developed shearing device. Different zein ratios were tested to study the influence of aldehyde starch on the properties of the final material. The morphology of the blends was observed with confocal scanning laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Tensile tests were used to evaluate the performance of the material. Both microscopy and tensile tests indicated that the blends had improved adhesion between the zein and starch phases, probably by reaction between the aldehyde groups in the starch molecules and zein. The aldehyde starch also influenced the properties of the starch matrix (higher viscosity, larger breakdown), which shows that physical or chemical crosslinks were formed inside the starch matrix
    Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures
    Steinbusch, K.J.J. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2008
    Water Research 42 (2008)15. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 4059 - 4066.
    alcoholen - productie - organisch afval - biomassa - verzuring - vluchtige vetzuren - waterstof - gemengde teelt - biomassaconversie - korrelslib - alcohols - production - organic wastes - biomass - acidification - volatile fatty acids - hydrogen - mixed cropping - biomass conversion - granular sludge - carboxylic-acids - waste-water - ethanol - performance - energetics - bacteria - pathway - sludge - ph
    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed microbial cultures with a headspace of 1.5 bar of hydrogen. Observed alcohol concentrations were 3.69 ± 0.25 mM of ethanol, 8.08 ± 0.85 mM of propanol and 3.66 ± 0.05 mM of n-butanol. The conversion efficiency based on the electron balance was 55.1 ± 5.6% with acetate as substrate, 50.3 ± 4.7% with propionate and 46.7 ± 2.2% with n-butyrate. Methane was the most predominant by-product in each batch experiment, 33.6 ± 9.6% of VFA and hydrogen was converted to methane with acetate as substrate; which was 27.1 ± 7.1% with propionate and 36.6 ± 2.2% with n-butyrate. This VFAs reducing renewable fuel production process does not require carbohydrates like fermentable sugars, but uses biomass with high water content or low sugar content that is unsuitable as feedstock for current fermentation processes. This so-called low-grade biomass is abundantly present in many agricultural areas and is economically very attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels.
    ULO-bewaring op het scherpst van de snede
    Oostveen, A. ; Geijn, F.G. van de - \ 2005
    Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2005 (2005)45. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 40 - 40.
    fruit - opslag - opslag met klimaatbeheersing - fruitbewaarplaatsen - gasbewaring - zuurstof - bewaarfysiologie - alcoholen - opslagkwaliteit - ethanolproductie - fruit - storage - controlled atmosphere stores - fruit stores - controlled atmosphere storage - oxygen - postharvest physiology - alcohols - storage quality - ethanol production
    ULO-DCS is een bewaringsmethode met zodanig lage zuurstofgehalten dat de vruchten net geen alcohol vormen. Het doel is de vruchtkwaliteit nog verder te verbeteren.
    Dormancy, activation and viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores
    Thanh, N.V. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2004
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 92 (2004)2. - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 171 - 179.
    phycomyces-blakesleeanus spores - mucor-racemosus sporangiospores - tempeh fermentation - heat activation - high-pressure - germination - trehalase - breaking - alcohols - acid
    Interruption of dormancy to improve viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is crucial for the application of stored starter cultures for fungal (tempe) production. We aimed to assess the extent of dormancy and factors that could result in activation. Whereas heat treatments were unsuccessful, Malt Extract Broth (MEB) showed to be a good activation medium, with 80% of dormant spores being activated as measured by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescent marker, compared with 11% with the control. Peptone and yeast extract but not glucose played an important role in activating dormant spores. Metabolically active (fluorescent) and swollen spores, followed by germ tubes were obtained after activation in MEB for 25 min., 2 and 4 It, respectively, at 37 degreesC. Simultaneously, some interesting transitions took place. Dormant spores represent 85-90% of the total spores at harvest and after drying. Their number decreased to 21-32% after activation with MEB with a concomitant increase of metabolically active spores. As a result of storage, some dormancy was lost, yielding an increase of active spores from 11.2% at harvest to 28.8% after 3 months storage. Levels of active spores were well correlated with their viability. By activation of dormant spores, their viability increased; levels of viable and active spores were maximum in I month old starter (61.7% and 75.9% of total spores, respectively) but gradually decreased with concomitant increase of the number of dead spores. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Additive Diffusion from LDPE Slabs into Contacting Solvents as a Function of Solvent Absorption
    Helmroth, I.E. ; Dekker, M. ; Hankemeier, T. - \ 2003
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 90 (2003). - ISSN 0021-8995 - p. 1609 - 1617.
    concentration-dependent diffusion - penetrant diffusion - swellable polymers - transport - temperature - polyolefins - permeation - parameters - migration - alcohols
    This article describes the simultaneous diffusion of a migrant and a solvent in low density polyethylene (LDPE). The migrant (Irganox 1076) moves out of the slab, while the solvent (isooctane, n-heptane or cyclohexane) moves inwards. Solvent absorption was measured separately by following the increase of the mass of the slab in time. It can be described by the Fick diffusion equation with a diffusivity depending on the solvent concentration, and an interface concentration depending on time. The final absorptions were 12% for isooctane, 14% for n-heptane, and 29% for cyclohexane. Additive concentrations in the slab were determined at different positions by microtoming. Experiments were done for several Contacting times. The concentration profiles were strongly affected by the solvent. A larger local solvent concentration increases the diffusivity of the migrant. The Fick equation with a migrant diffusivity depending on the solvent concentration gives a good description for the results with isooctane and n-heptane. The description is less good for the measurements with cyclohexane (when the polymer swells strongly). (C) 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Gluconate formation and polyol metabolism in Aspergillus niger
    Witteveen, C.F.B. - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): W. Harder; J.A.M. de Bont; J. Visser. - S.l. : Witteveen - ISBN 9789054851387 - 135
    aspergillus - metabolisme - plantenvoeding - assimilatie - glucose - derivaten - polyethyleenglycol - glycolen - ethyleenglycol - alcoholen - thiolen - aspergillus - metabolism - plant nutrition - assimilation - glucose - derivatives - polyethylene glycol - glycols - ethylene glycol - alcohols - thiols

    The capacity of A.niger to accumulate metabolites is remarkable. Under all conditions polyols accumulate in the cell and when mycelium in later developmental stages is considered, depending on the carbon source, aeration and external pH, polyols and/or organic acids can be formed in a very efficient way. The aim of this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the metabolism and formation of these metabolites. The first part of this thesis reports a study of gluconic acid formation and the second part involves polyol metabolism in A.niger.

    The fungus has a general tendency to synthesize organic acids under conditions of good aeration and when sugars like D-glucose or sucrose are available. An important function of the organic acid synthesis might be the acidification of the medium. Combined with the removal of the sugars from the environment this may contribute to the competitiveness of the fungus. A.niger is tolerant to pH values as low as 1.5. When glucose is the carbon source and the culture is well aerated A.niger will produce at neutral or slightly acidic pH mainly gluconate, at very low pH values citrate formation will occur and at intermediate pH oxalate is formed. The result is that A.niger by the consecutive synthesis of a series of organic acids strongly acidifies the medium.

    In this thesis the formation of gluconic acid was studied in more detail. In Chapter 2 evidence is provided for a cell wall localization of glucose oxidase. Furthermore, it was shown that two catalases are induced in parallel with glucose oxidase, one intracellular (CAT III) and one localized in the cell wall (CAT IV). Two other catalases, also one intracellular (CAT I) and one localized in the cell wall (CAT II), are constitutively present. About 50% of the lactonase activity was measured in the culture fluid. Therefore it was concluded that the whole glucose oxidase system is localized extracellularly, and is mainly localized in the cell wail. The induction of the intracellular CAT Ill may be seen as a second defense barrier, detoxifying hydrogen peroxide that diffuses into the cell.

    The cell wall-localization of glucose oxidase combined with the easy detection of hydrogen peroxide produced in the enzyme reaction makes visualization of the enzyme in intact hyphae possible. This detection system was used to isolate a series of mutants with altered glucose oxidase induction. In Chapter 3 a phenotypic and genetic characterisation of these mutants is presented. The mutants were classified in 9 different complementation groups, 1 non-producing, 1 low producing and 7 overproducing mutants. From induction experiments with the wild type strain it was concluded that the carbon source and the dissolved oxygen level are main factors determining induction of glucose oxidase. One mutant was found which never synthesized glucose oxidase ( gox C). Only one of the mutant classes was no longer dependent on oxygen for induction ( gox B). Several mutant groups were found with a decreased glucose dependency of induction. Some of these were quite strong ( gox A and gox E) whereas others showed only a minor overproduction under conditions which are only weakly inducing in the wild type. The latter group might in fact influence glucose oxidase induction only indirectly. The genetic analysis provided the information necessary for the construction of recombinant strains containing different gox mutations and other genetic markers. This is essential for further analysis and also an important step in further strain breeding.

    In Chapter 4 the induction mechanism of glucose oxidase, lactonase and the catalases was analyzed in more detail. For this we used beside the wild type strain gox B, gox C and gox E mutants. These mutants had a clear and pronounced phenotype. It was shown that in a wild type strain induction of all three activities is found only when glucose is present and the culture is well aerated. Induction of all three activities was effected by the gox B mutation. Neither glucose nor high oxygen levels were required for induction. The glucose dependency of glucose oxidase and lactonase induction was affected by the gox E mutation. In this mutant catalase was unaffected and high oxygen was still required. Thus with the gox B and gox E mutants the effects which oxygen and glucose have on induction could be partly separated. None of the activities was induced in the gox C mutant. This mutant could be transformed to a wild type phenotype using the structural gene of glucose oxidase, thus indicating that the mutation concerns the structural gene. The glucose oxidase structural gene was isolated via antibody screening of a cDNA expression library and subsequent homologous screening of a genomic library using the cDNA clone as a probe. Northern blotting showed that both the oxygen and carbon source effects were influencing induction at the transcriptional level. No glucose oxidase mRNA was observed in the gox C mutant. The absence of induction of all three activities in this mutant indicates that glucose oxidase activity is required for induction. It could be shown that hydrogen peroxide, besides gluconate a product of the glucose oxidase reaction, is inducing both catalase and lactonase in this mutant. It was concluded that hydrogen peroxide is the main factor required for the induction of the three activities and that the gox B gene product is involved in mediating this effect. It explained the requirement of high oxygen levels for induction because glucose oxidase has a high K m for oxygen (K m =0.48 mM at 27°C, Gibson etal., 1964). Even the glucose requirement for induction can be explained this way but the presence of the gox E mutant and the fact that the carbon source was still affecting the level of glucose oxidase in the gox B mutant, which is supposed to be involved in the transduction of the hydrogen peroxide signal, indicates that the induction process is more complicated. Using the plasmid plM503 which carries the structural gene for glucose oxidase multicopy transformants were made. Only a relatively small increase in glucose oxidase activity was observed (3 fold) even though more than 50 copies of the gene were integrated. Transformation of A.nidulans, a fungus that does not have the glucose oxidase gene itself, resulted in strains which produced glucose oxidase. In these strains glucose but not a high oxygen concentration was required for induction. This is indicating that a gox B-like gene is not present in A.nidulans but that the glucose requirement is presumably transduced by a more general system which is not specific for glucose oxidase.

    Chapters 2,3 and 4 are contributions to a better understanding of how the glucose oxidation system functions and of the molecular mechanism of its induction. Thus far it is the only coordinately regulated enzyme system in A.niger of which regulatory mutants have been isolated and which has been worked out in some detail. However, the understanding of the mechanism is still incomplete, especially the way by which the carbon source is affecting the induction is still unclear. No explanation is yet available why on fructose or D-xylose a basal level of glucose oxidase is found, whereas on acetate, gluconate or glycerol no activity is detected. Somehow the system senses the presence of an easy metabolisable carbon source and low-level induction occurs. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is probably not glucose oxidase-specific since in the A.nidulans transformants still glucose is required for induction. The gox B system is probably more glucose oxidase specific and therefore no oxygen (H 2 O 2 ) effect is found in A.nidulans. For a better understanding of the factors involved in glucose oxidase expression, a detailed analysis of the gox A and gox E mutants and of the functioning of the promoter of glucose oxidase is required. An important consequence of the regulatory mechanism hypothesized in Chapter 4 is a build-in feedback control. Catalase is not only induced by hydrogen peroxide but degrades this inducer as well, thus diminishing the induction. Ever increasing amounts of especially oxygen will be required to cause induction to continue. This will not happen because oxygen is quite soon the limiting factor in gluconate fermentation processes. The feedback mechanism of preventing overinduction is absent in gox B mutants. Therefore these mutants might be valuable in industrial processes.

    The function of the polyols is different from that of the organic acids. This is already clear from their presence in the fungus during all phases of the life cycle. Organic acids are formed only in late stages of development. Furthermore, the organic acids are excreted whereas the polyols beside being excreted also accumulate in large amounts in the mycelium. Information on carbon metabolism and more specifically polyol metabolism in A.niger was scarce at the start of this project. Therefore it was decided to analyze some metabolic pathways which directly relate to polyol metabolism.

    In Chapter 5 the characterization of a glycerol kinase mutant is described. Glycerol is one of the main polyols accumulating in A.niger and it was shown that glycerol kinase is involved in the degradation of glycerol. It could be demonstrated that the degradation pathway of glycerol in A.niger is largely the same as in A.nidulans (Hondmann et al., 1990) and N.crassa (Courtright 1975). First phosphorylation to glycerol-3-phosphate occurs and this is followed by its oxidation to dihydroxyacetonephosphate by a mitochondrial FAD-dependent glycerol-3- phosphate dehydrogenase. However, there were some differences with the pathway in A.nidulans. Whereas in the latter fungus dihydroxyacetone was catabolized via glycerol, in A.niger a dihydroxyacetone kinase was present enabling growth of the glycerol kinase mutant on dihydroxyacetone. Combined with an NAD +-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase converting glycerol into dihydroxyacetone this formed an escape route for glycerol catabolism in the glycerol kinase mutant. Growth on D-galacturonate was strongly affected in the glycerol kinase mutant thus demonstrating a D-galacturonate degradation pathway via glycerol.

    Pentose metabolism is described in Chapter 6. The isolation of a D-xylulose kinase mutant played an essential role in this work. It could be demonstrated that L-arabinose and D-xylose are catabolized via a series of reduction and oxidation steps. L-arabinose is reduced to L-arabitol which is oxidized to L-xylulose. L-xylulose is reduced to xylitol which is oxidized to D-xylulose that is phosphorylated to D-xylulose-5-phosphate, an intermediate of the pentose phosphate pathway. D-xylose is reduced to xylitol and subsequently oxidized to D-xylulose-5-phosphate. All the reduction steps are NADPH-dependent and all the oxidation steps NAD +-dependent The equilibrium of the reactions is far in the direction of the polyols, so several unfavourable steps that have to be taken which potentially can obstruct an efficient conversion of L-arabinose to D-xylulose-5- phosphate. The cofactor specificity of the dehydrogenases involved contributes to a higher efficiency since the anabolic reduction charge ([NADPH]/([NADPH]+[NADP +])) is higher than the catabolic reduction charge ([NADH]/([NADH]+[NAD +])) (Führer et al., 1980). A second mechanism for increasing the efficiency of this pathway was found by studying the two xylitol dehydrogenases of the L-arabinose pathway. This is described in Chapter 7. The NADPH-dependent L-xylulose reductase, catalyzing the reduction of L- xylulose to xylitol, was purified and the NAD +-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase, catalyzing the oxidation of xylitol to D-xylulose, was partially purified. Comparison of the two enzymes, which catalyze similar reactions leading to the different stereoisomers, made clear that they differ in two major points. 1) When their affinity for xylitol was compared it was found that the NAD +-dependent enzyme had a much higher affinity for xylitol than the NADPH-dependent enzyme. 2) Near the physiological pH (around 7) the ratio of the rductive relative to the oxidative catalytic activity was higher for the L-xylulose reductase than for the xylitol dehydrogenase. Both characteristics contribute to a more efficient catalysis of the reaction in the in vivo direction.

    In Chapter 8 an attempt is made to obtain some information on the function of the various polyol pools in A.niger. It was found that glycerol was the main polyol involved in osmotic adjustment in the fungus. Furthermore, glycerol accumulation was observed to be related to fast growing hyphae, whereas mannitol and erythritol accumulated in older hyphae. Mannitol also was an important storage compound in conidiospores. This general scheme of polyol accumulation during different growth phases is modified by environmental parameters like aeration of the culture and the nitrogen source available. Changes in fluxes through metabolic pathways and as a result of that changes in the steady state concentrations of intermediary metabolites from which the polyols derive, presumably play a role in this. It also implies that the function of the polyols in the cell is not completely coupled to specific polyols but can, in part, be taken over by other polyols. It was observed that a considerable part of the accumulated polyols (>50% after 24 h) is found in the medium. Observations made with the glycerol kinase mutant suggested that polyol excretion is a way for the fungus to control the intracellular levels of the polyols, presumably for maintaining the osmotic balance of the cell. Long fermentations (5 days) showed that in late developmental stages the polyol excretion becomes more pronounced. Approximately 45% of the glucose taken up was converted into extracelluar polyols. The type of the polyols excreted was a reflection of the intracellular polyol pool composition.

    Chapters 5 and 6 describe glycerol and pentose catabolism which has led to a better understanding of carbon metabolism in A.niger. Information on this subject is scarce in this fungus. The isolation of mutants in the degradation of such compounds is quite essential for metabolic studies. It turned out to be very difficult to isolate mutants in carbon metabolism in A.niger and still only a few of these mutants are available now. The reason for this is not known but the high intracellular polyol pools and the excretion of the polyols, resulting in crossfeeding during the filtration enrichment techniques, might play a role in this. The analysis of pentose metabolism and the xylitol dehydrogenases involved is also valuable in the light of understanding the mechanisms that play a role in extracellular enzyme production. The knowledge of the L-arabinose catabolic route has already proven useful in the analysis of the araban degrading system of A.niger. L-arabitol plays a major role in this (vd Veen et al., 1993). The analysis of polyol accumulation in Chapter 8 indicates that different polyols accumulate in different parts of the hyphae depending on their age. There still remains the question whether specific polyols accumulate in specific compartments of the cell, for example in the vacuoles, which are abundant in older hyphae. No information is available on this. It was shown that polyol excretion is a general phenomenon in A.niger. Although it has been observed before (Röhr et al., 1987), it was not considered to be such a common phenomenon in this fungus. The observation of large scale polyol accumulation in the culture fluid of 3-5 days old mycelial cultures grown under low oxygen conditions suggests similarities with organic acid fermentations. These are performed in strongly aerated cultures. An efficient flux to the TCA cycle is apparently not possible under the low aeration conditions used. This results in overflow metabolism in an earlier stage of the catabolic pathway leading to polyol formation. Cofactor regeneration might as well play a role in the polyol accumulation under these conditions.

    Enzymatic acylglycerol synthesis in membrane reactor systems
    Padt, A. van der - \ 1993
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): K. van 't Riet. - S.l. : Van der Padt - ISBN 9789054851264 - 151
    derivaten - alcoholen - glycerol - acylglycerolen - diacylglycerolen - triacylglycerolen - chemische reacties - membranen - omgekeerde osmose - ultrafiltratie - fermentatie - voedselbiotechnologie - vetzuren - carbonzuren - derivatives - alcohols - glycerol - acylglycerols - diacylglycerols - triacylglycerols - chemical reactions - membranes - reverse osmosis - ultrafiltration - fermentation - food biotechnology - fatty acids - carboxylic acids

    Up till twenty years ago, only chemical modifications of agricultural oils for novel uses were studied. Because of the instability of various fatty acids, enzymatic biomodifications can have advantages above the chemical route. Nowadays, enzymatic catalysis can be used for the modification of oils and fats. One way of biomodification is the enzymatic esterification of glycerol with fatty acid for the synthesis of mono- and triacylglycerols. Monoesters (monoacylglycerols) are used as emulsifiers in food and in cosmetics, tailor made triesters (triacylglycerols) are used to adjust the melting range of foods and cosmetics. This thesis describes a number of membrane reactor systems for the enzymatic esterification of glycerol with decanoic acid in hexadecane as solvent. Description and modelling of the kinetics and thermodynamic equilibrium have resulted in reactor concepts to reach the objective of mono- and triester synthesis.

    The basic reactor studied is a two-phase immobilized enzyme membrane reactor. In the membrane reactor, lipase from Candida ragosa is immobilized at the inner fibre side of a hydrophilic hollow fibre module. Decanoic acid in n-hexadecane is circulated at the same side, meanwhile a water-glycerol phase is circulated at the shell side. The glycerol diffuses through the membrane matrix allowing the synthesis to take place at the interface. The water produced diffuses backwards.

    Chapter 2 describes the enzymatic esterification of decanoic acid with glycerol for an emulsion system and for a hydrophilic membrane system. In a two-phase system, the enzyme activity is related to the oil-phase volume, the interface area and the enzyme load. The rate per unit interface area of the membrane system approximates the rate measured in an emulsion system. This implies that the cellulose membrane does not affect the esterification. Another consequence is that the activity per oil-phase volume is only specific surface area related, therefore a hollow fibre device is desirable. The optimum enzyme load in the membrane system is half of that in the emulsion system.

    The enzyme stability in glycerol-water mixtures is described in chapter 3. The activity of lipase from Candida rugosa with time can be described with a two-step model, assuming the native lipase reversibly altering its conformation to a form having no activity. The reversibility is experimentally verified. Both, the native and inactive form do inactivate irreversible at the same time to a completely inactive form. The inactivation is a function of the glycerol concentration. The activity of immobilized enzyme is reduced to the same level of activity as is found for free lipase.

    Not only activity and stability of the enzymatic system are of importance, also the equilibrium ester concentrations must be known in the non-ideal two-phase system. Chapter 4 presents the program TREP (Two-phase Reaction Equilibrium Prediction). With the use of measured thermodynamic activity based equilibrium constants, mass balances and the UNIFAC group contribution method, TREP predicts the equilibrium product and substrate concentrations for given initial amounts. Equilibrium predictions show that an excess of triesters can be obtained only at low water activity conditions, in this case an one-phase system is predicted. Predictions show that pure monoesters cannot be obtained in a two-phase system of decanoic acid-hexadecane phase and a glycerol-water phase, even with a high glycerol to fatty acid ratio. This is experimentally verified.

    From the knowledge gathered in these chapters, two membrane reactor systems are designed, one membrane reactor for the triester production and a second membrane reactor system equipped with an in-line adsorption column for the synthesis of monoesters.

    Chapter 5 describes a pervaporation system in which an excess of triesters can be synthesized at low water activity conditions. Lipase is immobilized onto the lumen side of a cellulose membrane where the organic phase is present. At the shell side, air circulates and the water activity is controlled with the use of a condenser. The lipase catalyzed esterification of decanoic acid with partial glycerides is studied in this reactor. In agreement with the predictions made in chapter 4, an excess of triacylglycerols, is obtained at low water activity conditions only.

    A second membrane reactor concept is described in chapter 6, the organic-phase is led over an adsorption column in order to adsorb the monoglycerides onto the adsorbate. When the column is saturated with monoesters, the column can be desorbed off-line in a continuous membrane/repeated batch column process. If a 5 % ethanol in hexane solution is used as desorption solvent, monoesters are desorbed selectively leading to a 90 % purity.

    Finally, in chapter 7, the potentials and limitations of the enzymatic esterification are discussed. To predict the steady-state concentration of a continuous reactor, the enzyme kinetics must be described. The membrane reactor is reaction limited, this could be overcome by placing a column packed with immobilized enzyme in the organic phase recirculation loop. Not only esterification can be performed in the pervaporation system, this system could also be suitable for interesterification or transesterification. Then the program TREP should be extended for reactions with different types of fatty acids.

    Literatuurstudie naar de bepaling van mono- en disacchariden en polyalcoholen met behulp van instrumentale analysemethoden
    Oostrom, J.J. van; Jong, J. de; Frankhuizen, R. - \ 1989
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 89.55) - 20
    voedingsmiddelen - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - voedselkwaliteit - kwaliteitscontroles - derivaten - polyethyleenglycol - glycolen - ethyleenglycol - alcoholen - thiolen - koolhydraten - aldehyden - ketonen - zetmeel - cellulose - analyse - chemie - literatuuroverzichten - analytische scheikunde - foods - food products - agricultural products - food quality - quality controls - derivatives - polyethylene glycol - glycols - ethylene glycol - alcohols - thiols - carbohydrates - aldehydes - ketones - starch - cellulose - analysis - chemistry - literature reviews - analytical chemistry
    Doel van dit onderzoek was het uitvoeren van een literatuurstudie naar de bepalingsmogelijkheden van mono- en disacchariden en polyalcoholen met behulp van instrumentele analysemethoden.
    Problematiek bij de analyse van sterolen met betulinol als interne standaard
    Kamp, H.J. van der; Muuse, B.G. - \ 1987
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 87.50) - 10
    steroïden - alcoholen - analytische methoden - organische scheikunde - steroids - alcohols - analytical methods - organic chemistry
    ISO, IDF en EEG werken aan methoden waarbij de sterolen in % m/m op vetbasis bepaald worden. Hierbij wordt gebruik gemaakt van betulinol als interne standaard. Uit internationale tussenlaboratoriumonderzoeken blijkt dat de sterolsamenstelling m.b.v. gaschromatografie nauwkeurig en reproduceerbaar vastgesteld kan worden. Ook het gehalte aan sterolen in massaprocenten op vetbasis is goed herhaalbaar te bepalen doch de reproduceerbaarheld is zeer slecht. Dit rapport beschrijft stapsgewijs het onderzoek van de methode met interne standaard.
    Adsorption of flexible polyelectrolytes : a theoretical and experimental study of polystyrene sulfonate adsorption on polyoxymethylene single crystals
    Papenhuijzen, J. - \ 1985
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): G.J. Fleer, co-promotor(en): B.H. Bijsterbosch. - Wageningen : Papenhuizen - 96
    alcoholen - alkenen - derivaten - grensvlak - styreen - zwavel - oppervlakten - thiolen - oppervlakteverschijnselen - alcohols - alkenes - derivatives - interface - styrene - sulfur - surfaces - thiols - surface phenomena

    The objective of the present work was to collect systematic adsorption data for a well-defined polyelectrolyte on an uncharged, homogeneous surface, and to compare these with the new theory that was recently developed by Van der Schee.

    In chapter 1 we shortly describe which factors determine the adsorption equilibrium. Understanding these in relation to their interplay is, ultimately, of great importance in numerous practical applications of adsorbing polyelectrolytes. Subsequently, we introduce the model system: polyoxymethylene (POM) single crystals as the adsorbent and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) as the adsorbate.

    The preparation and characterization of the adsorbent is discussed in chapter 2. Single crystals of POX are flat, homogeneous and essentially uncharged, and offer a large specific surface area. Since they can be prepared reproducibly and in large amounts, they constitute a suitable model substrate in systematic adsorption studies. The crystallization procedure is discussed in some detail. The thickness of the crystals is obtained from EM and SAXS measurements, the results being in excellent mutual agreement. Combining this thickness with the crystal density the geometrical surface area is found to be 150 m 2 /g. This is compared with the surface area obtained by BET analysis of nitrogen adsorption (30 m 2 /g) and with the surface area that follows from adsorption of polyoxyethylated nonyl phenols from aqeous solution (60 m 2 /g). The discrepancy in the results is explained in terms of different degrees of aggregation of POX crystals in the dry state and in suspension. Finally, some preliminary results of albumin and PSS adsorption are discussed.

    We characterized ten commercial samples of homodisperse PSS by elemental analysis, measurement of the extinction coefficient and viscometry. From the results, presented in chapter 3, we conclude that only five of them are sufficiently reliable. For these the degree of sulphonation is 97.5 %, the extinction coefficient at λ= 226 nm amounts to 11,600 M -1 cm -1 , and the intrinsic viscosities in 0.5 M NaCl conform to the Mark-Houwink relation with K = 1.087 g/g and a = 0.764.

    Systematic measurements of adsorption as a function of polyelectrolyte concentration, chain length and ionic strength are reported in chapter 4. Substantial adsorption occurs only at high ionic strength, as a consequence of the low affinity of the PSS for the POM surface. Adsorption isotherms are rounded. The adsorption increases more or less linearly with increasing ionic strength, and also we find a relatively strong dependence upon the molecular weight. From a comparison with adsorption results on hematite and with literature data on other systems, clear trends emerge as to the relation between adsorption characteristics and the affinity of the polyelectrolyte for the surface. This affinity may have both electrostatic and non- electrostatic components. With increasing affinity, isotherms become flatter, the molecular weight dependence weaker, and the effect of ionic strength smaller. Desorption experiments showed that the adsorption of PSS on POM is essentially reversible.

    Chapter 5 deals with polyelectrolyte adsorption theories. These may be derived from models for adsorption of uncharged polymers by incorporating the electrostatic free energy in the partition function of the system. We show in some detail how the lattice model of Roe for adsorption of uncharged polymers is extended to polyelectrolyte adsorption by Van der Schee. Systematic calculations based upon the new theory were performed. Major features are the high affinity character of adsorption isotherms, under all conditions, and the profound influence of the ionic strength upon the adsorption behaviour. At high salt concentration, the adsorption increases more strongly with ionic strength and molecular weight than at low salt concentration, and also the non-electrostatic segment-solvent interactions, expressed in the X-parameter, are more important. The non- electrostatic surface-polyelectrolyte affinity parameter Xs has a marked effect for any ionic strength. When either Xs or the salt concentration is low, the adsorption remains well below monolayer coverage. In that situation the presence of a surface charge of opposite sign to that of the polyelectrolyte gives rise to an additional adsorption of one (univalent) segment per elementary charge on the surface (charge compensation). For the thickness of the adsorbed layer we find 2 - 5 nm.

    Finally, in chapter 6 we compare experimental adsorption data for PSS on POM crystals with a recent lattice theory for polyelectrolyte adsorption. The dimensions of a lattice cell are estimated from the specific volume of the PSS monomer in combination with the persistence length of the chain, and the non-electrostatic segment-solvent interaction parameter χis assessed from literature data on phase separation. Qualitatively, the model reproduces the measured increase of adsorption with ionic strength and molecular weight. However, experimentally the adsorption increases more strongly than theoretically. For the ionic strength dependence we ascribe this to some variation of the solvent quality (χ) or the segment-surface interaction (χs) with the salt concentration. The theoretical increase of adsorption with molecular weight is probably too weak because the occurrence of free dangling tails at either end of an adsorbed chain is neglected in the Roe model. Experimental isotherms are rounded, whereas theoretically high-affinity isotherms are found. This may be a consequence of applying a lattice model for the bulk solution. The quantitative difference between experimental and theoretical adsorption is around 35 %, a satisfactory result in regard of the large number of model parameters and the uncertainties in their estimated values. Moreover, also the specific surface area of the adsorbent is liable to considerable error.

    Metabole gevolgen van het gebruik van polyalcoholen en fructose-literatuurstudie. Deel 5, 6 en 7. Maltitol, lactitol en lycasin
    Wiel-Wetzels, W.A.M. van der - \ 1982
    Voeding 43 (1982). - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 79 - 81.
    alcoholen - fructose - metabolisme - organische scheikunde - alcohols - metabolism - organic chemistry
    Over de fysische en chemische eigenschappen van genoemde zoetstoffen in relatie tot de stofwisseling
    Kolloidale stabiliteit en dubbellaageigenschappen van zilverjodide in water-ethyleenglycol mengsels
    Wit, J.N. de - \ 1975
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J. Lyklema. - Wageningen : Veenman - 117
    alcoholen - colloïden - derivaten - elektriciteit - ethyleenglycol - glycolen - jodide - magnetisme - polyethyleenglycol - zilver - thiolen - elektromagnetisme - alcohols - colloids - derivatives - electricity - ethylene glycol - glycols - iodide - magnetism - polyethylene glycol - silver - thiols - electromagnetism

    The purpose of this study was an analysis of the colloidal stability in mixed aqueous-alcoholic media. Addition of alcohol to water gives the opportunity of changing the dielectric constant of the medium, which is a very important parameter in sol stability.

    However, addition of alcohol not only influences the properties of the diffuse part of the double layer, it results also in changes of the STERN layer, such as an increase of the STERN layer thickness and a change of the potential ψ d of the outer HELMHOLTZ plane.

    In order to gain more insight in the relative influences of both parts of the double layer, we studied systematically the stability and the double layer properties of colloids under comparable conditions. In doing so, we explicitly incorporated the behaviour of the STERN layer in the stability research.

    Special attention was paid to a quantitative check of important parameters of the diffuse part of the double layer, resulting in an extension of the DLVO-theory.

    Silver iodide in the water-ethylene glycol system was chosen as the model for experimental research. In Chapter 1, the motivation of this choice is given as well as the outline of the present study. It was pointed out that it can be used both for stability experiments and for double layer investigations. This gives the possibility of combining information from two sources under nearly identical conditions. Ethylene glycol (EG) was introduced because it is a suitable medium for stable colloidal solutions of AgI, and it can be mixed with water in all proportions. By changing the EG content, a gradual transition of the dielectric constant to half its value in water is obtainable.

    However, a consequence of reducing the dielectric constant of the medium is an increased tendency of ionic association rendering the salt concentration and, for multiply charged ions, also the valence no longer a univocal measure for the amount of countercharge.

    In Chapter 2, the extent of ion association is checked by conductivity experiments of two representative electrolytes, KNO 3 and Ba(NO 3 ) 2 , in different EG- water media. From the results it appears that no significant association of Ba 2+-ions occurs at the concentrations encountered in the stability experiments. However, the concentrations of KNO 3 required in order to ensure coagulation are about 50 times higher than those of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 and, as a consequence, appreciable association in EG media must be taken into account.

    A further analysis of the results of the conductivity measurements revealed that there is an interaction between EG and water molecules, which is maximal at about 30 mole % EG. It appears that in this region two water molecules are bound by one EG molecule.

    In Chapter 3, the stability experiments are described and the results discussed in terms of the DLVO-theory with several modifications. The stability of the AgI-sols against some 1-1 and 2-1 electrolytes was determined using the kinetic method. The rates of coagulation were measured by a Stopped Flow Spectrophotometer. This apparatus mixes equal volumes of sol and salt solution in a very short time and allows interpretation of particle aggregation in the very early stages, up to doublet formation. Several corrections have been applied, among which the optical corrections accounting for the difference in light scattering between a dumb-bell of two spheres and two separate spheres, and the hydrodynamical correction on the coefficient of diffusion required when two spheres approach each other closely.

    From the experimental results, a collection of log W -log c plots were obtained, where c is the electrolyte concentration and W the stability ratio defined with respect to the fast coagulation rate of the sols.

    The flocculation rates revealed a defect in either the technique of observation or in the kinetics of flocculation in the sense that the flocculation seems not to be a bimolecular process.

    From the log W - log c plots, no special attempts have been made to determine critical coagulation concentrations, but instead at each salt concentration values of ψ d were calculated. This evaluation was based on the FUCHS integration procedure after introduction of some improvements. The major improvement is that we accounted for the fact that the electrostatic repulsion V R acts only over the diffuse part of the double layer, whereas the VAN DER WAALS attraction V A operates over the total distance between the particles. Hence, V R has a range that is 2Δshorter than the range over which V A operates where Δis thickness of the STERN-layer. The values for Δin the different EG-water mixtures were derived from model considerations based on a tetrahedal buildup of the STERN layer. It was assumed, that upon collision the particles do not penetrate into each others STERN layers.

    The new procedure leads to the following deductions. A consequence of the improved model of double layer interaction is the fact that sometimes the maximum interaction energy is located within the STERN layer, which needs further elucidation. Values of ψ d are obtained that are relatively low as compared with the unmodified model. The calculated values of ψ d are very sensitive to the choice of the thickness of the STERN layer. To a lesser extent, they depend also on the choices of the HAMAKER constant and the particle radius.

    In Chapter 4, the electrical double layer was studied in EG-water mixtures in the presence of 10 -1M KNO 3 or 10 -3M Ba(NO 3 ) 2 , using the well-known titration technique. The replacement of water by EG has the following consequences:

    a. The solubility of silver iodide increases by about a factor of two. This was mainly attributed to the change in standard free energy of solvation of the silver ion and, at the higher EG-water contents, to the change of the activity coefficients.

    b. The point of zero charge moves in a positive direction. This is in a minor part attributable to a change in solvation free energy of the silver and iodide ions, but to a large extent to a change in χ-potential. The maximum shift of the zero point of charge is = 89 mV in 10 -1M KNO 3 . It was deduced that the χ-potential causes about 72.5 % of this shift. This was explained by the preferential orientation of EG molecules with their negative sides to the AgI, surface; similarly water molecules are also oriented with their negative sides to this surface, but with a much bigger net moment. The shift of χis much smaller than that reported for EG at the mercury/aqueous solution interface. On mercury, it has been suggested that the component of the molecular dipole perpendicular to the surface is very small and, in any case, with the positive end toward the metal.

    c. All titration curves at different x EG pass through a common intersection point located at -3.3 μC/cm 2in 10 -1M KNO 3 and -3.8 μC/cm 2in 10-3 M Ba(NO 3 ) 2 . This point can be identified as the surface charge where the relative surface excess of EG is maximal. It appears to be dependent on the nature of the counterion. It should be remarked that the intersection point in EG is located at more negative surface charge than that reported for butanol. This can be explained by the stronger competition of the EG dipoles with water at the AgI, surface as compared with the butanol molecules.

    d. The double layer capacitance decreases with increasing x EG . This is mainly due to an increase of the STERN layer thickness. At values of x EG ≥0.5 no further decrease in double layer capacitance was observed, from which it was concluded that the AgI, surface is entirely covered by EG molecules at these EG contents of the medium.

    In Chapter 5, the double layer data were combined with the information derived from colloidal stability in order to gain insight into the composition of the STERN layer. The following conclusions were drawn:

    - A large part of the counter charge resides in the non-diffuse part of the double layer. This could only be explained by assuming specific adsorption of K +and Ba 2+ions at negatively charged AgI surfaces.

    - The specific adsorption of Ba 2+ions is much stronger than that of K +ions. It has the consequence, that, because of the much lower concentration used in the case of Ba 2+, only a small part of the Ba 2+ions take part in the double layer interactions.

    - These pronounced effects of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 may have repercussions with respect to the applicability of the usual smeared-out double layer picture, a feature that deserved more attention.

    This study has shown that the influence of the STERN layer on colloidal stability should not be neglected. From the results in this study, it can be concluded that, in the case of KNO 3 and RbNO 3 in EG, at least 20-40 % of the stability changes are caused by STERN layer effects and only 60-80 % to changes of the dielectric constant and ionic association in the diffuse double layer.

    Effect of gibberellic acid and polyethylene glycol on uptake and transport of 36Cl in bean plants
    Kuiper, P.J.C. ; Saidi, M.T. El - \ 1973
    Wageningen : Veenman (Mededelingen / Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 73-4) - 6
    phaseolus vulgaris - plantensamenstelling - derivaten - polyethyleenglycol - glycolen - ethyleenglycol - alcoholen - thiolen - assimilatie - elementen - natrium - plantkunde - oleïnezuur - onverzadigde vetzuren - carbonzuren - acrylzuur - phaseolus vulgaris - plant composition - derivatives - polyethylene glycol - glycols - ethylene glycol - alcohols - thiols - assimilation - elements - sodium - botany - oleic acid - unsaturated fatty acids - carboxylic acids - acrylic acid
    Infrared spectra of monoacid triglycerides : with some applications to fat analysis
    Ruig, W.G. de - \ 1971
    Wageningen : Pudoc, Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation (Agricultural research reports 759) - 143
    derivaten - alcoholen - glycerol - acylglycerolen - diacylglycerolen - triacylglycerolen - infraroodspectroscopie - analyse - chemie - analytische scheikunde - derivatives - alcohols - glycerol - acylglycerols - diacylglycerols - triacylglycerols - infrared spectroscopy - analysis - chemistry - analytical chemistry
    Adsorption of polyvinylalcohol on paraffin-water interfaces and the properties of paraffin-in-water emulsions stabilized by polyvinylalcohol : an experimental study
    Lankveld, J.M.G. - \ 1970
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Lyklema. - Wageningen : Veenman - 114
    alkanen - koolwaterstoffen - alcoholen - oppervlakten - grensvlak - vloeistofmechanica - capillairen - oppervlaktespanning - adsorptie - sorptie - oppervlakteverschijnselen - grenslaag - alkanes - hydrocarbons - alcohols - surfaces - interface - fluid mechanics - capillaries - surface tension - adsorption - sorption - surface phenomena - boundary layer

    The adsorption of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) on the paraffin-water interface has been studied by interfacial tension measurements and by direct measurement of the adsorption with emulsions. The aim of the study was to provide more insight into the factors which influence the adsorption of polymers at phase interfaces. The interfacial properties of polymers, some of which find application as adhesives, flocculating agents and emulsion stabilizers, are of great practical importance. This helps to explain why much fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, has been performed in recent years on polymer adsorption. Only a small proportion of this research, however, has been devoted to the adsorption of polymers at liquid- liquid interfaces, and so this was chosen as the subject for our investigation. To this end, the interface of a well defined model system has been studied by several different techniques.

    The interfacial tension was measured with the static Wilhelmy plate method as a function of the concentration of PVA (0.1-4000 ppm) and time (up to 30 h) for PVA samples differing in degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight and origin, Experiments were also done in a Langmuir trough with spread and adsorbed PVA monolayers at the paraffin-water interface. Interpretation of the interfacial tension measurements in terms of polymer adsorption is complicated by the irreversible nature of the latter. The irreversibility of polymer adsorption can be deduced from the fact that the measured interfacial tension depends not only on the concentration of PVA in the aqueous phase but also on the history of the interface. As a result, the Gibbs law of adsorption cannot be applied without further preface to polymers.

    Characteristic differences were noted between the interfacial activities of PVA of different degrees of hydrolysis. The discontinuity found in the plots of interfacial tension (γ) against the logarithm of polymer concentration ( cp ) for PVA with a low content of acetate groups (about 2 %) was absent from the corresponding plots for PVA with a higher acetate content (>12 %). The discontinuous nature of the former γ-log cp curves was explained in terms of kinetic factors, namely the relative rates of diffusion and unfolding of the polymer, which determine how the interface is occupied. Differences in the mechanism of interfacial occupation will be reflected by differences in the configuration of the adsorbed polymer molecules. This picture was confirmed by the time-dependence measurements,

    The molecular weight of the PVA was found to have no obvious effect on the interfacial tension, whereas the adsorption measured directly on the emulsion interface clearly increased with increasing molecular weight. One may conclude therefore that there is no well-defined relationship between the reduction in interfacial tension and the amount of polymer adsorbed. In this respect, the behaviour of polymer contrasts with that of low-molecular-weight surfactants.

    In the adsorption experiments with emulsions, the specific area of each emulsion was determined by measurement of the turbidity. The degree of dispersion went through a maximum with increasing PVA concentration when the acetate content of the latter was ≥12 %, This maximum corresponded to a discontinuity in the adsorption isotherm. The concentration at which the maximum was situated decreased with increasing molecular weight and with decreasing volume fractions of paraffin. An explanation for this was again sought in terms of kinetic factors influencing the formation of the stabilizing polymer layer during emulsification.

    The properties of the polymer layer of the emulsions were markedly different, depending on whether the emulsion had been prepared with a polymer concentration below or above that corresponding to the maximum specific area. The emulsion area was large when the amount of polymer per ml paraffin was kept low. A number of tentative experiments were done to enable the mechanism of emulsion formation to be studied more closely.

    All emulsions obtained were found to be extremely stable to coalescence right down to low polymer concentrations.

    Comparison of the results of the different measurements with the same system shows that the way in which the interface is formed has a great influence on its properties. This underlines the irreversible nature of the adsorption, which is one of the reasons why none of the existing theories is adequate to explain the measured effects quantitatively. By virtue of the many different measurements, however, this tudy serves as a basis for further theoretical and experimental work on the surface- active properties of polymers. In addition this investigation helped to show which factors determine the emulsifying capacity of polymers.

    Increasing potato yield with glyceroltriacetate and glyceroldiacetate
    Kuiper, F. ; Kuiper, P.J.C. ; Aalderen, B.W. van - \ 1969
    Wageningen : Veenman (Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 69-6) - 7
    plantenvoeding - kunstmeststoffen - mest - solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - plantengroeiregulatoren - derivaten - alcoholen - glycerol - acylglycerolen - diacylglycerolen - triacylglycerolen - plant nutrition - fertilizers - manures - solanum tuberosum - potatoes - plant growth regulators - derivatives - alcohols - glycerol - acylglycerols - diacylglycerols - triacylglycerols
    The influence of alcohols on the protoplasmic membrane and colloid models
    Saubert, G.G.P. - \ 1937
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. Reinders; H.J.C. Tendeloo. - Amsterdam : Mulder - 90
    colloïden - modellen - plasmamembranen - alcoholen - colloids - models - plasma membranes - alcohols
    Experiments with colloid systems attempted to achieve a better understanding of biological processes. The influence of alcohols on phosphatid coacervates was compared with their influence upon the protoplasmic membrane of living cells of the alga Chara ceratophylla. Some similarity could be seen between the influences of methanol, ethanol and butanol. But the alcohols exerted their influence upon the living membrane at much lower concentration than they did on the phosphatid coacervates (ratio 1 : 10) and on the dielectric medium (1 : 10). Propanol, however, decreased the permeability of the living protoplast, in the opinion of the author by condensation of the membrane, but opened up the phosphatid coacervate. Very low concentrations of propanol could, however, increase the permeability of the protoplasmic membrane in a similar way as it increased the volume of the coacervate.

    In explaining the influence of alcohols on the permeability of the protoplasmic membrane the author considered: action on the carbon chains of the membrane components; action on the dielectric condition of the system; the structure of the system (amorphous or oriented). The use of phosphatid coacervates as a model did not mean that the protoplasmic membrane was thought to be an amorphous system. Alcohols would probably open up a protoplasmic membrane composed of oriented components.

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