Consumption, lifestyle and social movements
Wahlen, S. ; Laamanen, M. - \ 2015
International Journal of Consumer Studies 39 (2015)5. - ISSN 1470-6423 - p. 397 - 403.
political consumerism - alternatives - activism
In this editorial, we contemplate how the politics of the everyday in consumption and consumer lifestyles emerge. Foundational here is the overarching question why, how and where do people come to share common spaces, meaning, identity, practice and goals in dispersed lifestyles aiming for (social) change. This special issue is an original endeavour to generate an understanding of the issues, problems and potential for change emerging from individual and collective efforts in and around consumption and lifestyles. The editorial presents principles and commonalities of the intersectional study of consumption, lifestyle and social movements. We connect these principles with the papers that make up the special issue and conclude with an outlook for future research.
Mobilization of biomass for energy from boreal forests in Finland & Russia under present sustainable forest management certification and new sustainability requirements for solid biofuels
Sikkema, R. ; Faaij, A.P.C. ; Ranta, T. ; Heinimö, J. ; Gerasimov, Y.Y. ; Karjalainen, T. ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy 71 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 23 - 36.
environmental impacts - wood - bioenergy - resources - fuel - alternatives - procurement - potentials - countries - products
Forest biomass is one of the main contributors to the EU's renewable energy target of 20% gross final energy consumption in 2020 (Renewable Energy Directive). Following the RED, new sustainability principles are launched by the European energy sector, such as the Initiative Wood Pellet Buyers (IWPB or SBP). The aim of our study is the investigation of the quantitative impacts from IWPB's principles for forest biomass for energy only. We deploy a bottom up method that quantifies the supplies and the costs from log harvest until forest chip delivery at a domestic consumer. We have a reference situation with existing national (forest) legislation and voluntary certification schemes (scenario 1) and a future situation with additional criteria based on the IWPB principles (scenario 2). Two country studies were selected for our (2008) survey: one in Finland with nearly 100% certification and one in Leningrad province with a minor areal share of certification in scenario 1. The sustainable potential of forest resources for energy is about 54 Mm3 (385 PJ) in Finland and about 13.5 Mm3 (95 PJ) in Leningrad in scenario 1 without extra criteria. The potential volumes reduce considerably by maximum 43% respectively 39% after new criteria from the IWPB, like a minimum use of sawlogs, stumps and slash for energy, and by an increased area of protected forests (scenario 2A Maximum extra restrictions). In case sawlogs can be used, but instead ash recycling is applied after a maximum stump and slash recovery (scenario 2B Minimum extra restrictions), the potential supply is less reduced: 5% in Finland and 22% in Leningrad region. The estimated reference costs for forest chips are between €18 and €45 solid m-3 in Finland and between €7 and €33 solid m-3 in the Leningrad region. In scenario 2A, the costs will mainly increase by €7 m-3 for delimbing full trees (Finland), and maximum €0.3 m-3 for suggested improved forest management (Leningrad region). In scenario 2B, when ash recycling is applied, costs increase by about €0.3 to €1.6 m-3, depending on the rate of soil contamination. This is an increase of 2%, on top of the costs in scenario 2A.
Energy consumption practices of rural households in north China: Basic characteristics and potential for low carbon development
Liu Wenling, Wenling ; Spaargaren, G. ; Heerink, N. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Wang, C. - \ 2013
Energy Policy 55 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 128 - 138.
co2 emissions - cooking - province - model - electrification - alternatives - bangladesh - strategies - patterns - villages
Reducing the climate impact of rural household energy consumption in China is complicated since it is bound up with deeply routinized daily practices and dependent from existing infrastructural systems of energy supply. To assess the potential for low carbon development we first estimate the overall CO2 emissions of rural households, followed by a more in depth description and characterization of the different energy use practices within the households. Space heating turns out to be the largest emission source among domestic energy practices in north China. We present lifestyle and context related factors that help to explain existing differences in domestic energy use practices of households. The potential for low carbon development is discussed both at the demand side and the supply side. At the demand side, the use of more efficient technologies and cleaner energy sources for space heating seems to be a high potential measure for achieving low carbon households. At the supply side the reduction of rural domestic CO2 emissions could be effectively supported by making available to householders renewable and cleaner energy sources and technologies. In order to be effective, such low carbon energy options should take into account the (income) characteristics and lifestyles of rural householders
An empirical assessment of the cross-national measurement validity of graded paired comparisons
Beuckelaer, A. de; Kampen, J.K. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Quality and quantity: international journal of methodology 47 (2013)2. - ISSN 0033-5177 - p. 1063 - 1076.
conjoint-analysis - response styles - stated preferences - marketing-research - tests - alternatives - methodology - management - countries - products
The popular use of graded paired comparisons in empirical studies assessing consumers’ preferences, and the potential effect of cross-national differences in (extreme) response styles on the quality of graded paired comparison data, supply ample reasons for an empirical verification of the cross-national validity of such scales. Using data from a cross-national margarine brand study including fourteen different nations (N = 4,560), we found sufficient statistical evidence for cross-national bias due to existing cross-national differences in extreme responses. However, the low values reported for effect size measures (intra-class correlation coefficient, R2 value) indicated that the impact of the cross-national bias is marginal. The findings from our study provided empirical support for the hypothesis that graded paired comparison data can be meaningfully compared across nations.
Water pollution by intensive brackish shrimp farming in south-east Vietnam: Causes and options for control
Pham Thi Ahn, ; Kroeze, C. ; Bush, S.R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2010
Agricultural Water Management 97 (2010)6. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 872 - 882.
of-california ecoregion - mangrove forests - environmental-impact - nitrogen budget - aquaculture - pond - thailand - sustainability - effluent - alternatives
This paper focuses on both the environmental impact of intensive shrimp farming in the coastal region of Vietnam and the identification of options for cleaner production. We investigated water pollution, sediment contamination and the spread of diseases related to shrimp farming in the Can Gio district of Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), an area representative for the impacts of intensive shrimp production in the country. Data on the production process was compiled from site observations, interviews with local farmers and experts, as well as from secondary sources. The results indicate that, while a large number of individual farms may exceed environmental standards, intensive shrimp farming is not always associated with waste streams exceeding water quality standards. This is interesting because it shows currently available technologies can reduce pollution from intensive shrimp farms. The paper concludes by identifying technologically and economically feasible options for reducing water pollution, problems associated with contaminated sediment, and the spread of diseases.