Land use and land cover dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon: understanding human-environmental interactions
Souza Soler, L. de - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; Peter Verburg, co-promotor(en): Kasper Kok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570887 - 186
dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - ontbossing - amazonas - brazilië - remote sensing - land use dynamics - deforestation - amazonas - brazil - remote sensing
Land use and land cover dynamics are a result of the interactions between human activities and the environment. The objective of this thesis is to analyze Amazonian land use and land cover pattern dynamics in order to identify the underlying system dynamics. By combining empirical statistical models and Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping, feedbacks in the human-environment system can be explored to identify more sustainable development pathways. The results show that specific feedback loops can lead to a sustainable human-environment system in the Brazilian Amazon, e.g., in case policies such as Payment for Ecosystems Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) are enforced. Also, the analysis indicates that land market regulations and the enforcement of the Forestry Code can reduce deforestation. It is concluded that policy effectiveness of sustainable land use practices can be better evaluated by using the combination of statistical and cognitive methods. In summary, the thesis illustrates that added value in analyzing land system changes is achieved if insights obtained at different scales are combined through different methods of analysis.
Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon
Otsuki, K. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789085046837 - 255
ontwikkelingsstudies - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ontbossing - nederzetting - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - etnografie - sociale structuur - gemeenschappen - brazilië - amazonas - sociale processen - development studies - sustainability - deforestation - settlement - natural resources - resource management - ethnography - social structure - communities - brazil - amazonas - social processes
This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of sustainable development and natural resource management for the institutionalism and insufficient dealings with the settlers’ everyday practice of forest clearing. The study demonstrates rich social and political life of the settlers in ethnographic details and shows flexible community boundaries of settlement projects. Deforestation and sustainable development in the Amazon cannot be discussed without understanding changeable social and physical spaces from the settlers’ standpoint. This book further elaborates a critical account of development projects and international cooperation programs promoting sustainable development in the Amazon, based on the author’s own experience.
Domestication process of two Solanum section Lasiocarpa species among Amerindians in the Upper Orinoco, Venezuela, with special focus on Piaroa Indians
Volpato, G. ; Marcucci, R. ; Tornadore, N. ; Paoletti, M.G. - \ 2004
Economic Botany 58 (2004)2. - ISSN 0013-0001 - p. 184 - 194.
solanaceae - chromosomes - amazonas
Two semi-cultivated Solanum species (S. sessiliflorum Dunal and S. stramonifolium Jacq.) are utilized by the Amazonian Indians of the Upper Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. The manner in which they have become partially domesticated by the Piaroas and other native tribes of this rain forest region is elucidated in the following text. Both species have two varieties, with and without prickles, the latter being the result of human selection. Patterns of indigenous utilization of these species brought to the selection of morphologic forms and to the differentiation of karyotypes of varieties, and exploitation of the species also reflects in the perception of them among users. S. sessiliflorum is cultivated in swiddens and has an economic role, whereas S. stramonifolium is grown in dooryards. This difference is detectable to the Piaroas, as they recognize in their folk taxonomy three different varieties of S. sessiliflorum and one of S. stramonifolium, according to the stage of domestication of the species and the way in which they are utilized.
Tropical forest mapping at regional scale using the GRFM SAR mosaics over the Amazon in South America
Sgrenzaroli, M. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Reinder Feddes, co-promotor(en): Dirk Hoekman. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089953 - 260
tropische bossen - cartografie - regionale verkenningen - amazonas - remote sensing - landclassificatie - landsat - radar - wavelets - tropical forests - mapping - regional surveys - amazonas - remote sensing - land classification - landsat - radar - wavelets
The work described in this thesis concerns the estimation of tropical forest vegetation cover in the Amazon region using as data source a continental scale high resolution (100 m) radar mosaic as data source. The radar mosaic was compiled by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA JPL) using approximately 2500 JERS-1 L-band scenes acquired in the context of the Global Rain Forest Mapping project by the National Agency for Space Development of Japan (NASDA).
A novel classification scheme was developed for this purpose.The underpinning method is based on a wavelet signal decomposition/reconstruction technique. In the wavelet reconstruction algorithm, an adaptive wavelet coefficient threshold is introduced to distinguish wavelet maxima related to the transition between classes from maxima related to textural within-class variation.
Two image-labeling techniquesare tested and compared: i) a region-growing algorithm and ii) a per-pixel two-stage hybrid classifier.
The large data volume problem was tackled by developing a special purpose processing chain that works on partially overlapping tiles extracted from the mosaic
Quantitative validation and error analysis of the classifiers' performance and their generalization capability to regional scale are carried out using, as reference, maps derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper. A first result of the validation process is that the wavelet classifier provides a classification accuracy of 87% in forest/non-forest mapping. The analysis by site reveals that class degraded-forest is the major source of classification errors. The discrepancy between TM maps and SAR maps increases with increasing landscape spatial fragmentation.
A test on relative performances between the wavelet-based region growing segmentation technique and a conventional clustering technique (ISODATA) shows that the wavelet-based technique provides better accuracy and is capable of generalizing over the entire data set.
The issue of detecting the degraded-forest class - generally ignored by Amazonian deforestation mapping programs - is tackled using data acquired by both optical and SAR instruments . For optical data, a three-stage classification procedure is developed for detecting degraded forest classes in Landsat TM images. For SAR data, a multi-temporal speckle filtering technique is used to improve the signal to noise ratio.
Starting from the consideration that the discrepancy between TM maps and SAR maps increases with the landscape spatial fragmentation we test an inductive learning methodology, capable of correcting SAR regional-scale maps using local classification estimates at a higher resolution , is tested.
Finally some ideas and projects are put forward which are meant to be working hypotheses for future actions and practical approaches to reduce the pressure over the tropical forest ecosystem.
Use of integrated modelling for experimental design; final report
Kabat, P. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Ashby, M. ; Gash, J.C. ; Wright, I. ; Culf, A. ; Calvet, J.C. ; Delire, C. ; Noilhan, J. ; Jochum, A. ; Silva Dias, M.A. ; Fisch, G.A. ; Santos Alvala, R.C. ; Nobre, C.A. ; Prince, S.D. ; Steininger, M. - \ 1999
Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centre - 210
tropische regenbossen - microklimaat - vegetatie - atmosfeer - evaporatie - modellen - amazonas - brazilië - tropical rain forests - microclimate - vegetation - atmosphere - evaporation - models - amazonas - brazil