Editorial : Special issue on the impacts of climate change on food safety
Uyttendaele, M. ; Liu, C. ; Hofstra, N. - \ 2015
Food Research International 68 (2015). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 1 - 6.
escherichia-coli o157-h7 - waste-water reclamation - virus monitoring data - time-series analysis - manure-amended soil - north-west europe - infectious-diseases - ambient-temperature - seasonal-variation - potential impacts
Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment
Shrestha, A.K. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Langevelde, F. van; Fuller, A. ; Hetem, R.S. ; Meyer, L. ; Bie, S. de; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2014
International Journal of Biometeorology 58 (2014)1. - ISSN 0020-7128 - p. 41 - 49.
body-size - ambient-temperature - activity patterns - food-intake - behavior - endotherms - serengeti - ruminants - ecology - mammals
Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.
The association between indoor temperature and body mass index in children: the PIAMA birth cohort study
Scheffers, F.R. ; Bekkers, M.B.M. ; Kerhof, M. ; Gehring, U. ; Koppelman, G.H. ; Schipper, M. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Wijga, A.H. - \ 2013
BMC Public Health 13 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 10 p.
mild cold - ambient-temperature - energy-expenditure - metabolism - weight - thermogenesis - prevalence - responses - obesity - humans
Background Several experimental studies showed consistent evidence for decreased energy expenditure at higher ambient temperatures. Based on this, an association between thermal exposure and body weight may be expected. However, the effect of thermal exposure on body weight has hardly been studied. Therefore, this study investigated the association between indoor temperature and body mass index (BMI) in children in real life. Methods This longitudinal observational study included 3 963 children from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort that started in 1996. These children were followed from birth until the age of 11 years. Winter indoor temperature (living room and bedroom) was reported at baseline and BMI z-scores were available at 10 consecutive ages. Missing data were multiply imputed. Associations between indoor temperature and BMI were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE), adjusted for confounders and stratified by gender. In a subgroup of 104 children, bedroom temperature was also measured with data loggers. Results Mean reported living room and bedroom temperature were 20.3°C and 17.4°C, respectively. Reported and measured bedroom temperatures were positively correlated (r¿=¿0.42, p¿=¿0.001). Neither reported living room temperature (-0.03¿=¿ß¿=¿0.04) and bedroom temperature (-0.01¿=¿ß¿=¿0.02) nor measured bedroom temperature (-0.04¿=¿ß¿=¿0.05) were associated with BMI z-score between the age of 3 months and 11 years. Conclusions This study in children did not support the hypothesized association between indoor temperature and BMI in a real life setting.
Impacts of climate change on the microbial safety of pre-harvest leafy green vegetables as indicated by Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp.
Liu, C. ; Hofstra, N. ; Franz, E. - \ 2013
International Journal of Food Microbiology 163 (2013)2-3. - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 119 - 128.
enterica serovar typhimurium - manure-amended soil - irrigation water - united-states - fresh produce - multistate outbreak - sewage-sludge - pathogenic microorganisms - contaminated manure - ambient-temperature
The likelihood of leafy green vegetable (LGV) contamination and the associated pathogen growth and survival are strongly related to climatic conditions. Particularly temperature increase and precipitation pattern changes have a close relationship not only with the fate and transport of enteric bacteria, but also with their growth and survival. Using all relevant literature, this study reviews and synthesises major impacts of climate change (temperature increases and precipitation pattern changes) on contamination sources (manure, soil, surface water, sewage and wildlife) and pathways of foodborne pathogens (focussing on Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp.) on pre-harvested LGVs. Whether climate change increases their prevalence depends not only on the resulting local balance of the positive and negative impacts but also on the selected regional climate change scenarios. However, the contamination risks are likely to increase. This review shows the need for quantitative modelling approaches with scenario analyses and additional laboratory experiments. This study gives an extensive overview of the impacts of climate change on the contamination of pre-harvested LGVs and shows that climate change should not be ignored in food safety management and research.
Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs
Averos, X. ; Brossard, L. ; Dourmad, J.Y. ; Greef, K.H. de; Edwards, S.A. ; Meunier-Salaün, M.C. - \ 2012
Animal 6 (2012)8. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1275 - 1289.
single-space feeders - average daily gain - growth-performance - group-size - carcass characteristics - intake pattern - food-intake - body-weight - diurnal temperature - ambient-temperature
A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P <0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P <0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P <0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P <0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P <0.05) and floor space allowance (P <0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P <0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P <0.05), higher ingestion rates (P <0.001) and higher ADFI (P <0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P <0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P <0.01), the ingestion rate (P <0.001) and FCR (P <0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex modulated the effect of the number of feeder places/pig on FCR (P <0.05), with a gradual reduction of FCR in entire males and females when increasing feeder space allowance. Genetics tended to modulate the effect of diets’ CP content on FCR (P <0.10). Overall, these results may contribute to the improvement of the welfare and performance of growing-finishing pigs by a better knowledge of the influence of the rearing environment and may help optimize the feeding strategies in current production systems.
Quantifying the impact of climate change on enteric waterborne pathogen concentrations in surface water
Hofstra, N. - \ 2011
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3 (2011)6. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 471 - 479.
escherichia-coli concentrations - comparative risk-assessment - hydrologic catchment model - time-series analysis - infectious-diseases - ambient-temperature - source tracking - human health - land-use - bacteriological quality
Climate change, among other factors, will impact waterborne pathogen concentrations in surface water worldwide, possibly increasing the risk of diseases caused by these pathogens. So far, the impacts are only determined qualitatively and thorough quantitative estimates of future pathogen concentrations have not yet been made. This review shows how changes in temperature and precipitation influence pathogen concentrations and gives opportunities to quantitatively explore the impact of climate change on pathogen concentrations using examples from ecological and hydrological modelling, already available statistical and process-based pathogen models and climate change scenarios. Such applications could indicate potential increased waterborne pathogen concentrations and guide further research
Effect of genotype and dietary protein level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening pigs in central Vietnam
Pham, K.T. ; Nghia, D.H. ; Ngoan, L.D. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2010
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 23 (2010)8. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 1034 - 1042.
growing-pigs - energy-intake - body-weight - ambient-temperature - feed-intake - gilts - barrows - quality - boars - requirements
This study aimed to determine the optimum dietary crude protein level in a typical diet for fattening pigs fed ad libitum under normal climate conditions in Central Vietnam. One hundred and ninety two gilts of Mong Cai local breed (MC), F1 Large White??Mong Cai and F2 crossbreds of (Landrace??Mong Cai)??Large White were used. At the start of the experiment, Mong Cai pigs weighed 12 kg at 11 weeks of age, F1 pigs 12.1 kg at 8 weeks of age and F2 pigs 12.2 kg at 8 weeks of age. Four diets differing in crude protein (CP) content (10.1, 13.1, 16.1 and 18.9% in DM) were formulated from rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal and fish meal. Calculated digestible energy content of the diets ranged from 13.5 to 13.8 MJ per kg DM. Pigs were housed individually in pens of 2.5 m2 each and had ad libitum access to feed in a trough as well as water in bowls. The final weights after a growing period of 150 days were 66, 86 and 96 kg for MC, F1 and F2, respectively. Feed intake of MC pigs was highest at 13.1% CP while F1 and F2 had the highest feed intake at 16.1% CP. The results showed that for MC the maximum gain was obtained at levels between 13 to 16% CP. For the F1 the maximum gain was at dietary protein levels of 16-17%. For F2 the max gain was obtained at CP levels of 16 to 18%. Feed conversion was highest in MC pigs (~4.0) followed by F1 (~3.3) and F2 (~3.1), and within genotypes was lowest at the optimum CP level (p
Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain
Jacxsens, L. ; Luning, P.A. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Devlieghere, F. ; Leemans, R. ; Uyttendaele, M. - \ 2010
Food Research International 43 (2010)7. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 1925 - 1935.
minimally processed vegetables - escherichia-coli o157-h7 - agricultural land-use - time rt-pcr - ambient-temperature - iceberg lettuce - cryptosporidium oocysts - foodborne pathogens - contaminated water - future scenarios
The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates the need for scientific research and development of new and/or improved tools, techniques and practices to adapt the current risk management systems. In this paper, a conceptual research approach is presented to analyse the complexity of the climate change and globalization challenge on the fresh produce supply chain taken as a case study. The factors which affect the vulnerability of the fresh produce chain demand a multidisciplinary research approach. The proposed knowledge-based modelling system is believed to be a most appropriate way to identify problems and to offer solutions to monitor and prevent microbiological food safety risks during all phases of food production and supply. To explore the potential impact of climate change and globalization, baseline information can be obtained by surveillance and performance measurement of implemented food safety management systems. Simulation of climate change scenarios and the logistic chain of fresh produce, along with mathematical models to optimize packaging technology to maintain quality and safety of fresh produce are tools to provide insights in the complex dynamic ecosystem. They are the basis for elaboration of risk assessment studies to scientifically support management options and decisions to new microbiological threats related to globalization and climate change in the fresh produce supply chain. This research concept as such will contribute to develop strategies in order to guarantee the (microbiological) food safety of fresh produce on the long term
Genetic and phenotypic relationships between blood gas parameters and ascites-related traits in broilers
Closter, A.M. ; As, P. van; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Vereijken, A.L.J. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2009
Poultry Science 88 (2009)3. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 483 - 490.
pulmonary-artery occlusion - right ventricular failure - carbon-dioxide tensions - body-weight - chicken lines - growth-rate - physiological variables - hypertension syndrome - selection-strategies - ambient-temperature
Ascites, also called pulmonary hypertension syndrome, is a metabolic disorder in chickens that have an insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity. The tendency of broilers to develop ascites is heritable, and successful selection against this susceptibility would benefit from good and easy-to-measure indicator traits. Blood gas parameters have been suggested as indicator traits for ascites susceptibility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability of blood gas parameters and the genetic and phenotypic correlations between blood gas parameters, heart ratio (postmortem indicator for ascites), and BW at 2 different ages. For this purpose, blood gas parameters, including the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood (pvCO2), the partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood (pvO2), and blood oxygen saturation, were measured at an average age of 22 d in nearly 3,000 broilers. To challenge the resistance of the birds to ascites, they were kept under cold conditions. Heritability for heart ratio was 0.43, and the heritability estimates were low: 0.02 for pvCO2, 0.03 for pvO2, and 0.07 for blood oxygen saturation. The estimated heritability for pH was 0.15, for bicarbonate was 0.19, and for total carbon dioxide content was 0.19. The genetic correlations between heart ratio and total carbon dioxide content (0.31 ± 0.15) and between heart ratio and bicarbonate (0.31 ± 0.15) were moderate and positive. For pvO2, the genetic correlation with heart ratio was stronger and negative (–0.62 ± 0.21); however, this correlation could not be estimated accurately because of the low heritability of pvO2. For pvCO2, the genetic correlation with the heart ratio was close to zero (–0.04 ± 0.45). Phenotypic correlations between traits were, in general, similar to the genetic correlations. Heritabilities for blood gas parameters and the genetic correlations between blood gas parameters and the heart ratio estimated in the present study do not support the suggestion that blood gas parameters measured during wk 3 or 4 are useful traits to select against the susceptibility for ascites
Sow line differences in heat stress tolerance expressed in reproductive performance traits
Bloemhof, S. ; Waaij, E.H. van der; Merks, J.W.M. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2008
Journal of Animal Science 86 (2008)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3330 - 3337.
ambient-temperature - genetic component - early-pregnancy - dairy-cattle - thailand - landrace - climate - pigs
The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate if there were differences in the relation between temperature and reproductive performance traits in 2 different sow lines, a Yorkshire line producing mainly in temperate climates and a Large White line producing mainly in warm climates, and 2) to determine the upper critical temperature (UCT) for the reproductive performance of these 2 lines. Sows are exposed to heat stress when temperature exceeds the UCT of the thermo-neutral zone. Data included 32,631 observations on reproductive performance from 11,935 sows on 20 farms in Spain, collected from 2003 to 2005. Sows belonged to 2 different purebred sow lines, named D (Yorkshire sow line, producing mainly in temperate climates) and I (Large White sow line, producing mainly in warm climates). Only first insemination records per parity were used and were combined with the maximum outside temperature at day of insemination. Upper critical temperatures were studied for 3 reproduction traits: farrowing rate (0 or 1), litter size (range from 1 to 25), and total number of piglets born per first insemination (combination of farrowing rate and litter size, range from 0 to 25). Data were corrected for fixed effects, which included parity, service sire, and an interaction between farm and year. Corrected data were used as observations in the models to study the effect of outside temperature on reproductive performance. Two models were compared for goodness of fit: a linear regression model and a plateau-linear model with the plateau representing the thermo-neutral zone and a linear decrease above that zone. Farrowing rate of I-line sows was not affected by temperature. For litter size and total number born per first insemination of I-line sows no UCT could be estimated. These traits were linearly affected by temperature. For all 3 reproduction traits of the D-line the best model was the plateau-linear model; the UCT for the D-line sows was estimated to be 19.2°C for farrowing rate, 21.7°C for litter size, and 19.6°C for total number born per first insemination. The decrease in reproductive performance of I-line sows with increasing outside temperature was less than in D-line sows. From this study it can be concluded that there are differences in heat stress tolerance between sow lines as measured by the differences in reproductive performance. These differences are an indication of genetic differences in heat stress tolerance in sow lines.
Metabolic rate and its relationship with ascites in chicken genotypes
Malan, D.D. ; Scheele, C.W. ; Buyse, J. ; Kwakernaak, C. ; Siebrits, F.K. ; Klis, J.D. van der; Decuypere, E. - \ 2003
British Poultry Science 44 (2003)2. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 309 - 315.
broiler chicken - physiological variables - ambient-temperature - growth - susceptibility - hemodynamics - performance - occlusion
This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because almost all cows do adapt in the long run, it is not possible to classify animals as adapted or non-adapted. The use of risk factors is more appropriate in this case and is discussed in this review. Among them are the body condition score and its derivatives, feed intake, the calculated negative energy balance, and metabolic parameters like the plasma concentration of insulin or the triacylglycerol content in the liver. Moreover, factors that play a role in the link between declined reproductive performance and the metabolic situation of the cow during the early lactating period are discussed. Among these are insulin, insulin-like growth factors, leptin, neuropeptide Y, non-esterified fatty acids, thyroid hormones, urea, and ammonia.
Haematological characteristics predicting susceptibility for ascites. 1. High carbon dioxide tensions in juvenile chickens.
Scheele, C.W. ; Klis, J.D. van der; Kwakernaak, C. ; Buys, N. ; Decuypere, E. - \ 2003
British Poultry Science 44 (2003)3. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 476 - 483.
pulmonary-hypertension syndrome - growing broiler-chickens - heart-failure - mitochondrial dysfunction - physiological variables - cardiac-arrhythmias - ambient-temperature - growth-rate - disturbances - performance
1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of haematological characteristics in juvenile chickens on the development of clinical ascitic signs. Production performance (body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR)) from 448 birds per stock was measured from 2 to 5 weeks of age. Mortality was recorded from 2 to 6 weeks of age. The birds were housed at a low ambient temperature to stimulate the incidence of ascites. 2. From each stock, 32 birds with the highest (high risk: HRc) and 32 birds with the lowest (low risk: LRc) carbon dioxide tensions (pCO2) in venous blood were selected at 11 d of age. These birds were marked for future blood sampling to determine changes in pCO2 with age to relate these values to ascites susceptibility. 3. At 2 weeks of age all birds (including HRc and LRc birds) were allotted to 32 floor pens (one HRc and one LRc in each pen) per stock. Venous blood samples were collected weekly from HRc and LRc birds for blood gas analysis and haematocrit, and at week 5 also for thyroid hormone (T3, T4) concentrations in plasma. At 5 weeks of age all HRc and LRc birds were examined post-mortem, relative heart, lung, and liver weights and arterial pressure index (API) values were recorded. 4. Birds from stock A showed a lower BWG and FCR and notably higher ascites mortality compared with stock B. An effect of pCO2 tensions at d 11 was found on the incidence of ascitic signs in selected birds of both stocks up to week 5. From the HRc groups 30% of the birds showed ascitic signs, whereas this was only 8% in the LRc group. LRc birds of stock B in particular showed constant low API values (20 +/- 3%) and none of these birds showed signs of ascites. 5. Our results suggest that the ascites problem in Ross birds can be eliminated by selection for low pCO2 tensions in venous blood. Stock effects on API, liver weight, lung weight, and plasma thyroid hormone independent of pCO2 showed a more complex picture of the ascitic signs in stock A compared with B. 6. We concluded that in this experiment a high pCO2 tension in venous blood measured at d 11 was a reliable predictor for ascites susceptibility observed at 5 weeks of age. A low pCO2 tension provides an appropriate criterion for genetic selection, whereas a high pCO2 tension emphasises the necessity for intensive management in poultry houses.