Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effects of dietary crude protein levels on ammonia emission, litter and manure composition, N losses, and water intake in broiler breeders
    Emous, R.A. van; Winkel, A. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2019
    Poultry Science 98 (2019)12. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 6618 - 6625.
    ammonia emission - broiler breeder - dietary crude protein - litter and manure composition - N losses

    This study determined the effects of different dietary crude protein (CP) levels on ammonia emission (NH3), litter and manure composition, nitrogen (N) losses, and water intake in broiler breeders. A total of 480 females and 64 males (Ross 308) 20 wk of age were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 30 females and 4 males per replicate. Birds were fed either high CP (CPh) or low CP diets (CPl) supplemented with free amino acids (AA). Both diets consisted of 3 sub-diets; 1 for each phase of the laying period. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and calculated CP content of the CPl diets was 15 g/kg lower than the CPh diets (Breeder 1 (23 to 34 wk): 135 vs. 150, Breeder 2 (35 to 46 wk): 125 vs. 140 and Breeder 3 (47 to 60 wk of age): 115 vs. 130 g/kg, respectively). Pens consisted of an elevated slatted floor (25% of the floor surface) and a litter floor. Water and feed intake were recorded daily. Litter (floor) and manure (below slatted floor) composition and ammonia concentration were measured at 34, 44, and 54 wk of age. Ammonia concentration was measured using a flux chamber on top of the litter or manure. Estimated N losses were calculated. Dietary protein level did not affect water intake and dry matter (DM) content of the litter or manure. Compared to birds fed the CPh diets, the litter and manure samples of broiler breeders fed the CPl had 8% lower total-N and 13% lower ammonia-N content resulting in a 9% lower ammonia concentration, 9% lower ammonia emission, and 11% lower total-N losses. In conclusion, this study shows that reducing CP level in the diet of broiler breeders reduces ammonia emission and total N-losses from litter and manure.

    Reductie van ammoniak- en methaanemissie via het voerspoor : onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen de excretie van Totaal Ammoniakaal Stikstof (TAN) en de emissie van enterisch methaan (CH4) op de Koeien&Kansen praktijkbedrijven in de periode 2010-2013
    Spek, J.W. ; Klop, A. ; Šebek, L.B. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien en kansen nr. 79) - 19
    ammoniakemissie - methaan - emissiereductie - rundveevoeding - ammonia emission - methane - emission reduction - cattle feeding
    Het verlagen van de TAN-excretie als maatregel om de ammoniakemissie op het melkveebedrijf te verminderen : methodiek voor het vaststellen van de TAN-excretie: module ‘Bedrijfsspecifieke Emissie Ammoniak’ (BEA) van de Kringloopwijzer
    Šebek, L. ; Migchels, G. ; Dijk, C. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1020) - 33
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - rundveevoeding - rundveemest - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ammonia emission - emission reduction - cattle feeding - cattle manure - farm management
    Actualisering ammoniak emissiefactoren pluimvee : advies voor aanpassing van ammoniak emissiefactoren van pluimvee in de Regeling ammoniak en veehouderij (Rav)
    Ellen, H.H. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1015) - 60
    pluimvee - pluimveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - regulatie - dierhouderij - poultry - poultry farming - ammonia emission - regulation - animal husbandry
    Indampen van dunne mestfracties in combinatie met een luchtwasser
    Hoeksma, P. ; Hol, A. ; Verheijen, R. ; Verdoes, N. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1014) - 25
    vloeibare meststoffen - drijfmest - evaporatie - reinigers - ammoniakemissie - varkenshouderij - liquid manures - slurries - evaporation - scrubbers - ammonia emission - pig farming
    The effect of an evaporator/air-scrubber combination on the reduction of ammonia and odour was evaluated and the evaporation capacity was assessed. It was concluded that at pig farms substantial reduction (one third) of the slurry volume can cost effectively be achieved while maintaining ammonia and odour reduction effiency.
    Maatregelen ter reductie van ammoniakemissie in bestaande varkensstallen
    Vermeij, I. ; Ellen, H. ; Bokma, S. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1010) - 21
    varkenshouderij - huisvesting, dieren - ammoniakemissie - reductie - wetgeving - nederland - pig farming - animal housing - ammonia emission - reduction - legislation - netherlands
    The ambition of Global Gap Add-on to reduce ammonia emission exceed the legal standards. Scrubber systems comply with the standards, but are not preferable. Alternatives to reduce ammonia emission on existing farms has been mapped out. A combination of measurements from Rav and PAS lead to different options. The reduction of protein in animal feed in addition to a housing measurement has a positive prospect. Internal deduction on farm level leads to different options. The measurements will lead to more exploitation costs on the pig farm.
    Effect of Comfort Slat Mats with and without valves on ammonia emission from dairy housing : case control measurements at Dairy Campus Leeuwarden
    Dooren, H.J.C. van; Zonderland, J.L. ; Blanken, K. ; Bokma, S. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 1028) - 22
    dairy cattle - dairy farming - cattle housing - floor type - valves - ammonia emission - emission reduction - melkvee - melkveehouderij - huisvesting van rundvee - vloertypen - kleppen - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie
    Ontwikkeling van een rekentool om de ammoniakemissie uit vleeskuikenstallen te kunnen voorspellen
    Aarnink, Andre ; Harn, Jan van; Banken, Klaas ; Ogink, Nico - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 990) - 73
    vleeskuikens - ammoniakemissie - modellen - pluimveehouderij - broilers - ammonia emission - models - poultry farming
    PASsend beweiden
    Mosquera, J. ; Philipsen, B. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 983) - 23
    melkkoeien - melkvee - begrazing - ammoniakemissie - rundveemest - rundveeteelt - dairy cows - dairy cattle - grazing - ammonia emission - cattle manure - cattle farming
    Grazing is a possible measure within PAS (Programmatic Approach Nitrogen) to reduce ammonia emissions from cattle farming (PAS 2015.08.02). In order to be applied, all dairy cows should be grazing for at least 720 hours per year. This measure is being assigned an ammonia emission reduction of 5%. The purpose of this desk study is to identify and quantify the effect of grazing on the ammonia emission from/in perspective of the whole manure chain for different grazing strategies.
    Refining a model-based assessment strategy to estimate the ammonia emission from floors in dairy cow houses
    Snoek, Dennis J.W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): Nico Ogink; Hans Stigter. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578852 - 182
    dairy cows - stalls - ammonia emission - floors - modeling - mitigation - sensors - ph - temperature - urea - melkkoeien - stallen - ammoniakemissie - vloeren - modelleren - mitigatie - sensors - ph - temperatuur - ureum

    Ammonia (NH3) emission is still high, and agriculture is still the dominant contributor. In The Netherlands, the NH3 emission from dairy cow houses is one of the most important sources. A lot of research has been conducted to understand and model NH3 emission, to measure it, and to reduce it using identified and developed reduction measures. However, our understanding of how to measure and how to reduce the NH3 emission is still limited. In addition, the set emission ceilings were lowered for 2020.

    The objective of this thesis was to refine a model-based assessment strategy to estimate the ammonia emission from floors in dairy cow houses. First the most important input variables and process parameters were identified with a sensitivity analysis in currently available mechanistic NH3 emission models and theory. It was concluded that five puddle related input variables caused the largest variation in NH3 emission estimation, being the puddle pH, depth (Dp), urinary urea nitrogen concentration (UUN), surface area (Ap), and temperature (Tliq). For each input variable the available data was scarce, and it was therefore recommended to measure these five most important variables in practice. However, measurement methods were hardly available. Therefore, sensors were chosen, new measurement methods were developed, and these were combined in a protocol to measure the pH, Dp, UUN, Ap and Tliq of fresh, random and manually created urine puddles in commercial dairy cow houses.

    In total 16 commercial dairy cow houses were assessed in a factorial experimental setup based on four floor-management types in two Seasons, with PREclean treatment. PREclean represented intense-floor-cleaning that was compared to on-farm manure scraping. A V-shaped asphalt floor had significantly larger values for both Ap (1.04 m2) and Dp (1.5 mm) than did the slatted and grooved floors (0.76 m2, 0.93 mm). For both Ap and Dp the variation within a farm was large, but was negligible between farms. The Dp values and variation were 3 to 6 times larger than currently assumed. With PREclean treatment the Dp resulted in about 3 times lower values compared to the on-farm scraping. In short, the potential NH3 emission reduction of good floor cleaning is large. Overall mean values were 4.27 kg m-3 for UUN, an initial pH(t=0) of 8.3, both in fresh puddles, and a pH(t=ξ) of 9.0 for random puddles at a random time. For UUN both the variation within and between farms was large, whereas the variation for pH was small. Both the mean UUN and pH showed lower values than currently assumed. In a separate 4 h time series experiment at 3 commercial farms was shown that the pH, on average, quickly increased initially, declined after 1 h and then became stable. The calculated NH3 in kg puddle-1 showed a huge range and was considerably larger than currently assumed for the reference situation.

    Compared to the aforementioned sensitivity analysis outcome, the UUN range at farm level is both slightly smaller and shifts to slightly lower values, while for Dp the range and values are both larger. These two variables caused the largest variation in the estimated NH3 emissions, and not the pH. In conclusion, these two variables certainly need to be measured in individual commercial dairy cow houses to estimate the NH3 emission. For Ap, pH and Tair the measured ranges at farm level were less large. The pH turns out to be fairly stable in commercial cow houses and, related to that, it causes less variation in the estimated NH3 emission. Nevertheless, the pH still ranks as the third most important variable, and therefore needs to be measured in individual cow houses. The Ap is fairly stable between farms, but varies within farms and it still has a significant effect on the NH3 emission. The floor design clearly affects the puddle area Ap. Therefore, it is not necessary to measure Ap at each individual farm, but it is sufficient to measure the Ap in only one commercial cow house per floor design. The Tair variable is of limited importance compared to the aforementioned four variables, but it is still significant.

    Referentieraming van emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw tot 2030 : achtergronddocument bij de Nationale Energieverkenning 2015, met emissies van ammoniak, methaan, lachgas, stikstofoxide en fijnstof uit de landbouw tot 2030
    Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Vonk, J. ; Schijndel, M.W. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2746) - 75
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - stikstofoxide - fijn stof - landbouw - nederland - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - nitric oxide - particulate matter - agriculture - netherlands
    Emissiefactoren mestbewerking : inschatting van emissiefactoren voor ammoniak en lachgas uit mestbewerking
    Melse, R.W. ; Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 962) - 19
    mest - emissie - distikstofmonoxide - ammoniakemissie - dierhouderij - manures - emission - nitrous oxide - ammonia emission - animal husbandry
    In deze studie wordt een aantal emissiefactoren voorgesteld voor de belangrijkste mestbewerkingstechnieken die in Nederland worden toegepast, voor wat betreft methaan (CH4), stikstofmonoxide (NO), lachgas (N2O) en ammoniak (NH3). De emissiefactoren zijn bepaald op basis van beschikbare literatuur voor de diercategorieën rundvee (excl. vleeskalveren), vleeskalveren, varkens en pluimvee. De belangrijkste emissiefactoren zouden nader onderzocht kunnen worden met als doel om deze preciezer vast te stellen en/of experimenteel te valideren. Hierbij kan bijvoorbeeld gedacht worden aan de lachgasemissie die plaatsvindt bij de behandeling van vleeskalverendrijfmest (nitrificatie/denitrificatie) of aan de methaanemissie die optreedt tijdens opslag van dunne en dikke fracties die geproduceerd worden uit scheiding van rundvee- en varkensdrijfmest
    Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
    Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164
    air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
    The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
    (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
    calculations with NEMA
    Inpassen van maatregelen ter reductie van gasvormige emissies in de bedrijfsvoering van melkveebedrijven : Koeien & Kansen resultaten 2010-2013
    Goselink, R.M.A. ; Sebek, L.B. ; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien & Kansen nr. 76) - 33
    broeikasgassen - emissie - maatregelen - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - melkveebedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - melkveehouderij - greenhouse gases - emission - measures - ammonia emission - emission reduction - air quality - farm management - dairy farms - sustainable animal husbandry - dairy farming
    In 2010 the dairy farmers of Cows & Opportunities have started working on a new project goal: gaseous emissions. To continue their role as pilot farm within the future developments in the dairy sector new goals have been added to their original goals on optimizing the nitrogen en phosphorus cycle: reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ammonia. The ultimate goal for 2013 was a 30% reduction of the average greenhouse gas emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) together, relative to the average Dutch dairy farm in 1990. In addition to the reduction of greenhouse gases, a second aim was to further reduce ammonia (NH3) emissions with 10% relative to the individual farm level in 2009. In 2009 the autonomously achieved reduction on greenhouse gas emissions turned out to be 29%, and this was further improved to 31% in 2013, reaching the project goal. This improvement was reached by both a reduction of N2O and CH4. The reduction of the N2O emission reached already 56% in 2009, but unexpectedly grew to 62% in 2013, partly by an increase in production intensity (kg FPCM per ha). The reduction of CH4 emission was less substantial, starting at 12% in 2009 and fluctuating around 13% in 2010-2013. The second aim was to further reduce NH3 emissions to an average of 3.2 kg NH3 per 1000 kg FPCM (10% reduction relative to the individual farm level in 2009). This was reached in 2013, showing that this goal was realistic even while working on other project goals like CH4 reduction in parallel. The decline in the NH3 emission is mainly achieved at the project farms situated on sandy soils and peat, while the emission of project farms on clay soils stayed relatively constant. Farm-specific circumstances such as the weather and roughage quality will influence the effect of measurements, thereby causing fluctuations in the emissions over the years. Working on the reduction of gaseous emissions is however possible on the average Dutch dairy farm and may lead to a reduction of 25% relative to 1990, looking at the autonomous reduction already reach in Cows & Opportunities in 2009. Further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will cost more effort. If 50% of the Dutch dairy farmers also reaches a decrease in NH3 emission in 2020 comparable to the farmers in Cows & Opportunities have reached in 2013, the emission of the dairy sector wil be 3.6 kg NH3 per 1000 kg FPCM. Dairy farmers will however need high management skills, as they have to run a complex farming system and work simultaneously on a variety of financial, social and environmental objectives all-year.
    Maatregelen ter vermindering van de ammoniakemissie uit de melkveehouderij: indicatieve beoordelingen van vloer- en keldermaatregelen
    Dooren, H.J.C. van; Mosquera Losada, J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 915) - 31
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - vloeren - kelders - dierlijke meststoffen - verontreiniging - huisvesting van rundvee - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ammonia emission - floors - cellars - animal manures - pollution - cattle housing - farm buildings
    Ammonia emission reducing housing systems are listed in the ‘Regeling ammoniak en veehouderij (Rav)’. Beside these list of around 30 housing systems a divers pallet of additional technical options to further reduce ammonia emission from housing is available. To allocate limited resources for research the ministry of economic affair asked for an assessment and selection of these available additional housing measures. As recommendation for further development toward implementation in practice the following measures are prioritized: • Adjusted slatted floor and the effectiveness on the long term of valves preventing air exchange between pits and rest of the housing. • Optimized scraper and the effect on scraping frequency and the use of other materials • Use of water for dilution and cleaning of the floor.
    Forfaitaire waarden met betrekking tot de veestapel in relatie tot de KringloopWijzer
    Aarts, H.F.M. ; Sebek, L.B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (PRI-rapport 636) - 17
    melkproductie - melkveehouderij - mestbeleid - modellen - berekening - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - excretie - stikstof - fosfaat - ammoniakemissie - rundveevoeding - voederconversievermogen - milk production - dairy farming - manure policy - models - calculation - animal manures - cattle manure - excretion - nitrogen - phosphate - ammonia emission - cattle feeding - feed conversion efficiency
    Het rekenmodel KringloopWijzer brengt op jaarbasis de waarden van een aantal kengetallen van het melkveebedrijf in beeld. Aan de veestapel gerelateerde kengetallen zijn 1) de excretie van stikstof (N) en fosfaat (P2O5) ‘onder de staart’, 2) de hoeveelheden N en P2O5 als voer geconsumeerd, 3) de efficiëntie waarmee de in het voer aanwezige N en P2O5 wordt omgezet in melk en groei en 4) de emissie van ammoniak (NH3) uit mest. De waarden van deze kengetallen kunnen vergeleken worden met referentie- en forfaitaire waarden. Referentiewaarden zijn waarden die door bedrijven gerealiseerd worden die in vergelijkbare omstandigheden verkeren wat betreft grondsoort en intensiteit (melkproductie per hectare). De veehouder weet daardoor hoe hij scoort in vergelijking met collega’s. Deze notitie gaat enkel in op de forfaitaire waarden voor de eerder genoemde kengetallen.
    PAS: meer milieutechniek bij stal naast natuurgebied : Stikstofdepositie sleutel bij combinatie van natuur, landbouw en stallenbouw
    Dekking, A.J.G. - \ 2015
    Ekoland 2015 (2015)11. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 23 - 25.
    veehouderij - emissiereductie - stikstof - ammoniakemissie - landbouw en milieu - agrarisch natuurbeheer - milieubescherming - biologische landbouw - vergunningen - natuurbeschermingsrecht - wetgeving - livestock farming - emission reduction - nitrogen - ammonia emission - agriculture and environment - agri-environment schemes - environmental protection - organic farming - permits - nature conservation law - legislation
    Boeren beheren steeds meer natuurgebieden door natuurbeheer te combineren met landbouw, recreatie of zorg. Tot voor kort zette dreigende ammoniakvervuiling elk plan van deze boeren voor bedrijfsontwikkeling op slot. De overheid bedacht een oplossing: een veehouder mag groeien, mits hij milieuwinst behaalt. Voor stikstofdepositie is dat geregeld via de ‘PAS’. Hoe werkt dat?
    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw, 1990-2013 : berekeningen van ammoniak, stikstofoxide, lachgas,methaan en fijn stof met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 46) - 160
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaanproductie - dierlijke meststoffen - stikstof - intensieve veehouderij - fijn stof - begrazing - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane production - animal manures - nitrogen - intensive livestock farming - particulate matter - grazing
    Landbouwkundige activiteiten zijn een belangrijke bron van ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxiden (NO), lachgas (N2O), methaan
    (CH4) en fijn stof (PM10 en PM2,5) in Nederland. De emissies voor de periode 1990-2013 zijn berekend met het National Emission
    Model for Agriculture (NEMA) met toepassing van nieuwe wetenschappelijke inzichten rond emissiefactoren voor ammoniak uit
    stallen en op basis van de nieuwe 2006 IPCC Guidelines. De rekenmethodiek gaat bij de berekening van de ammoniakemissie
    uit van de hoeveelheid totaal ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in de mest. De ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest, kunstmest en
    overige bronnen bedroeg in 2013 120 miljoen kg NH3, 1,5 miljoen kg minder dan in 2012, voornamelijk door meer emissiearme
    huisvesting bij varkens en pluimvee. De N2O-emissie bedroeg zowel in 2012 als in 2013 ruim 19 miljoen kg. De NO-emissie
    nam licht toe van 16,7 naar 16,9 miljoen kg. De methaanemissie nam toe van 487 tot 499 miljoen kg. De emissie van fijn stof
    nam licht toe van 6,4 miljoen kg PM10 in 2012 tot 6,5 miljoen kg in 2013 door een toename van het aantal leghennen. De
    emissie van PM2,5 bedroeg in beide jaren 0,6 miljoen kg. Sinds 1990 is de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest
    met bijna 70% gedaald, vooral door een lagere stikstof-uitscheiding door landbouwhuisdieren en emissiearme mesttoedieningstechnieken.
    Lachgas en stikstofoxiden daalden in dezelfde periode eveneens, maar minder scherp (ca. 40%) vanwege hogere
    emissies door het ondergronds aanwenden van mest (N2O) en door de omschakeling van stalsystemen met dunne naar vaste
    mest bij pluimvee (N2O en NO). Tussen 1990 en 2013 daalde de emissie van methaan met 17%, wat vrijwel geheel verklaard
    kan worden door een afname in de dieraantallen
    Ammoniakemissie bij toediening van verdunde mest met een sleepvoetenmachine op grasland
    Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2015
    Plant Research International (PRI) (PRI-rapport 663) - 32
    graslanden - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - drijfmest - bemesting - verdelers voor vloeibare meststoffen - grasslands - ammonia emission - emission reduction - slurries - fertilizer application - liquid fertilizer distributors
    Effect van alternatieve mestaanwendingsmethoden op mestbenutting door het gras : Resultaten van twee oriënterende veldproeven
    Schooten, H.A. van; Houwelingen, K.M. van; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 912) - 43
    animal manures - application equipment - manure spreaders - ammonia emission - dilution - nitrogen - grasslands - dierlijke meststoffen - toedieningsapparatuur - mestverspreiders - ammoniakemissie - verdunning - stikstof - graslanden
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