Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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Effect of vitamin B12 and taurine on the alleviation of nutritional anaemia in common sole (Solea solea)
Kals, Jeroen ; Blonk, Robbert J.W. ; Mheen, Henk W. van der; Schrama, Johan W. ; Verreth, Johan A.J. - \ 2019
Aquaculture Nutrition 25 (2019)2. - ISSN 1353-5773 - p. 456 - 465.
anaemia - haematocrit - haemoglobin - sole (Solea solea) - taurine - vitamin B12
Sole fed commercial pellets develop a nutritional anaemia. This study assessed the impact of dietary B12 and taurine on the haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin (Hb) level and mineral absorption in anaemic sole. Anaemic sole was fed one of four diets. Diets were equal regarding mineral, amino acid and macronutrient composition and formulated, according to a two by two factorial design: two B12 (0.34 vs. 1.9 mg kg dm) and two taurine levels (3.5 vs. 7.6 mg kg dm−1). The feeding level was restricted and equal for all diets. Hct and Hb levels in anaemic sole are influenced by dietary B12. A “high” level of B12 increases the Hct and Hb level. An increasing level of taurine suppresses the stimulating effect of the “high” level of B12. The applied B12 and taurine levels were unable to completely alleviate the anaemia in sole. Nevertheless, sole needs high dietary levels of B12 to alleviate anaemia. The impact of B12 and taurine on Hb and Hct was not related to a change in the absorption of iron. A “high” level of B12 positively affected the absorption of chromium and a high level of taurine negatively affected the absorption of cobalt in sole.
Agro-ecological zone and farm diversity are factors associated with haemoglobin and anaemia among rural school-aged children and adolescents in Ghana
Azupogo, Fusta ; Aurino, Elisabetta ; Gelli, Aulo ; Bosompem, Kwabena M. ; Ayi, Irene ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Brouwer, Inge D. ; Folson, Gloria - \ 2019
Maternal and Child Nutrition 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 1740-8695
adolescents - agro-ecological zone - anaemia - Ghana - Haemoglobin (Hb) - school-aged children

Understanding contextual risk factors for haemoglobin (Hb) status and anaemia of rural school-aged children (SAC) and adolescents is critical in developing appropriate interventions to prevent anaemia. We analysed secondary data from the baseline of an impact evaluation of the Ghana School Feeding Programme to determine the severity of anaemia and contextual factors associated with anaemia and Hb status among rural SAC (6–9 years; n = 323) and adolescents (10–17 years; n = 319) in Ghana. We used regression models with variable selection based on backward elimination in our analyses. The mean Hb was 113.8 ± 13.1 g/L, and the overall prevalence of anaemia was 52.3%, being 55.1% and 49.5% among SAC and adolescents, respectively. We identified child's age (β = 2.21, P < 0.001); farm diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.036); and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) as the main predictors of Hb of SAC. Household asset index (P trend = 0.042) and agro-ecological zone (P trend <0.001) were predictors of Hb in adolescents. Agro-ecological zone and age were predictors of anaemia, but the effect of age was only significant for girls and not boys (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 1.35, 95% CI [1.04, 1.76] vs. POR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.88, 1.46]). SAC in households with maize stock were less likely to be anaemic (POR = 0.55, 95% CI [0.32, 0.97]). Household dietary diversity score (β = 0.59, P = 0.033) was associated with Hb status for the full sample only. Anaemia is a severe public health problem among SAC and adolescents in rural Ghana irrespective of sex. Farm diversity score, availability of maize stock in the household, household asset index, and agro-ecological zone were the main predictors of Hb and anaemia among the rural SAC and adolescents.

The development of a sole diet based on the composition of ragworm
Kals, Jeroen - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.A.J. Verreth, co-promotor(en): J.W. Schrama; R.J.W. Blonk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431804 - 136
dover soles - annelida - fish feeding - anaemia - haemoglobin - fish culture - aquaculture - tong (vis) - annelida - visvoeding - anemie - hemoglobine - visteelt - aquacultuur

Scientifically, this study aimed to validate the potential of ragworm to alleviate anaemia in common sole and to identify the dietary requirements of common sole to alleviate this anaemia. At the same time it was aimed to explain part of the difference in growth between sole fed a commercial pellet and sole fed ragworm. Practically, this study aimed to develop a diet that achieves similar growth rates in sole as when fed ragworm. Sole fed commercial pellets developed nutritional anaemia. Feeding ragworm or mussel alleviates this nutritional anaemia. It is suggested that the ability of mussel or ragworm (meal) to alleviate anaemia and improve growth in sole can be explained by heme iron and high B12 levels. Yet, iron absorption in sole is high and independent of iron source. Still, heme increases the absorption of copper. The high absorption of iron and copper in sole fed heme does not affect the haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin (Hb) levels, which indicates the anaemia in sole is not an iron or a copper deficiency anaemia. The Hct and Hb levels in sole are affected by dietary B12. Yet, the applied levels are unable to alleviate the anaemia in sole induced by feeding commercial pellets. More options to alleviate the nutritional anaemia in common sole are discussed. Nutrients as vitamin C, B1, B2, B5 and a possible role of dietary EPO are discussed. It is suggested that the slow growth of pellet-fed sole might be due to the low Hct and Hb levels, which hampers the uptake of oxygen, and thus also the overall metabolic capacity, including the scope for growth. Discussed is a 7°C difference in the “optimal” temperature between sole fed ragworm and the 2nd generation pellet and that the “worm effect” is dependent on temperature. However, the growth rate of sole fed the 3rd generation pellet at 18.4°C was comparable to the growth rate of sole fed ragworm, which could not have been the consequence of increasing Hct and Hb levels as these were comparable to levels found in sole fed commercial pellets. Yet, B12 levels in blood plasma of sole are up to 200 times those of other (fish) species. Hence, we inferred on the possibility of a specific metabolic function of B12 in respiration in sole. In addition, the economic and practical impact of the improved growth rate in sole culture is discussed. Finally, several suggestions for future research are given.

Feeding ragworm (Nereis virens Sars) to common sole (Solea solea L.) alleviates nutritional anaemia and stimulates growth
Kals, J. ; Blonk, R.J.W. ; Palstra, A.P. ; Sobotta, Tim ; Mongile, Fulvio ; Schneider, O. ; Planas, J.V. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2017
Aquaculture Research 48 (2017)3. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 752 - 759.
solea-solea l - nereis virens Sars - growth - anaemia - hepcidin - gene expression
Common sole fed with commercial pellets develop anaemia and are restricted in their growth performance. The anaemia can be the result of a difference in feed intake, a nutritional deficiency, an inflammatory response to infection or combinations of these aspects. In this study, it was investigated whether feeding ragworm would alleviate the anaemia and stimulate growth. Sole were fed one of three diets: a commercial feed, a commercial feed treated with ragworm extract or chopped ragworm. By comparing groups, three hypotheses were tested: (1) feeding ragworm alleviates the anaemia and positively affectS the sole’s metabolic performance reflected in feed intake, feed efficiency and growth; (2) anaemia is alleviated by a higher feed intake when feeding ragworm and (3)
anaemia is caused by an inflammatory response to infection. The sole fed with a commercial diet suffered from anaemia. Feeding sole with ragworm alleviated the anaemia as the average haematocrit level nearly doubled in these fish as
compared to fish fed pellets. Investigation of the expression of genes in the liver indicated that the anaemia in sole fed pellets is a nutritional anaemia and not an anaemia due to an inflammatory response. Sole fed ragworm showed improved
growth which may be a consequence of the higher haematocrit levels in these fish increasing their oxygen carrying capacity. Addition of ragworm extract to the pellets levelled the feed intake between pellets and ragworm, but did not
improve the anaemic state of sole and had only a limited effect on growth
Efficacy of amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) on anaemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan pre-school children
Macharia-Mutie, C.W. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; A.M. Mwangi. - [S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732910 - 167
amaranthus cruentus - anemie - ijzergebrekanemie - peuters en kleuters - kenya - fortificatie - amaranthus cruentus - anaemia - iron deficiency anaemia - preschool children - kenya - fortification

Adding iron rich foods such as amaranth grain flour or micronutrient powders (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron (e.g. NaFeEDTA) could be options to control iron deficiency (ID) in pre-school children. However, data evaluating the impact of such food-to-food or in-home fortification strategies is limited. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of consumption of amaranth grain flour on anaemia and iron status of Kenyan pre-school children.
First a nutrition situation was assessed through a food consumption and nutrition study. We then simulated the potential effect of fortifying maize porridge with amaranth grain flour or MNP on prevalence of inadequate iron intake and ID. Next, an acceptability study was conducted. Factors that would predict the intention of consumption of amaranth porridge among children were identified and the sensory acceptability of amaranth porridge evaluated. Finally, a controlled, randomized 16-weeks intervention trial was conducted (n=279; aged 12-59 months) to determine the efficacy of maize porridge enriched with amaranth grain flour or MNP in form of NaFeEDTA. Primary outcome was anaemia and iron status with treatment effects estimated relative to control group receiving maize porridge only.
The nutrition situation assessment showed that there were deficits in dietary energy, iron and zinc with early introduction of complementary foods. The simulation estimates resulted in a significant increase (P<0.005) in ferritin concentration in amaranth (1.82µg/L: CI 1.42-2.34) and MNP (1.80µg/L: CI 1.40-2.31) group compared to maize porridge group decreasing the prevalence ID to 27% in both groups.
In the acceptability study, knowledge and health value significantly predicted health behaviour identity. None of the models significantly predicted intention. A significant preference for the unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge compared to the fermented porridge was observed. There was no difference in preference of the 50:50 and 70:30 (amaranth to maize) unfermented porridges.
Baseline prevalence of stunting was (48.2%), anaemia (38%), ID (30%) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA, 22%) in the clinical trial. Though consumption of amaranth grain porridge reduced anaemia, ID and IDA prevalence compared to control group, this reduction was not significant. Consumption of MNP porridge significantly reduced the prevalence of anaemia by 46% (CI: -67% to -12%), ID by 70% (CI:-89% to -16%) and IDA by 75% (CI: -92% to -20%) compared to control group. MNP porridge significantly increased haemoglobin by 2.7g/L (CI: 0.4 to 5.1) and ferritin (40% CI: 10% to 95%), and decreased TfR by 10% (CI:-16% to -4%) concentration.
Addition of amaranth grain flour to maize porridge even when shown to have high iron content did not significantly reduce the prevalence of IDA in pre-school children. In contrast, consumption of maize porridge fortified with 2.5mg of NaFeEDTA can reduce the prevalence of IDA in children. Absorption studies for amaranth grain should be conducted before its public health promotion in dietary diversification as a source of iron is accelerated. Research to assess the safety of bolus doses of MNP formulated with NaFeEDTA and optimal dosing schedule is also needed. Furthermore, the effectiveness of both amaranth grain flour and MNP should be further evaluated in large scale programs.

Nutritional zinc deficiency, immune capacity and malaria : a study on mediators of immunity to malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in African children
Mbugi, E.V. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Savelkoul; J.F. Shao, co-promotor(en): Hans Verhoef. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855316 - 174
malaria - plasmodium falciparum - immuniteit - zink - kinderen - geneesmiddelresistentie - immuniteitsreactie - mineraaltekorten - voedingsstoffentekorten - cytokinen - antilichamen - endotheel - anemie - tropische ziekten - tanzania - malaria - plasmodium falciparum - immunity - zinc - children - drug resistance - immune response - mineral deficiencies - nutrient deficiencies - cytokines - antibodies - endothelium - anaemia - tropical diseases - tanzania
This thesis aimed at investigating the role of genetic and nutritional factors that affect the immune response to malaria in Tanzanian children. The introductory chapter (Chapter 1) reviews the importance of nutritional deficiencies, particularly of zinc, and presents the hypothesis that such deficiencies lead to impaired immunity and contribute to the burden of malaria. The chapter also describes current efforts to prevent malaria through intermittent preventive treatment, both in infants (IPTi) and pregnant women (IPTp). Sulfadoxinepyrimethamine is still used for first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, or, in many countries, to prevent malaria and anaemia in pregnancy. In malaria endemic areas, development of resistance to previously valuable antimalarial drugs has been continuously reported for decades. Thus our initial longitudinal study aimed at measuring the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations on dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) genes (dhfr and dhps) that confer parasite resistance to sulphadoxinepyrimethamine (SP) that was used as an interim antimalarial drug after chloroquine resistance. Although SP resistance-associated point mutations were highly prevalent, we observed an adequate parasite response to SP (Chapter 2). We speculated that the impact of the dhfr and dhps mutations on SP resistance may be dependent at least in part on the protective immunity that has developed in response to frequent exposure to infection and may be weighed down by host immunity in endemic areas and thus impacts in the continued use of the drug for treatment of malaria. The impact of other drugs with similar mechanisms of action used as antibiotics in selecting mutations responsible for SP resistance needs therefore to be studied for their modulating activity of the immune response. These findings underscore the relevance to further study the crucial involvement of the immune system in the development of protection against malaria but also affecting the efficacy of treatment modalities of malaria in various African conditions.
In the subsequent cross-sectional studies, we assessed the effect of deficiencies of zinc and magnesium as well as iron deficiency anaemia on malaria-specific cytokine responses indicative of innate immunity to Plasmodium falciparum (Chapter 3). In this study, we used Plasmodium falciparum-parasitised red blood cells (pRBCs) as antigens for in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cytokines were measured in the supernatant of cultured PBMCs after 24 hours of stimulation. Zinc deficiency was associated with a marked increase in monocyte-derived TNF-α concentration in children with malarial infection but not in their uninfected peers. In children with malarial infection, iron deficiency anaemia was associated with elevated concentrations of TNF-α, whereas magnesium deficiency in children without malaria seemed to be associated with increased concentrations of IL-10. Our findings reflected plasticity in cytokine profiles of monocytes reacting to malaria infection under conditions of different nutrient deficiencies. Following the observation of the variable impact of micronutrients on innate cytokines, we evaluated the profile of both type I and type II cytokines and whether they were influenced by nutritional and malaria status (Chapter 4). The cytokine measurements were performed at day 7 of stimulation anticipating that this timing was optimal for measuring effects on these cytokines mainly derived from activated T-cells. The results indicated a variable influence of nutrient deficiencies on increased cytokine response with zinc deficiency and iron deficiency anemia having greater impact on type I and magnesium deficiency on type II cytokines. The subsequent study evaluated the plasma levels of naturally acquired antimalarial antibodies of variousIgG subclasses plus the total IgG and IgM levels and whether they were associated with zinc deficiency based on preceding chapters (Chapter 5). The results indicated a high variability in antibody levels with zinc deficiency, varying with age of the affected child. IgG3 appeared to be predominant across all age subgroups within < 5 yrs aged children providing clues that IgG3 might confer immune protection to malaria under conditions of zinc deficiency. Chapter 6 explored the association between CD36 deficiency, P. falciparum in vitro adherence on purified CD36 and anemia in children. CD36 is a receptor that occurs on the surface of activated immune cells and vascular endothelial cells and participates in phagocytosis and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that it could play a fundamental role in cytoadherence of erythrocytes that are parasitized by Plasmodium. Our results showed that CD36 deficiency was associated with protection against the development of malarial anemia in children and that it may be mediated through reduced cytoadherence of infected red blood cells to vascular endothelium.
These studies demonstrate that despite antimalarial drug resistance, there is a potential for optimizing the immunological protective capacity in the population to confer parasite clearance that can be variably influenced by micronutrient status. Improving nutritional status in this population could be rewarding not only to increase protection to malaria but possibly also to other infections.
Anemia among school children in Vietnam: the efficacy of iron fortification
Thi Huong, Le - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; K.C. NGuyen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 908504541X - 159
anemie - ijzergebrekanemie - ijzer - fortificatie - voedingstoestand - schoolkinderen - vietnam - bijvoeding - anaemia - iron deficiency anaemia - iron - fortification - nutritional state - school children - vietnam - supplementary feeding
The present thesis aimed to determine the efficacy of a school-based food fortification program to improve hemoglobin concentrations and iron stores of intestinal parasites-prone school children. Furthermore this thesis also compares the effect of iron fortification and iron supplementation on the changes in hemoglobin and iron status.
Nutritional Health of Indonesian Adolescent Girls: the role of riboflavin and vitamin A on iron status
Dillon, D. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; C.E. West, co-promotor(en): Hans Verhoef. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085041597 - 129
anemie - ijzergebrekanemie - riboflavine - retinol - riboflavinetekort - vitamine a tekort - vitaminetoevoegingen - maatregel op voedingsgebied - voedingstoestand - gezondheid - meisjes - adolescenten - indonesië - anaemia - iron deficiency anaemia - riboflavin - retinol - riboflavin deficiency - vitamin a deficiency - vitamin supplements - nutritional intervention - nutritional state - health - girls - adolescents - indonesia
In developing countries, adolescent girls often have anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the role of riboflavin or vitamin A as determinant of anemia and iron deficiency in Indonesian adolescent girls.
Iron deficiency and malaria as determinants of anaemia in African children
Verhoef, H. - \ 2001
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F.J. Kok; C.E. West. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084712 - 191
anemie - malaria - ijzergebrekanemie - ijzer - groei - ontwikkeling - kinderen - kenya - anaemia - malaria - iron deficiency anaemia - iron - growth - development - children - kenya

Approximately three quarters of east African children <5 y of age suffer from anaemia, which is due, at least in part, to malaria and iron deficiency. In children in areas of seasonal malaria, the benefits of iron supplementation may not outweigh possible inherent risks of adverse effects caused by malaria. Intermittent administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) might improve haemoglobin concentrations while allowing children to develop protective immunity against severe disease and subsequent death caused by malaria. With a view to contribute to the development of programmes for anaemia control in preschool children in Africa, the immediate objectives of this thesis were as follows: 1) to measure the efficacy in improving haemoglobin concentrations in children aged 2-36 mo of intermittent iron supplementation and intermittent administration of SP, either alone or when given in combination; 2) to develop and evaluate survey methods for rapid assessment at community level of the burden of anaemia and its risk factors; 3) to contribute to improved methods for diagnosis of anaemia, iron deficiency, and malaria; 4) to evaluate the role of impaired erythropoiesis in the pathogenesis of malarial anaemia.

In randomised controlled trial (n=328) in anaemic, asymptomatic children aged 2-36 mo, the effect on change in haemoglobin concentration in the group receiving iron plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine relative to the placebo group, adjusted for prognostic factors at baseline, was 12.5 g/L (95% CI: 8.5 to 16.4 g/L). In the former group, the estimated prevalence of anaemia reduced from 100% at baseline to 36% at 12 w, and prevalence of iron deficiency reduced correspondingly from 66% to 8%. Administration of SP in addition to iron supplementation gave no haemoglobin response. Survival analysis indicated no evidence of increased risk of malaria following iron supplementation. Iron supplementation over a 12-week period resulted in a marked improvement of haemoglobin concentrations.

Analysis of haematological indicators from both the trial and a cross-sectional study (n=318) suggested that malaria-induced haemolysis is accompanied by increased erythropoiesis, which seemed adequate for the resulting degree of anaemia. Serum transferrin receptor concentration is not useful to detect iron deficiency in individuals with malaria. Inflammation probably plays no or a minor role in the pathogenesis of anaemia associated with asymptomatic malaria.

A new and inexpensive colour scale to facilitate anaemia diagnosis in developing countries performed satisfactory and was for many purposes superior to all other methods for detection of anaemia at primary care level. The methodology presented may facilitate development of strategies for its use in various target groups. A large proportion of unnecessary treatments for febrile diseases can be avoided by teaching mothers to palpate their child's forehead, and by confirming the presence of fever by thermometer.

The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia : a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia
Suharno, D. - \ 1994
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; C.E. West; Muhilal. - S.l. : Suharno - ISBN 9789054852742 - 108
voedingsstoornissen - anemie - retinol - zogende vrouwen - vrouwen - zwangerschap - Java - Indonesië - nutritional disorders - anaemia - retinol - lactating women - women - pregnancy - Java - Indonesia

Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional anaemia in pregnant women has been investigated in West Java, Indonesia. Of the 318 normal pregnant women examined in a cross-sectional study, 49% were anaemic and, according to multiple criteria, 43% had iron-deficiency anaemia, 22% had iron-deficient erythropoiesis, and 7% were iron depleted. Based on serum retinol values, 2.5% of the women were vitamin A deficient and 31 % had marginal vitamin A status. After adjustment for gestational stage, parity and subdistrict, serum retinol concentrations were significantly positively associated ( p <0.01) with haemoglobin concentrations, haematocrit, and serum iron concentrations. In order to test whether the anaemia observed would respond to improvement in vitamin A supply, a randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled field trial was carried out in which anaemic pregnant women in the same area were supplemented with vitamin A and iron. The women (n=251), aged 17-35 years, parity 0-4, gestation 16-24 weeks, and haemoglobin between 80 and 109 g/L were randomly allocated to four groups: vitamin A (2.4 mg retinol) and placebo iron tablets; iron (60 mg elemental iron) and placebo vitamin A; vitamin A and iron; or both placebos, all daily for 8 weeks. Maximum response in haemoglobin was achieved with both vitamin A and iron supplementation (12.78 g/L, 95% CI 10.86 to 14.70), with one-third of the response attributable to vitamin A (3.68 g/L, 2.03 to 5.33) and two-thirds to iron (7.71 g/L, 5.97 to 9.45). After supplementation, the proportion of women who became non-anaemic was 35% in the vitamin-A-supplemented group, 68% in the iron-supplemented group, 97% in the group supplemented with both, and 16% in the placebo group. In a subgroup (n=104) of the women in the intervention study, the intake of food and nutrients was also measured. The median daily intake of vitamin A, including provitamin A, was 1023 (10th and 90th percentiles; 65, 1914) μg retinol equivalent (RE). About 24% of the women had intakes below the daily intake of vitamin A recommended for pregnant women in Indonesia (700 μg RE). The suboptimal vitamin A status associated with nutritional anaemia suggests that measures to combat anaemia in pregnant women should involve improvement not only of iron status but also of vitamin A status.

Functional consequences of iron deficiency in Chinese female workers
Li, R. - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; P.R.M. Deurenberg. - S.l. : Li - ISBN 9789054851097 - 127
voedingsstoornissen - ijzergebrekanemie - anemie - ijzer - voeding - vrouwen - China - nutritional disorders - iron deficiency anaemia - anaemia - iron - nutrition - women - China

Women of the reproductive age in China play a very important role in the labour force. Information on anaemia prevalence in this group is hardly available, notwithstanding the fact that iron deficiency anaemia is considered to be a major public health problem in China. Iron deficiency may cause adverse effects on physical performance. However, data available are fragmentary, inconsistent and the results are inconclusive. Furthermore, only a few studies so far have been carried out under free living conditions. The present study was done to resolve some of the uncertainties in this area.

The general objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate the prevalence of anaemia, its type and the contributing factors to iron deficiency in Chinese female workers; 2) to quantify the functional consequences of iron deficiency in both field and laboratory studies, with emphasis on mean heart rate at work, total energy expenditure at work, and production efficiency defined as the ratio of productivity to energy expended; 3) to identify the effect of iron deficiency per se on physical performance.

In order to study these objectives, both a cross-sectional and an intervention study were designed. The analyses revealed the following results:

  • Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia was high in Chinese female menstruating cotton mill workers (34%).
  • Oral iron supplementation was effective in the women with poor iron nutritional status.
  • Physical performance, both on the job and in the laboratory tests, was improved with the improvement of iron status. The total energy expenditure at work was reduced and production efficiency significantly increased by 18% after iron supplementation.
  • Marginal iron deficiency may not limit maximal physical work capacity of exercise, but it may cause impairment of prolonged submaximal physical performance.

Zinc status of cows as deduced from the liver zinc content
Binnerts, W.T. - \ 1989
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 37 (1989). - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 107 - 117.
anemie - rundvee - ontgifting - voer - lever - mineralen - diergeneeskunde - zink - anaemia - cattle - detoxification - feeds - liver - minerals - veterinary science - zinc
Praktische mogelijkheden voor de bestrijding van bloedarmoede bij jonge vleeskalveren = Practical possibilities for the prevention and treatment of anaemia in young veal calves
Putten, G. van; Elshof, W.J. ; Overmeer, J.L.R.M. - \ 1988
Zeist : IVO (I.V.O. - rapport B-293) - 75
anemie - kalveren - diergeneeskunde - anaemia - calves - veterinary science
Een vergelijkend onderzoek werd opgezet, waarbij 1670 vleeskalveren, gehuisvest in boxen van 65 x 165 cm, om de 14 dagen op haemoglobinegehalte in het bloed werden gecontroleerd. Ze werden verdeeld over 6 mestbedrijven. Per bedrijf werden 3 groepen kalveren gevormd: een controle-groep met de gebruikelijke behandeling; een tussengroep, waarin de kalveren met een Hb-gehalte 9 - 10 g % 2 cc ijzerdextraan kregen toegediend, terwijl aan dieren met een Hb-waarde van 8 - 9 g % 4 cc werd gegeven en aan dieren met een Hb-waarde <of = 8 g % 6 cc; en tenslotte een ijzergroep, waarvan alle kalveren een injectie kregen met 5 cc ijzerdextraan
De invloed van barnsteenzuur en fumaarzuur op de ijzerresorptie bij anemische biggen
Kempen, G.J.M. van - \ 1971
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.M. Frens. - Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022003398 - 88
barnsteenzuur - fumaarzuur - varkens - ijzergebrekanemie - anemie - succinic acid - fumaric acid - pigs - iron deficiency anaemia - anaemia
In pig farming the main reason for anaemia is iron deficiency. From the composition of sow's milk and the feed supplements eaten by the piglet it was deduced that deficiency of copper and vitamins of the B group does not occur under conditions in the Netherlands. Giving iron to the sow during pregnancy does not increase the piglet's liver storage of iron or its blood haemoglobin content at birth. Iron must therefore be given directly to the piglet either orally or parenterally. As injections can cause muscle damage the best method of iron intake for the piglet's physiology is orally. With the oral method the absorption rate of iron from the intestines is important. In experiments many iron compounds, both organic and inorganic, were given to piglets but the published results showed no agreement for blood values and weight gain.

In our experiments we examined the influence of fumaric and succinic acid on the uptake of iron from the intestines and on the use of iron in the haemoproteides. These two organic acids were chosen because Brise & Hallberg (1962) found that more iron was recovered in the erythrocytes with iron succinate than with iron sulphate which is used in man; iron fumarate is widely used for pigs. Famaric and succinic acids are both intermediates in the Krebs cycle and components for certain iron-protein compounds. Our experiments were done with piglets weaned two days after birth and with rats weaned as soon as possible. Rats and piglets were then made anaemic with feeds low in iron (table 7 and 8).

After the depletion period the effects of iron and the organic acids of piglets were studied in two 22 factorial experiments. The amounts of iron and organic acids used for the weaned piglets are given in table 5. Iron and organic acid in the same ratio was used for the rats. There were 16 piglets for each experiment and they were housed individually. In the experiment with succinic acid 16 rats were used; in the other experiment 20.

A more practical trial was done with compost using only 16 pigs. After the depletion period the effect of 10 g of compost was studied with and without the addition of 250 mg extra iron as iron sulphate. 10 g compost contained 280 mg of iron, which is about the same amount as the iron given as iron sulphate.

The correlation between blood values of 121 breeding sows and their litters three weeks after farrowing was investigated.

With 96 fattening pigs individually-housed the correlation between haemoglobin content and cell volume on one hand and weight gain and feed conversion on the other, was studied.

In the experiments with fumaric and succinic: acid, the haemoglobin content, blood volume and number of erythrocytes were determined weekly in the rats and the piglets. From these values, the mean cell volume (mcv), the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (mchc) and the mean cell haemoglobin (mch) were calculated. At the end of each experiment the myoglobin content of certain muscles, total iron binding capacity, plasma iron, iron content of liver, spleen and kidney were analysed. The protoporphyrin content of the erythrocytes was also determined. The amount of haemoglobin present in each piglet or rat was calculated from live weight and haemoglobin content.

In the experiment with succinic acid and in the experiment with fumaric acid the number of erythrocytes (rbc) of the rats increased significantly two weeks after the first treatment (tables 10, 11 and 25, 26).

In both experiments the mean cell volume of the erythrocytes was smaller. In experiments with rats three weeks after first treatment no difference was found in the blood values. With these organic acids the rats recovered quickly. No positive effect was observed in the piglets with succinic acid or fumaric acid (tables 16, 17 and 31, 32). However, the effect of iron was clear in both rats and piglets.

From the blood values - the haemoglobin content, the cell volume, the number of erythrocytes, the mean cell haemoglobin concentration of the erythrocytes, the mean cell volume and the mean cell haemoglobin - the differences between the groups with and without extra iron were significant.

This was also seen from the iron content of the liver, spleen and kidneys. In all experiments with piglets the plasma iron content of the blood was very low, and there was a large standard deviation. The total iron binding capacity of the plasma was sometimes different for the animals with extra iron and for those without. There was seldom any difference in the myoglobin content if extra iron was given. Calculations were made of the amount of haemoglobin of the animal and the percentage of extra iron present in the blood after completing the experiments. More than 25 % of the extra applied iron should have been present in the haemoglobin of the piglets (table 48) and the rats. This percentage was less than 1 % in the liver of the piglets.

In spleen and kidneys a little more iron was found for the piglets with extra iron. The extra applied iron was considerably lower than 1 % in these organs.

In the experiment with 10 g compost applied with and without iron the effect of this small amount of compost on the anaemic piglets was noticeable. The effect of 250 mg of iron given as iron sulphate was more obvious although the compost and the iron sulphate contain about the same amount of iron. Iron from iron sulphate is absorbed better than iron from compost.

No important correlations between the values of the sows and the pigs of these sows were found from observations of the sows and their litters (table 46).

The blood values of the fattening pigs at the beginning of the mashing period compared with the results in the first two months of the fattening period were of no importance. The differences in blood values between the pigs were not very large and all values were within the normal physiological boundaries.
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