Mining water governance : everyday community-mine relationships in the Peruvian Andes
Sosa Landeo, Milagros - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A. Boelens, co-promotor(en): M.Z. Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436762 - 200
mining - water policy - governance - water rights - water management - rural communities - local population - water resources - andes - peru - mijnbouw - waterbeleid - governance - waterrechten - waterbeheer - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plaatselijke bevolking - watervoorraden - andes - peru
This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main conflicting actors: rural communities and mining companies. Through an in-depth analysis of how the actors navigate these challenges, focusing on those related to water, the thesis sets out to understand what happens with water in contexts of mineral extraction. It traces changes in how water is accessed, controlled and governed, and by whom. By making the complex character of water politics in mining contexts explicit, the thesis sheds light on how mining reconfigures water governance arrangements, while also contributing to wider debates about water governance in contexts characterized by huge power differences.
The mountain vegetation of South Peru : syntaxonomy, ecology, phytogeography and conservation
Montesinos-Tubée, D.B. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Karle Sykora; Frank Berendse, co-promotor(en): Antoine Cleef. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576797 - 334
vegetation - mountains - phytogeography - ecology - taxonomy - nature conservation - andes - peru - vegetatie - gebergten - plantengeografie - ecologie - taxonomie - natuurbescherming - andes - peru
THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION
This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collected vegetation data with other regional and interregional studies. This phytosociologic overview comprises the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa and besides the plant communities of Moquegua from the prepuna between 3470 and 3700 m, the puna between 3750 and 4500 m and the superpuna between 4450 and 4800 m. The Braun-Blanquet approach and multivariate ordination and classification methods have been applied to classify the different plant communities and to study the relation between plant communities and environmental variables, such as altitude, slope degree and exposition, rock and stone cover percentage, manure cover and grazing. Furthermore the results are presented of a phytogeographical analysis of the Andean puna flora (at vascular genus level) and its relation to other tropicalpine regions in South America. Finally, the descriptions of six recently published new species are included in this thesis. The results provide an important database for nature conservation issues, stressing the significance of protecting the fragile and diverse ecosystems of the Moqueguan Andes. The results of this vegetation survey can be used to prioritize the selection and assignment of nature reserves.
Seeds, food networks and politics: different ontologies in relation to food sovereignty in Ecuador
Martinez Flores, L.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574908 - 194
voedselsoevereiniteit - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - gemeenschappen - voedsel - netwerken - ontologieën - zaden - politiek - lupinus - voedselketens - landbouwbeleid - overheidsbeleid - etnografie - andes - ecuador - food sovereignty - peasant farming - communities - food - networks - ontologies - seeds - politics - lupinus - food chains - agricultural policy - government policy - ethnography - andes - ecuador
In this thesis I explore the ontological proposal of food sovereignty and I discuss the possibilities offered by studies like this one to the attempts of the social sciences to explain – in a symmetrical fashion - that develop between humans and other entities at the time of production, processing and consumption of food. In this effort I combine ethnography and history.
Water, Power and Identity. The cultural politics of water in the Andes
Boelens, R.A. - \ 2015
New York : Earthscan (Earthscan Studies in Water Resource Management ) - ISBN 9780415719186 - 365
waterrechten - waterbeleid - watervoorraden - hulpbronnenbeheer - governance - politiek - water - andes - water rights - water policy - water resources - resource management - governance - politics - water - andes
This book addresses two major issues in natural resource management and political ecology: the complex conflicting relationship between communities managing water on the ground and national/global policy-making institutions and elites; and how grassroots defend against encroachment, question the self-evidence of State-/market-based water governance, and confront coercive and participatory boundary policing ('normal' vs. 'abnormal'). The book examines grassroots building of multi-layered water-rights territories, and State, market and expert networks' vigorous efforts to reshape these water societies in their own image - seizing resources and/or aligning users, identities and rights systems within dominant frameworks. Distributive and cultural politics entwine. It is shown that attempts to modernize and normalize users through universalized water culture, 'rational water use' and de-politicized interventions deepen water security problems rather than alleviating them. However, social struggles negotiate and enforce water rights. User collectives challenge imposed water rights and identities, constructing new ones to strategically acquire water control autonomy and re-moralize their waterscapes. The author shows that battles for material control include the right to culturally define and politically organize water rights and territories.
Water reform governmentality in Ecuador: Neoliberalism, centralization, and the restraining of polycentric authority and community rule-making
Boelens, R.A. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Baud, M. - \ 2015
Geoforum 64 (2015). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 281 - 291.
rights - governance - politics - irrigation - andes - field
In most Latin American countries, issues concerning water governance and control also reflect broader conflicts over authority and legitimacy between the state and civil society. What lies behind the diverse water policy reforms is not simply a question of governing water affairs but also a drive to control or co-opt water user groups. This paper examines the efforts by the present Ecuadorian government to ‘control water users’ through new forms of ‘governmentality’ (Foucault, 1991). We use the ‘cathedral and bazaar’ metaphor (Lankford and Hepworth, 2010) to illustrate government rationale and practices in water governance shifts in the last decades. We analyze how Rafael Correa’s government sets out to reshape the relations between state, market and society. In its ‘Twenty-first Century Socialism’ project, based on a proclaimed ‘Citizen Revolution’, actual policy reform does not reverse but rather transforms the process of neoliberalizing water governance – creating a hybrid bazaar-cathedral model. We argue that the current water govermentality project implements reforms that do not challenge established market-based water governance foundations. Rather it aims to contain and undermine communities’ autonomy and ‘unruly’ polycentric rule-making, which are the result of both historical and present-day processes of change. Interestingly, water user federations that emerged during the neoliberal wave of the last two decades now claim water control space and search for new forms of democratizing water governance. They act as agents who fiercely – yet selectively and strategically – oppose both elements of the State-centered (cathedral) and market-based (bazaar) water governance models
Payment for Environmental Services and Power in the Chamachán Watershed, Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2014
Human Organization 73 (2014)4. - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 351 - 362.
ecosystem services - neoliberalism - governance - pimampiro - security - issues - rights - andes - chile - state
Payment for Environmental Services (PES) is a globally expanding concept used to address environmental degradation. PES advocates argue that conservation of ecosystems can and should be enhanced by voluntary transactions among environmental service providers and buyers. PES policy and interventions instruments, however, are not neutral development tools entering voids. Apart from being manufactured by scientific, policy and development networks with particular market-environmentalist visions, values and interests, PES also deeply interacts with the contradictions and unequal power structures of those local societies where the policy tool is introduced. This paper shows how comprehending the historic and current struggles over natural resources among stakeholders who provide and demand ‘environmental services’ is fundamental to understanding PES workings and outcomes. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the Chamachán watershed, Northern Ecuadorian Highlands, we analyze the dynamics and entwining of ‘visible’, ‘hidden’ and ‘invisible’ power mechanisms in shaping PES and natural resource control. Our findings show how power asymmetries among stakeholders pervaded negotiations and agreements. The paper highlights the political character of market-based conservation efforts and the power plays that surround PES interventions.
|Dignity for the Voiceless; Willem Assies's Anthropological Work in Context
Salman, T. ; Martí i Puig, S. ; Haar, G. van der - \ 2014
New York/Oxford : Berghahn (Cedla Latin America studies vol. 103) - ISBN 9781782382928
politieke bewegingen - sociale structuur - sociale antropologie - etnische groepen - etniciteit - politiek - overheidsbeleid - regering - beleid - andes - landbouw - inheemse volkeren - bolivia - peru - latijns-amerika - political movements - social structure - social anthropology - ethnic groups - ethnicity - politics - government policy - government - policy - andes - agriculture - indigenous people - bolivia - peru - latin america
In 2010, Willem Assies, an astute and prolific Latin Americanist and political anthropologist, died unexpectedly, at the age of 55. This book brings together some of his writings. Assies would always gave central stage to the collective and multi-layered actor and not the system — but he would constantly do so within the context of restrictions, pressures, conditioning factors and contradictions, to provide the actor with a real setting of operation.
Forced Engagements: Water Security and Local Rights Formalization in Yanque, Colca Valley, Peru
Boelens, R.A. ; Seemann, M. - \ 2014
Human Organization 73 (2014)1. - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 1 - 12.
climate-change - governance - politics - irrigation - community - bolivia - policy - andes - field
For vulnerable groups in society, water insecurity and deficient water availability for food production commonly reflect unequal distribution of water volumes, quality, and services within unequal power structures. Water security is necessarily a political dilemma. Policy debates, however, tend to naturalize and de-politicize this concept. Instead of recognizing that water security and distribution belong to the realm of human interests, choices, negotiation, and power plays, they are often represented as following universal economic, legal, and natural-scientific rules. In this context, there is a widespread policy assumption that formally recognizing local, customary water rights is one important element to grant water security for marginalized user groups. This paper challenges this assumption and examines the illustrative case of a Peruvian Andes community, Yanque. We scrutinize formalization policies that claim to enhance water security for marginalized communities regarding (1) material water allocation and (re) distribution and (2) water rulemaking, legitimate authority, and cultural-political organization-both elements that stand central in formalization processes. We discuss the complex relationship between formal and alternative "water securities" and the cultural politics of rights recognition and show that uncritical formalization of local water rights often leads to weakening rather than strengthening local water security.
PES, peasants and power in Andean watersheds : power relations and payment for environmental services in Colombia and Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens; J. Budds. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737861 - 179
hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - beheer van waterbekkens - ecosysteemdiensten - inheemse volkeren - plattelandsgemeenschappen - milieubeleid - andes - colombia - ecuador - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - resource management - natural resources - watershed management - ecosystem services - indigenous people - rural communities - environmental policy - andes - colombia - ecuador - peasant farming
During the last decade, the market environmentalist policy model of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has become a widely promoted and implemented conservation and development tool, around the world as well as in the Andean countries Colombia and Ecuador. For upstream peasant indigenous communities in the Andes, the great expansion of this policy model has meant an increased level of negotiations and interactions with a wide range of downstream water users and conservation agencies. However, there is not a clear understanding of how power dynamics influence the terms of exchange in watershed PES schemes, and the implications that these dynamics have for peasant indigenous control of, and access to, natural resources. The main research question of this thesis is: How do power relations influence the promotion of PES as a policy model and the crafting and operation of PES (-like) projects, and how in turn do these influence natural resource management and control by PES-targeted peasant communities, in the Andean regions of Colombia and Ecuador? The cases included in this thesis show how the impacts of these forms of power influencing PES schemes are variegated, but for the poorest they appear to work toward the deeper entrenching of the status quo, which in most cases implies confirmation and extension of unequal access and rights to natural resources.
|Agua e inequidad: Discursos, políticas y medios de vída en la región andina
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Urteaga, P. - \ 2013
Lima : IEP (Justicia Hídrica 3) - ISBN 9789972514159 - 200
waterbeheer - governance - andes - water management - governance - andes
Likely Ranges of Climate Change in Bolivia
Seiler, C. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2013
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 52 (2013)6. - ISSN 1558-8424 - p. 1303 - 1317.
south-america - change scenarios - altiplano - rainfall - models - andes - variability - circulation - amazon - trends
Bolivia is facing numerous climate-related threats, ranging from water scarcity due to rapidly retreating glaciers in the Andes to a partial loss of the Amazon forest in the lowlands. To assess what changes in climate may be expected in the future, 35 global circulation models (GCMs) from the third and fifth phases of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3/5) were analyzed for the Bolivian case. GCMs were validated against observed surface air temperature, precipitation, and incoming shortwave (SW) radiation for the period 1961–90. Weighted ensembles were developed, and climate change projections for five emission scenarios were assessed for 2070–99. GCMs revealed an overall cold, wet, and positive-SW-radiation bias and showed no substantial improvement from the CMIP3 to the CMIP5 ensemble for the Bolivian case. Models projected an increase in temperature (2.5°–5.9°C) and SW radiation (1%–5%), with seasonal and regional differences. In the lowlands, changes in annual rainfall remained uncertain for CMIP3 whereas CMIP5 GCMs were more inclined to project decreases (-9%). This pattern also applied to most of the Amazon basin, suggesting a higher risk of partial biomass loss for the CMIP5 ensemble. Both ensembles agreed on less rainfall (-19%) during drier months (June–August and September–November), with significant changes in interannual rainfall variability, but disagreed on changes during wetter months (January–March). In the Andes, CMIP3 GCMs tended toward less rainfall (-9%) whereas CMIP5 tended toward more (+20%) rainfall during parts of the wet season. The findings presented here may provide inputs for studies of climate change impact that assess how resilient human and natural systems are under different climate change scenarios.
Climate Variability and Trends in Bolivia
Seiler, C. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2013
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 52 (2013)1. - ISSN 1558-8424 - p. 130 - 146.
amazon basin - interdecadal variability - tropical pacific - rainfall - circulation - oscillation - altiplano - andes - enso - ocean
Climate-related disasters in Bolivia are frequent, severe, and manifold and affect large parts of the population, economy, and ecosystems. Potentially amplified through climate change, natural hazards are of growing concern. To better understand these events, homogenized daily observations of temperature (29 stations) and precipitation (68 stations) from 1960 to 2009 were analyzed in this study. The impact of the positive (+) and negative (-) phases of the three climate modes (i) Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), (ii) El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with El Niño (EN) and La Niña (LN) events, and (iii) Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) were assessed. Temperatures were found to be higher during PDO(+), EN, and AAO(+) in the Andes. Total amounts of rainfall, as well as the number of extreme events, were higher during PDO(+), EN, and LN in the lowlands. During austral summer [December–February (DJF)], EN led to drier conditions in the Andes with more variable precipitation. Temperatures increased at a rate of 0.1°C per decade, with stronger increases in the Andes and in the dry season. Rainfall totals increased from 1965 to 1984 [12% in DJF and 18% in June–August (JJA)] and decreased afterward (-4% in DJF and -10% in JJA), following roughly the pattern of PDO. Trends of climate extremes generally corresponded to trends of climate means. Findings suggest that Bolivia’s climate will be warmer and drier than average in the near-term future. Having entered PDO(-) in 2007, droughts and LN-related floods can be expected in the lowlands, while increasing temperatures suggest higher risks of drought in the Andes.
The ethno-politics of water security: contestations of ethnicity and gender in strategies to control water in the Andes of Peru
Vera-Delgado, J. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; E.B. Zoomers, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461731043 - 257
waterzekerheid - waterrechten - irrigatie - waterbeleid - geslacht (gender) - etniciteit - andes - peru - water security - water rights - irrigation - water policy - gender - ethnicity - andes - peru
This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary research which tries to explain water injustices and the threats to water rights access and control experienced by indigenous peasants of the Peruvian Andes. It attempts to contribute to the analysis of the interactions between ethnicity and gender, and to understand how these form an intrinsic part of the contemporary ethno-politics of water. It also critically analyses the role of state interventions and international financial aid programmes in irrigation development and peasant communities. For the purposes of this research, ethnography and ethno-history, complemented by data generated by means of action-research and an intensive literature study of records written by Spanish and indigenous chroniclers, have been used. Through the presentation and analysis of these written sources, and by carefully mapping and documenting existing water practices in the communities of the Colca Valley, located in the southern Andes of Peru, the thesis shows how water has played a role not only in livelihood strategies but also in shaping cultural identity and the socio-organizational and political dynamics of communities. Water has constituted a central resource in defining and re-defining ethnicity and gender in the Andes. Conversely, ethnicity and gender have also been constitutive elements of fair and secure access to water by supporting and creating power asymmetries and hierarchies in Andean communities throughout Peruvian history. The thesis shows how irrigation policies and interventions have created spaces and opportunities both for inclusion and exclusion, for contestation and struggles, as well as for the empowerment of marginalized people.
Keywords: ethno-politics, water security, ethnicity, gender, water rights, cultural politics, modernization, irrigation development, large-scale irrigation, alternative development and resistance.
Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos
Laguna, P. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859604 - 522
chenopodium quinoa - inheemse volkeren - producentengroepen - antropologie - sociale verandering - modernisering - economische ontwikkeling - sociale ontwikkeling - coöperatieve verenigingen - bolivia - andes - ontwikkeling - zuid-amerika - chenopodium quinoa - indigenous people - producer groups - anthropology - social change - modernization - economic development - social development - cooperative societies - bolivia - andes - development - south america
This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of social, political and economic modernity. I reconstruct the practices and situations that turn rural indigenous organisations into significant spaces in which individuals and groups of people put into practice their life projects and their aspirations of modernity. The main question of this thesis is: what are indigenous rural organisations in the Bolivian Andes and what are their contributions to regional development?
To answer this question, I argue that we need to leave aside social constructivism and rational action present in current studies of indigenous rural organisations in the Andes that use the concept social capital. These organisations are not essences, totalities, nor are they are stable. Also, they are a more complex process than mere rational and technocratic action. IRO are contextual and situational spaces of social life that contain significant elements or objects, which are material and immaterial. These spaces are heterogeneities of humans and objects united by shared significant objects that are emergent, original and intensive. In this sense this organisations represent meshworks that interweave the changeable relationships between entities (humans and objects) and practices, and encompass the possibility of social change. These meshworks have different dimensions (economical, social, cultural, political). In each one of those, the flow of practices, interactions and experiences of individuals and groups of individuals simultaneously unify and break meaning, identity, affect, materiality and also regulation.
I study three kindsof indigenous rural organisations fromthe Perisalar (the Bolivian Southern highlands): communities which are based on kinship relationships, ayllus which are ethnic groups and quinoa producer organisations. Communities are social spaces that contain significant elements of modernity, such as the desire for access to State education and to enjoy citizens’ rights, the wish for agricultural machinery and to produce for the global market, the diversity of livelihoods and the affirmation of racial and class identity. Ayllus are made by community assemblages and many comunarios belong to quinoa Producer Organisations. In this sense ayllus and producer organisations are important social spaces as they contain significant elements present in the communities. I present the social life of IRO starting from the intersection of local development practices and experiences with other social spaces: the market, migratory destinations, education, social movements and institutional intervention. In order to better understand the effects of social change and IRO, I chose a long-term historical vision, considering the emerging effects of the intersection of local and external practices and experiences, before and during the quinoa commoditisation process.
The study concludes that IRO in the Bolivian Andes, are meshworks made by vibrant humans and objects with social vitality and intensity. They have the capacity to actualise significant elements of an economic, social, cultural and political character, in interaction with the Nation-State and the global market. These organisations increase through global market the vibrant character of significant elements such as quinoa, and by their recognition by the State they provide semi-autonomy to their members, and a space to make recognised their citizenship and their trade union, racial and class identities, and to locally redesign the State. Memory, identity and affect reveal the potential of IRO in repositioning past reminiscences and ancestral properties, and at the same time claim for a future that does not contain the same substance of that which is “the Andean”, “the Aymara” or “the Quechua”, rather incorporates new elements that lead to multiple “(neo)Andeans”, “(neo)Aymaras” and “(neo)Quechuas” forms, present in each and every one of the partial connections.
These organisations contain a variety of symbols, discourses and practices that correspond to heterogeneous knowledge and forms of socialisation and thinking of modernity that sometimes result in tension, fissure and conflict without however being fragmented. That is why structuralism, institutionalism and rationalism partially explain the agency in ambiguous and eclectic social spacessuch areIRO, whose limitsare constantly redefined by the flow of experience of its members. Development through these organisations is a social process, experiential and unpredictable, reflexive and corporeal, cognitive and performative, that contains both cohesion and tear. For understanding IRO contribution to rural development we must describe the relational and the imaginative in the wishes and processes of social change and regional developmentand grasp the relevance of its individual members’ experiences and practices in the creation of social ties. Methodologically this leads us to dissolve analytical categories and to follow and observe individuals past and present practices and their intersections with other individuals, groups, structures and significant objects. Our study underlines the significance of human-object relation as a starting point for generating new analytical frameworks in indigenous Andean organizations.
Fragmentation and connection of frames in collaborative water governance: a case study of river catchment management in Southern Ecuador
Dewulf, A. ; Mancero, M. ; Cárdenas, G. ; Sucozhañay, D. - \ 2011
International Review of Administrative Sciences 77 (2011)1. - ISSN 0020-8523 - p. 50 - 75.
waterbeheer - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - governance - ecuador - water management - catchment hydrology - governance - ecuador - communities - resources - conflict - issues - scale - andes
In collaborative water governance, the variety of frames that actors bring to the discussion constitutes an important challenge. In this study, we analyse the fragmentation and connection of frames in collaborative water governance projects in the Paute catchment and its sub-catchment Tabacay in the Southern Andes of Ecuador. We rely on frame analysis of project documents, interviews and meeting recordings to analyse the initial stages of these projects. We discuss (1) the different roles of problem domain framing and issue framing in frame fragmentation; (2) the significance of scale framing to problem domain and issue framing; (3) the challenge of connecting expert frames with frames of other actors; and (4) the importance of face-to-face dialogue for connecting frames. Points for practitioners. Professionals in public management and administration all over the world are increasingly involved in governance processes where they have to deal with a multitude of actors and perspectives. If their task involves setting up collaborative projects with other governmental agencies, civil society organizations and/or business actors, there is much to gain by paying close attention to how they themselves and other actors are framing both the problem domain and the issues involved. In processes of collaborative water governance, additional attention is required for how projects are framed with respect to water system scales and administrative scales, and for how technical framing of the issues connects to the frames and experiences of other actors
Peasants, potatoes and pesticides : heterogentiy in the context of agricultural modernization in the Highland Andes of Ecuador
Paredes Chauca, M.C. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; D. Cole. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858102 - 344
ontwikkeling - sociologie - akkerbouw - bedrijfssystemen - modernisering - aardappelen - stijlen (plant) - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - pesticiden - ecuador - zuid-amerika - plattelandsontwikkeling - andes - development - sociology - arable farming - farming systems - modernization - potatoes - styles - farm management - pesticides - ecuador - south america - rural development - andes
Based on community-level research carried out between 2002 and 2009, this dissertation examines agricultural modernization in Ecuador as a combination of agrarian reform accompanied by fundamental policy shift towards intensification through large-scale promotion of agro-industrial technologies tied with commercial production and market integration. In particular, the study explores how different actors struggle to modify, counteract and maintain modernization policies in order to advance local interests, thereby leading to distinct modes of production or “farming styles”. Concentrating on pesticide use and risks associated with peasant farming patterns, the dissertation employs qualitative and quantitative methods in describing and explaining heterogeneity, leading to the identification of four prominent styles: Tradicionales, Seguros, Arriesgados and Experimentadores. In terms of productivity, human health and the environment, the production patterns of the Tradicionales and Seguros out perform production modes based largely on externally based knowledge and technology, thereby representing a promising positive-sum scenario for policy reform.
|Riego campesino en los Andes. Seguridad hídrica y seguridad alimentaria en Ecuador, Perú y Bolivia
Vos, J.M.C. ; Rap, E.R. - \ 2010
Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) (Agua y sociedad. Seccion Concertación 14) - ISBN 9789972512810 - 336
waterbeheer - landbouwproductie - bolivia - peru - ecuador - andes - water management - agricultural production - bolivia - peru - ecuador - andes
|Lo colectivo y el agua: entre los derechos y las prácticas
Bustamante Zenteno, R.R. - \ 2010
Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad. Seccion Concertación 13) - ISBN 9789972512797 - 272
waterbeheer - watervoorraden - collectieve overeenkomsten - plattelandsontwikkeling - bolivia - ecuador - peru - waterrechten - andes - water management - water resources - collective agreements - rural development - bolivia - ecuador - peru - water rights - andes
Reseña: La reivindicación de los derechos colectivos ha sido parte importante de las luchas de las organizaciones sociales que gestionan el agua en los Andes. Las formas de lo colectivo y las reglas en torno a su constitución están muy vinculadas a la existencia de estas organizaciones y a la diversidad de las relaciones que se establecen con y en torno al agua. Estas relaciones se mantienen a pesar de los fuertes embates de la "modernización" que a través de múltiples mecanismos promueve la existencia de derechos individualizados y transables en el mercado. ¿Cómo se manifiesta esta confrontación entre una gestión basada en derechos colectivos y procesos de reforma institucional que promueven la individualización en diferentes contextos socioeconómicos, históricos y políticos?, ¿ qué tipo de transformaciones están atravesando las organizaciones que gestionan el agua a raíz de estas dinámicas?
A phytosociological study of the paramo along two altitudinal transects in El Carchi province, northern Ecuador
Moscol Olivera, M.C. ; Cleef, A.M. - \ 2009
Phytocoenologia 39 (2009)1. - ISSN 0340-269X - p. 79 - 107.
fire - soil - superparamo - treeline - andes
We here present a plant composition study of paramo grasslands in the East Andean Cordillera of northern Ecuador that discerns altitudinal distribution patterns. This study took place at two locations: the relatively undisturbed Guandera Biological Reserve site and the highly disturbed El Angel Ecological Reserve site. The analysis included a field survey following the releve method of Braun-Blanquet. The Study focussed oil altitudinal distributions of specific plant communities discernable by our analysis, as well as for traces of human influence in these communities. We examined 100 plots of zonal and azonal paramo vegetation located between 3400 and 4000 in altitude. The phytosociological classification by means of TWINSPAN revealed seven paramo communities at the association level (three for zonal paramo proper and three for azonal bogs), which clustered each into two alliances and one zonal order on the basis of both floristic composition and percentage of cover. The newly described phytosociological order Espeletio pyenophyllae-Calamagrostietalia effusae unifies all the zonal bunchgrass paramos of the Guandera-El Angel study area. There was no structural subparamo community detectable in our study area. Tills can probably be explained by the frequent fires that affect the paramo-forest ecotone and which result into a sharp discontinuity in the vegetation at the upper forest line location in Guandera. For Guandera we described two distinct zonal paramo communities: a bamboo patch and paramo islands in high Andean Forest. In El Angel, the floristic composition of subassociation paspaletosum bonplandiani (bunchgrass paramo at 3430-3550 m) of the Gynoxyo-Calamagrostietum suggests that the vegetation of this syntaxon was probably located on former forested land, as evidenced by the disappearance of high Andean forest and the upper part of Andean forest, combined with the presence of many native and exotic weedy species. The presence of distinct taxa in the subassociation of Paspalum bonplandianum undeniably was a response to habitat alteration induced by human activities. I-or the azonal paramo, we describe three communities at the association level; two of them belonging to the newly established alliance Paepalantho muscosi-Oreobolion cleefii, marking a separate northern Ecuadorian alliance and including the first report of a Xyris cushion bog in Ecuador.
Constuccion social de comuninad y migración en Usibamba : un estudio sobre el impacto de los procesos de globalización en los Andes centrales del Perú
Gilvonio Perez, J.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Pieter de Vries. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049197 - 239
plattelandsgemeenschappen - landbouwsituatie - sociale verandering - modernisering - globalisering - migratie - platteland - dorpen - Peru - andes - economische verandering - rural communities - agricultural situation - social change - modernization - globalization - migration - rural areas - villages - Peru - andes - economic change
The research for the thesis was conducted in the village of Usibamba, located in a high-Andean area called Alto Cunas east from the Mantaro Valley in the Peruvian Central Andes. Special attention was paid to the institutional context and the everyday life conditions in which the social construction of community takes place. The thesis focuses on ongoing changes in agrarian situations relating to processes of modernization, globalization and different kinds of migration experiences (both national and international). The research consisted of surveys, interviews and the selection of case studies as a means to develop an actor oriented ethnography adapted for the study of social transformations in rural areas.
The dynamic of the community was analyzed from the perspective of the everyday experiences of a diversity of social actors. Different kinds of life situations were selected such as being part of a family, a neighborhood and a peasant community, taking up authority positions and engaging in new endeavors, such as migration, that require the establishment of new types of social relationships. The following topics were studied: transformations in property relations, land use and possession, changes in community governance, communal life and local forms of organization, as well as changing notions of what it means to be a villager and a member of the peasant community institution (the comunidad). These latter changes are important factors in the creation of a diversity of social networks and relationships inside and outside the locality as well as in the constitution of a local identity. An additional factor influencing the constitution of such a local identity is the high level of competition between different villages, all differentially affected by experiences with national and international forms of migration. As a result past social networks based on relations of kin were redefined. Presently such networks have become more extended and have led to the production of de-territorialized forms of community practices.
In contrast to other anthropological approaches to the study of Andean communities a constructivist approach is used in order to document and analyze the impacts of globalization processes. In other words these impacts were studied taking as a point of departure experiences and situations internal to the Andean community while taking into account external factors, thus viewing the community as an entity that is continuously being reformulated. This approach made it possible to assess structural modifications in the functioning of the community, changes in the relationship with the state, peasant responses to the globalization of local and regional markets, as well as participation in social networks that extended far outside the locality of Alto Cunas. In short, the socio-cultural process of community construction were studied from the point of view of the livelihoods and lifeworlds of Andean comuneros in a context of globalization that entailed the incorporation of all sorts of values and practices resulting from the migration experience.
The thesis is composed of 6 chapters. In the first chapter the literature on Andean studies is reviewed paying special attention to the chosen theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as to the kinds of preoccupations and representations of Andean reality these frameworks engaged with. An historical analysis of the most important ethnographic researches undertaken by Peruvian and foreign anthropologists is presented within the light of the dominant theoretical currents that were in vogue at the time they were written. Also, reference is made to works analyzing historical transformations in Peru and the Central Andes in particular since the 1970’s. These include works undertaken from an actor perspective. Subsequently the central theoretical ideas are presented. The first chapter ends with some methodological reflections which were developed during field work. Concepts such as livelihoods, lifeworlds, human agency and social networks constitute the theoretical and conceptual framework used in this thesis.
In Chapter 2 a dynamic vision of the locality of Usibamba is presented. Usibamba is a locality in the sense that it is both an administrative entity, a village and district, and a peasant community. Community life is both constituted through a diversity of social events taking place in the midst of the village and the comunidad, as well as in mundane contexts pertaining to family life. These social spaces are full of differences, conflicts and contrasting views, as well as mutual agreements, and mechanisms for reaching consensus. This description of the comunidad contrasts with idyllic representations of the comunidad as constituting a world constituted by forms of reciprocity and mutual support. This chapter thus criticizes essentialist notions of Andean cosmology and (neo)-indigeneism.
In Chapter 3 I study the formation of the community of Usibamba from the perspective of the continuous struggle by comuneros for access to natural resources. Here we study the formation of the community of Usibamba from the perspective of the continuous struggle by comuneros for access to natural resources. Land in particular is a scarce resource due to demographic growth and as a result property and tenure relations have been subject to change. Neo-liberal privatization models have played an important role in shaping these changes. In order to visualize the process of social construction of community I include in the analysis a number of internal conflicts for resources as part of struggles surrounding what villagers call ‘land division and restructuring ’. These struggles are recurrent and take place after long periods during which land comes to be concentrated in the hands of a restricted number of families. The historical backdrop to these events is the land reform program implemented in Peru since 1969. The deactivation and dissolution of the Communal Enterprise of Usibamba is analyzed as part of a lager process of land restructuring and division that took place under the threat of violent subversive forces (the Shining Path). Together with the rise of a new category of actors - the migrants – this process led to the formation of another arena of dispute and negotiation over communal resources. Finally, I offer a dynamic vision of the significance and role of the community for comuneros.
Chapter 4 centers on the role of the state in local power relations by focusing on the desire of Usibambinos to upgrade the administrative status of their village by converting it into a district. The strivings for the creation of new districts as part of a program of regional administrative decentralization in rural areas in Peru constitutes an internal dynamic that underpins the permanent reorganization of the Peruvian state. In a context of a weak presence or even absence of the state it is important to pay attention to the importance villagers pay to the administrative status of the locality they inhabit. Interestingly, at the same time they refuse to downplay the role of the peasant community, which in fact is one of the objectives of these programs. To be a district signifies inhabiting a privileged political and social space vis-à-vis the state, and with the external world, and it is within such a symbolic space that power relations unfold and that forms of local leadership are forged. The peasant community as a political springboard plays a central role in the strategies that these local leaders develop in order to capture political positions at district level.
Chapter 5 discusses the contrasting notions and visions that diverse social categories entertain about the community. Chapter 6 centers on the process of international labor migration to the United States of America by sheep shepherds. Special attention is paid to their perceptions and decisions to migrate, the skills they acquire during the migration experiences as well as the extension, operation and use of social networks that transcend the village and the communal institution. Also the images and notions of community developed by migrants are discussed. In addition I explore the development of new types of social networks among ‘successful’ migrants who use their savings to move to the valley cities of Chupaca and Huancayo. Also the example of social support relations established by ‘sons of residents’ in order to facilitate access to jobs is analyzed. Finally, the establishment and consolidation of other social networks, outside the locality but based on relations of kin and community is studied by centering on the Transport Enterprise Alto Cunas, founded by former shepherd migrants. The thesis ends with the conclusions.