Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Comparing NaOH-extractable organic matter of acid forest soils that differ in their pedogenic trends: a pyrolysis-GC/MS study
    Suarez Abelenda, M. ; Buurman, P. ; Camps Arbestain, M. ; Kaal, J. ; Martinez-Cortizas, A. ; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, N. ; Macias, F. - \ 2011
    European Journal of Soil Science 62 (2011)6. - ISSN 1351-0754 - p. 834 - 848.
    chromatography-mass-spectrometry - gas-chromatography - chemical-composition - humic acids - fractions - peat - chemistry - horizons - aluminum - andosols
    Soil organic matter (SOM) in Alu-andic Andosols and Alu-humic Umbrisols is believed to accumulate because of the protection caused by binding to aluminium (Al). We investigated soils that differed in the abundance of organo-Al complexes to determine the effect of such binding on SOM chemistry. For this, the surface horizons of three types of acid soils in the Basque Country (northern Spain) under forest stands were studied: (i) Alu-andic Andosols (AND soils) on basalts and trachytes, (ii) Umbrisols or so-called ‘aluminic’(ALU) soils also on basalts and trachytes and (iii) soils with a podzolizing trend (POD), on quartzites. Values of Al extractable with sodium pyrophosphate (Alp) in the surface horizons of these soils ranged between 8.5 and 13.1, 1.9 and 9.3, and 0.8 and 3.7 g kg-1 dry weight, for the AND, ALU and POD soils respectively. For POD and ALU soils, surface horizons were sampled at two depths, 0–5 and 5–20 cm, whereas the AND soils were sampled at different depths down to the B horizon. NaOH-extractable SOM from three AND soils, 12 ALU soils and 12 POD soils was studied by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The POD soils had the largest loads of plant-derived markers (lignin, long-chain alkanes and alkenes, methyl ketones, fatty acids); SOM of the AND soils had the smallest amounts of plant-derived SOM and the largest amounts of microbial products (microbial sugars and N-compounds) of the soils studied. ALU soils had an intermediate pattern, as expected. The results indicate that the SOM of Alu-andic Andosols, developed from basalt and trachyte rocks, is essentially dissimilar to that of soils derived from quartz-rich parent material, under the same climate conditions and similar forest stands. The dominance of secondary (microbial-derived) SOM in Alu-andic Andosols, also observed in previous research on Sil-andic Andosols (these are dominated by short-range ordered Si compounds in contrast to the dominance of organo-Al complexes in Alu-andic Andosols), reveals the small contribution of primary (plant-derived) material to SOM in soils with andic properties
    Tephra stratification of volcanic ash soils in Nothern Ecuador
    Tonneijck, F.H. ; Hageman, J.A. ; Sevink, J. ; Verstraten, J.M. - \ 2008
    Geoderma 144 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 231 - 247.
    undisturbed paramo grasslands - colombia - geochemistry - profiles - andosols - biomass - pollen - mass
    We combined proxies traditionally used in stratigraphic research (mineral assemblages, grain size distribution, and element ratios) with soil organic carbon contents and radiocarbon dating both at a high vertical resolution, to unravel the tephra stratigraphy in volcanic ash soils. Our results show that soil profiles along an altitudinal transect intersecting the upper forest line in Northern Ecuador were formed in three distinct tephra deposits. Although the deposits contained a similar assemblage of minerals, we were able to differentiate these deposits because of their characteristic organic carbon distribution, grain size distribution and typical SrO to Na2O, CaO and crystalline Al2O3 ratios. Unravelling the tephra stratigraphy improved understanding of the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon, including paleoecological proxies, in the studied soils. We demonstrated that bioturbation likely plays an important role in current pedogenesis, resulting in overprinting (merging, mixing) of the paleosol. Surprisingly, in spite of bioturbation, a linear age depth relationship exists, leading to the hypothesis that the active zone of bioturbation shifted upwards during soil formation. Therefore, we conclude that paleoecological proxies are stratified in our soils, albeit probably somewhat more crudely than in undisturbed peat bogs or lake sediments.
    Quantitative aspects of solid-state 13C-NMR spectra of humic substances from soils of volcanic systems.
    Conte, P. ; Piccolo, A. ; Lagen, B. van; Buurman, P. ; Jager, P.A. de - \ 1997
    Geoderma 80 (1997). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 327 - 338.
    vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - organische verbindingen - bodem - bodemchemie - kernmagnetische resonantie - kernmagnetische resonantiespectroscopie - volcanic soils - andepts - andosols - organic compounds - soil - soil chemistry - nuclear magnetic resonance - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Soil surface coatings at Costa Rican recently active volcanoes.
    Jongmans, A.G. ; Mulder, J. ; Groenesteijn, K. ; Buurman, P. - \ 1996
    Soil Science Society of America Journal 60 (1996). - ISSN 0361-5995 - p. 1871 - 1880.
    andepts - andosols - costa rica - korsten - pedologie - hellingen - bodem - bodemmicromorfologie - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - costa rica - crusts - pedology - slopes - soil - soil micromorphology - volcanic soils
    A micromorphological study of pedogenic processes in an evolutionary soil sequence formed in late quaternary rhyolitic tephra deposits, North Island, New Zealand.
    Bakker, L. ; Lowe, D.J. ; Jongmans, A.G. - \ 1996
    Quaternary International 34-36 (1996). - ISSN 1040-6182 - p. 249 - 261.
    andepts - andosols - chemische eigenschappen - nieuw-zeeland - pedologie - fysicochemische eigenschappen - bodemvorming - bodemmicromorfologie - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - chemical properties - new zealand - pedology - physicochemical properties - soil formation - soil micromorphology - volcanic soils
    The influence of time as a soil forming factor was studied on an evolutionary sequence of five soils (1850 radiocarbo years BP-ca. 120,000 BP) developed in rhyolitic tephra deposits in New Zealand. New micromorphological observations were combined with existing macromorphological, chemical, textural, and clay mineralogical analyses to assess the extent of polygenesis in the soils. The younger soils (1850 BP to ca. 22,600 BP) are characterised by initial weathering and little secondary mineral formation. This status is expressed by abundant pumice fragments and fresh, easily weatherable minerals, as well as a low clay content with an isotropic character. Comminution and neoformation are the main pedological processes. The older soils (ca. 120,000 BP) are characterised by a high degree of alteration of primary minerals, little or no pumice fragments, clay illuviation, gleying, and a high clay content (>80%) consisting of a range of crystalline clay minerals including halloysite, gibbsite, kaolinite, and vermiculite, plus crystalline iron oxides. Evidence of polygenesis can be observed in the micromorphology of the older soils: (1) the range of secondary minerals is the result of the integration and succession of soil-forming processes through time; (2) the accumulatory character of the tephra deposits has resulted in stronger weathering of the lower horizons than upper horizons because of continuous pedogenesis. Such polygenesis in the older soils supports the view that the older the soil, the more polygenetic it is likely to be. Copyright
    Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica
    Nieuwenhuyse, A. - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): S.B. Kroonenberg; N. van Breemen. - S.l. : Nieuwenhuyse - ISBN 9789054855446 - 131
    bodemvorming - chemische eigenschappen - fysicochemische eigenschappen - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - costa rica - soil formation - chemical properties - physicochemical properties - volcanic soils - andepts - andosols - costa rica

    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern side it is bordered by active volcanoes. The climate of the area is hot and humid throughout the year, with a constant mean air temperature of about 25°C and a welldistributed mean annual rainfall of about 3500 to 5500 mm.

    Landscape formation was found to be strongly influenced by volcanism. I investigated two particular phenomena: (1) the formation of beach ridges and (2) landscape dynamics in the middle and lower parts of the alluvial plains.

    The formation of beach ridges along the Caribbean coast, ranging in age between about 100 and 5000 years, appears to be related to discontinuous sand supply by eruptions of the volcanoes which border the study area. This is indicated by small but consistent and statistically significant differences in chemical composition between sediments of individual beach ridges, which cannot be explained by textural differences. The differences are thought to be caused by variations in magma composition of different eruptions in the volcanic hinterland. Si0 2 contents of the ridge sediments vary between about 52% and 58%, other elements show variations corresponding to magmatic differentiation. Petrographically this is expressed in variations in the amount of andesitic rock fragments and pyroxene grains. Chemical composition of beach ridge sediments is similar in composition to the erupted products, in spite of the removal of part of the mobile elements and mixing with weathered sediments.

    Late Holocene sand deposits fill up former river channels and cover adjacent overbanks in the central fluvial plains of the study area. Two facies types are distinguished. The first is an up to several km long, 3 to 10 m deep, and 10 to 80 m wide coarse sandy channel fill facies, which shows an overall fining upward sequence both in grain size and structure. This facies has a pebbly base, small coarse sandy large troughs in the middle part and sandy trough cross-beds in the upper part. The second facies is a wing-shaped, less than 1.5 m thick, sandy overbank facies which shows small cross-beds and ripple-marks and extends laterally up to 300 m from the channel. The deposits testify to episodic supply of huge amounts of loose material on the upper slopes of the volcanoes that border the area, as a consequence of eruptions. Complete choking of the channel and concomitant shifts of the river course appears to occur only during extreme rainfall events. Of a total surface area of about 300 km 2, two smaller areas covered with this kind of channel fill deposits related to eruptions of Turrialba volcano about 2000 yrs BP are described, as well as a similar but much younger deposit related to the 1963-1965 eruptions of Irazú volcano. In the distal part of watersheds, thick (up to 1 m or more) crevasse splay sediments appear to be a less voluminous manifestation of fluvial sedimentation triggered by volcanic activity- One of such deposits is described, possibly related to the 1864-1866 eruptions of Turrialba volcano. In the fluvial plain short periods of highly active sedimentation and landscape formation are alternated with longer, rather inactive periods.

    Soil formation has been studied in relation with time in a Holocene (< 5000 yr) soil chronosequence on sandy, andesitic, ocean beach ridges along the Caribbean coast . All soils are under tropical rainforest. Tropopsamments are present on the 3 younger beach ridges and Hapludands are on the older ones. Drainage conditions change by subsidence from excessively drained in the two youngest soils to imperfectly drained in the two oldest soils. The parent materials of all soils are sands with similar mineralogical composition: andesitic rock fragments, plagioclase, and pyroxene dominate, with minor amounts Of Opaque minerals. None of the parent materials contained>13% (v/v) volcanic glass. It has been found that under these conditions Andisols form within 2000 years. Imperfect drainage caused mottling and accumulation of iron-coatings, as well as the formation of a thin O- horizon in the two oldest profiles. The increase in fine material and the accumulation of organic matter cause an increase of CEC and andic properties, and a decrease in bulk density and pH with soil age. Depth of biological influence increases with soil age, but soil faunal activity is hampered in the oldest three profiles, probably by imperfect drainage. Due to extreme leaching, the sum of exchangeable bases is less than 2 -1in the B-horizons of the older soils, notwithstanding the presence of a considerable amount of weatherable primary minerals.

    Using micromorphological, mineralogical, and chemical analyses, weathering and neoformation of minerals was investigated in the same chronosequence. Weathering and neoformation of minerals with increasing soil age is characterized by: (i) increasing pellicular and linear alteration of sand grains and (ii) decrease of the sand fraction and concomitant increase of finer material. Andesitic rock fragments weather more rapidly than plagioclase and pyroxene mineral grains. The alteration rates of the latter two are similar. Clay content in the about 2000-yr-old soil is several times higher than in soils developed on rhyolitic parent materials of similar age in New Zealand. Formation of allophane with Si/Al ratios ranging from 1.9 to 3.8 takes places mainly in the B horizons. Aluminium-humus complexes, allophane, and Al oxides and hydroxides are mainly formed in the A horizons. Small amounts of gibbsite were noticed in soils older than 2000 yr. Small amounts of 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals present in the clay fraction of all soils are thought to be inherited from the parent material, which contained sand-sized bodies of clay and andesitic rock fragments with clay pseudomorphs, both consisting of 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals.

    Furthermore, an attempt was made to quantify aspects of soil formation in eight soil profiles developed on volcanic parent material in the area. Assuming Ti to be immobile, gains and losses of major elements in were calculated from total element contents. Initially soil formation (0 to 0.5 ka) in Tropopsamments involves dilation of the sandy deposits by incorporation of organic matter and formation of structure and biopores, without detectable gains or losses of elements. In 2 to 5 ka old sandy Hapludands, primary minerals are still abundant, but up to 20% of the mineral soil consists of X-ray amorphous materials. Dilation continues and losses of Mg, Ca, Na and K, and to a lesser degree Si, have become measurable. In a < 18 ka old, stony Melanudand primary minerals and, especially, volcanic glass, become depleted in the fine-earth fraction. A mixture of short-range order material, metal-humus complexes, gibbsite and kaolin minerals dominate in the A horizon, while gibbsite, halloysite, and short- range order material are the most important secondary minerals at greater depths. Dilation of the soil mass prevails in the A horizon, while collapse has occurred in the B horizon. Considerable amounts of mobile elements are lost: 50 to 85% of Si, Mg, Ca, Na, and K have been leached from the soil profile. The strongly collapsed Haploperox,>50 to 450 ka old, thought to have formed from Andisols, are devoid of primary minerals (except opaques) in the upper meters, and are dominated by gibbsite, kaolin minerals and iron (hydr)oxides. Under the prevailing environmental conditions, weathering and neoformation of primary volcanic minerals lead to almost complete losses of basic cations, probably in a time period between 20 and 50 ka. Si and P mineral reserves are depleted considerably, but part is still present after such long time periods.

    Morphology, chemistry, and mineralogy of isotropic aluminosilicate coating in a Guadeloupe andisol.
    Jongmans, A.G. ; Oort, F. van; Buurman, P. ; Jaunet, A.M. ; Doesburg, J.D.J. van - \ 1994
    Soil Science Society of America Journal 58 (1994). - ISSN 0361-5995 - p. 501 - 507.
    andepts - andosols - kleimineralen - costa rica - pedologie - bodemmicromorfologie - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - clay minerals - costa rica - pedology - soil micromorphology - volcanic soils
    Inheritance of 2:1 phyllosilicates in Costa Rican andisols.
    Jongmans, A.G. ; Oort, F. van; Nieuwenhuyse, A. ; Buurman, P. ; Jaunet, A.M. ; Doesburg, J.D.J. van - \ 1994
    Soil Science Society of America Journal 58 (1994). - ISSN 0361-5995 - p. 494 - 501.
    andepts - andosols - kleimineralen - costa rica - pedologie - bodemmicromorfologie - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - clay minerals - costa rica - pedology - soil micromorphology - volcanic soils
    Aspects of mineral transformation during weathering of volcanic materials : the microscopic and submicroscopic level
    Jongmans, A.G. - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen; P. Buurman. - S.l. : Jongmans - ISBN 9789054852797 - 143
    vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - bodemvorming - fysische eigenschappen - mechanische eigenschappen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - vulkanische gesteenten - basalt - vulkanische lava - pedologie - bodemmicromorfologie - volcanic soils - andepts - andosols - soil formation - physical properties - mechanical properties - natural resources - volcanic rocks - basalt - volcanic lava - pedology - soil micromorphology

    Mineral transformation at the earth surface is a complex process. In volcanic ejecta, such transformations tend to be fairly rapid. Many weathering studies on volcanic materials have been carried out at different scales of observations, mostly using bulk samples. However, to get a proper understanding of the mechanisms of weathering of primary minerals and formation secondary minerals it is necessary to obtain data of undisturbed material at the scale of observation that micromorphology and submicroscopy deal with. Weathering studies at the micrometre scale with help of micromorphology showed the heterogenous character of mineral weathering and the co- existence of different secondary minerals.

    The main objective of papers in this thesis was to characterize and explain alteration of primary minerals and formation of secondary minerals at the particle level in volcanic soils in relation to (micro) environmental conditions.
    Thin sections of volcanic soils were studied by micromorphology, and relevant features were characterized chemically and mineralogically by submicroscopical methods performed on (un)disturbed samples isolated from thin sections.
    Mineral transformations were studied both on sites in the temperate humid zone and in the humid tropics.

    In a chronosequence of Quaternary terraces of the Allier in France, micromorphological and sub microscopical analyses showed:
    - Alteration of basaltic particles leads to clay formation whereas weathering of granite fragments contributes to the sand fractions.
    - A relative increase in the contents of Ti, Al, and Fe and a decrease of K, Na, Ca, and Si occur in weathering rinds of basalt pebbles. Differences in weathering intensity are predominantly a function of chemical composition of the basalt rather than a function of time.
    - A mass balance calculation carried out on an isovolumetric, altered basalt pebble with a fresh core, and on an enclosed, genetically related neoformed clay coating showed that all elements, except Fe were leached from all weathering rinds. Only Si, Al and some Ca were found in the clay coating, and part of the Al was derived from an external source.
    - Isotropic and anisotropic coatings occur in a Paleosol in an older terrace. Micromorphological observations demonstrated that such coatings are genetically related. The isotropic coating consists of allophanic material with minor amounts of 2:1 phyllosilicates, whereas the anisotropic types consist of 2:1 phyllosilicates only. Both types result from recombination of trachytic weathering products under restricted leaching conditions during coating formation.
    - Micromorphological observation demonstrated three types of coatings in two Planosols in two older terraces. Isotropic and anisotropic, translucent materials occur locally within one coating, suggesting a genetic similarity. These coatings are due to secondary mineral formation, The third type, anisotropic dusty clay coatings clearly resulted from clay illuviation. Cluster analyses reveal that the coatings of the same type were chemically more alike than different coatings in the same profile. About 83% of the grouped samples were classified correctly as either isotropic and anisotropic weathering coatings or anisotropic illuviation coatings.

    A technique is described to isolate undisturbed microparts of pedofeatures from thin sections. Such microparts can subsequently be analysed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. This technique allows performance of micromorphological, mineralogical and chemical analyses on one undisturbed micro sample at micrometre to nanometre scales.

    Isotropic coatings in the C horizon of a young Hapludand in Guadeloupe and in the C and R horizons of an old Hapludand in Costa Rica, both developed on andesitic volcanic materials were allophanic. Isotropic coatings present in the Bw horizons of both soils contain allophane and imogolite. The Al/Si molar ratios in the coatings in the Bw horizons are higher than those in the coatings of the C and R horizons. Anisotropic coatings are wholly gibbsitic and occur only in the Bw horizon of the older Costa Rican Hapludand. The gibbsitic coatings show a gradual transition to isotropic coatings and both types looks alike in plane polarized light suggesting a genetic relationship. The allophane coatings resulted from initial weathering of the parent materials, whereas the gibbsite coatings represent the ultimate stage of secondary mineral formation. The differences in chemical and mineralogical composition of the coatings are thought to be the result of different leaching conditions at the macro and micro scale.

    2:1 Phyllosilicates in Hapludands on Holocene andesitic beach ridges in Costa Rica occur as clay pseudomorphs after primary minerals. They are inherited from hydrothermally altered parent material from which the beach ridges were derived, and are not due to post depositional soil formation. Weathering and biological activity affect the clay pseudomorphs which leads to clay- sized particles consisting of 2:1 phyllosilicates. They are incorporated in the allophanic groundmass that results from actual soil formation in the Hapludands.

    Isotropic coatings also found in a West Java (Indonesia) Oxisol on andesitic volcanic parent materials are probably due to weathering of airborne ash additions. The coatings recrystallize to anisotropic coatings suggesting a neoformed genesis. Both types of coatings appear to be common in three andesitic catenas in Indonesia. The amount of coatings and the crystallinity tend to increase as the dry season become more pronounced. The anisotropic coatings can easily be confused with illuviation coatings.

    Andisol formation in a Holocene beach ridge plain under the humid tropical climate of the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica.
    Nieuwenhuyse, A. ; Jongmans, A.G. ; Breemen, N. van - \ 1993
    Geoderma 57 (1993). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 423 - 442.
    andepts - andosols - costa rica - mechanische eigenschappen - fysische eigenschappen - bodemvorming - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - costa rica - mechanical properties - physical properties - soil formation - volcanic soils
    Trachytic pumice weathering, Massif Central, France: geochemistry and micromorphology.
    Veldkamp, A. ; Jongmans, A.G. - \ 1990
    Chemical Geology 84 (1990)1/4. - ISSN 0009-2541 - p. 145 - 147.
    andepts - andosols - basalt - klimaat - overstromingen - frankrijk - landschap - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - pedologie - bodemvorming - bodemmicromorfologie - vulkanische lava - vulkanische gesteenten - vulkanische gronden - verwering - andepts - andosols - basalt - climate - floods - france - landscape - natural resources - pedology - soil formation - soil micromorphology - volcanic lava - volcanic rocks - volcanic soils - weathering
    Micromorphology and mineralogy of weathering and neoformation phenomena in a quaternary terrace sequence of the Allier, Limagne, France.
    Jongmans, A.G. ; Doesburg, J.D.J. van; Breemen, N. van - \ 1990
    Chemical Geology 84 (1990)1/4. - ISSN 0009-2541 - p. 83 - 85.
    andepts - andosols - frankrijk - pedologie - bodemmicromorfologie - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - france - pedology - soil micromorphology - volcanic soils
    Changes in physical properties of young and old volcanic surface soils in Costa Rica after clearing of tropical rain forest.
    Spaans, E.J.A. ; Baltissen, G.A.M. ; Bouma, J. ; Miedema, R. ; Lansu, A.L.E. ; Schoonerbeek, D. ; Wielemaker, W.G. - \ 1989
    Hydrological Processes 3 (1989). - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 383 - 392.
    vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - bosbouw - woeste grond - landgebruik - bossen - relaties - ontbossing - bebossing - bodemfysica - grondmechanica - humide klimaatzones - tropen - costa rica - volcanic soils - andepts - andosols - forestry - waste land - land use - forests - relationships - deforestation - afforestation - soil physics - soil mechanics - humid zones - tropics - costa rica
    A palaeoecological record of a volcanic soil sequence in the Nevado del Ruiz area, Colombia.
    Bakker, J.G.M. ; Salomons, J.B. - \ 1989
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 60 (1989). - ISSN 0034-6667 - p. 149 - 163.
    andepts - andosols - colombia - vulkanische gronden - paleogeografie - andepts - andosols - colombia - volcanic soils - palaeogeography
    Identification of clay coatings in an older Quaternary Terrace of the Allier, Limagne, France.
    Feijtel, T.C.J. ; Jongmans, A.G. ; Doesburg, J.D.J. van - \ 1989
    Soil Science Society of America Journal 53 (1989). - ISSN 0361-5995 - p. 876 - 882.
    andepts - andosols - frankrijk - pedologie - bodemmicromorfologie - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - france - pedology - soil micromorphology - volcanic soils
    Volcanic depressions in the Chuka - area, Kenya : their origin and agricultural potential
    Hees, J.C. van; Roo, A.P.J. de - \ 1987
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Scriptie / Landbouwuniversiteit, Vakgroep Bodemkunde en Geologie SCR-1134) - 77
    andepts - andosols - kenya - bodemkarteringen - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - kenya - soil surveys - volcanic soils
    Amorphous clay coatings in a lowland oxisols and other andesitic soils of West Java, Indonesia.
    Buurman, P. ; Jongmans, A.G. - \ 1987
    Pemberitan Penelitian Tanok dan Pupuk 7 (1987). - p. 31 - 40.
    andepts - andosols - ferralsols - java - oxisols - red soils - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - ferralsols - java - oxisols - red soils - volcanic soils
    Clay mineralogy of a soil formed in peralkaline volcanic ash from the Great Rift Valley in Kenya
    Wakatsuki, T. ; Wielemaker, W.G. - \ 1985
    Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 31 (1985). - ISSN 0038-0768 - p. 475 - 480.
    andepts - andosols - kleimineralen - kenya - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - clay minerals - kenya - volcanic soils
    Loessgronden : bodemeigenschappen, bodemtypen en bodemgebruik
    Westeringh, W. van de - \ 1984
    In: Problematiek rond de afgraving op het Plateau van Margraten : excursiegids voor de 94ste Wetenschappelijke Bijeenkomst van Nederlandse Bodemkundige Vereniging op 16 en 17 mei 1984 - p. 1 - 9.
    andepts - andosols - vulkanische gronden - zuid-limburg - andepts - andosols - volcanic soils - zuid-limburg
    The importance of variable charge due to amorphous siliceous soil constituents in some soils from Kenya
    Wielemaker, W.G. - \ 1984
    Geoderma 32 (1984). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 9 - 20.
    andepts - andosols - ferralsols - kenya - oxisols - red soils - bodemaciditeit - bodem ph - vulkanische gronden - andepts - andosols - ferralsols - kenya - oxisols - red soils - soil acidity - soil ph - volcanic soils
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