Immunomodulation by Processed Animal Feed : The Role of Maillard Reaction Products and Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs)
Teodorowicz, Malgorzata ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Wichers, Harry J. ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Immunology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 1 p.
advanced glycation end products - animal feed - immunity - Maillard products - RAGE
The immune system provides host protection to infection with pathogenic organisms, while at the same time providing tolerance upon exposure to harmless antigens. Thus, an impaired immune function is associated with increased susceptibility to infections with increased disease severity and thereby necessitating the therapeutic use of antibiotics. Livestock performance and feed efficiency, in addition to their health status, are dependent on the microbial load of their gut, the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium and the activity of the mucosal immune system, all of which can be modulated by dietary components. The majority of feeds that are consumed in pets and livestock have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars called Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and advanced Maillard reaction products (AGEs) determine taste, smell, and color of many food products therefore the MR is highly relevant for the feed industry. MRPs interact with different types of immune receptors, including the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and immunomodulatory potential of feed proteins can be modified by Maillard reaction. This MR has become an important concern since MRPs/AGEs have been shown to contribute to increasing prevalence of diet-related chronic inflammatory states in the gut with negative health consequences and performance. The immunomodulatory effects of dietary MRPs and AGEs in livestock and pet animals are far less well-described, but widely considered to be similar to the relevant concepts and mechanisms obtained in the human field. This review will highlight immunological mechanisms underlying initiation of the innate and adaptive immune responses by MRPs/AGEs present in animal feeds, which are currently not completely understood. Bridging this knowledge gap, and taking advantage of progress in the human field, will significantly improve nutritional quality of feed and increase the prevention of diet-mediated inflammation in animals.
Non-targeted workflow for identification of antimicrobial compounds in animal feed using bioassay-directed screening in combination with liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry
Wegh, Robin S. ; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A. ; Driessen-Van Lankveld, Wilma D.M. ; Pikkemaat, Mariël G. ; Zuidema, Tina ; Ginkel, Leen A. Van - \ 2017
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34 (2017)11. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1935 - 1947.
animal feed - antibiotics - Antimicrobials - bioassay - LC-MS
A non-targeted workflow is reported for the isolation and identification of antimicrobial active compounds using bioassay-directed screening and LC coupled to high-resolution MS. Suspect samples are extracted using a generic protocol and fractionated using two different LC conditions (A and B). The behaviour of the bioactive compound under these different conditions yields information about the physicochemical properties of the compound and introduces variations in co-eluting compounds in the fractions, which is essential for peak picking and identification. The fractions containing the active compound(s) obtained with conditions A and B are selected using a microbiological effect-based bioassay. The selected bioactive fractions from A and B are analysed using LC combined with high-resolution MS. Selection of relevant signals is automatically carried out by selecting all signals present in both bioactive fractions A and B, yielding tremendous data reduction. The method was assessed using two spiked feed samples and subsequently applied to two feed samples containing an unidentified compound showing microbial growth inhibition. In all cases, the identity of the compound causing microbiological inhibition was successfully confirmed.
Occurrence of chloramphenicol in cereal straw in north-western Europe
Nordkvist, Erik ; Zuidema, Tina ; Herbes, Rik G. ; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A. - \ 2016
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 33 (2016)5. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 798 - 803.
animal feed - bedding - Chloramphenicol - ELISA - LC-MS/MS - straw - survey
Two surveys are presented of straw analysed for naturally occurring chloramphenicol (CAP), a drug banned for use in food-producing animals. In the first study, CAP was analysed by LC-MS/MS and detected in 37 out of 105 straw samples originating from the Netherlands, France, the UK, Germany and Denmark. The highest level found was 6.3 µg kg−1, the average 0.6 µg kg−1 and the median 0.2 µg kg−1. The second study included a method comparison between ELISA and LC-MS/MS and a survey of CAP in cereal straw sampled at farms in all areas of Sweden. A total of 215 samples were screened by ELISA and a subset of 26 samples was also analysed by LC-MS/MS. Fifty-four of the samples contained more than 1 µg kg−1 CAP and the highest level found was 32 µg kg−1 (confirmed by LC-MS/MS). The highest contents of CAP in this study were allocated to the Baltic sea coast in the south-eastern part of Sweden (the county of Skåne and the Baltic Sea isle of Gotland). These results indicate a high incidence of CAP in straw in north-west Europe and have a severe impact on the enforcement of European Union legislation.
The effect of steam pelleting of a dry dog food on the Maillard reaction
Rooijen, C. van; Bosch, G. ; Wierenga, P.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2014
Animal Feed Science and Technology 198 (2014). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 238 - 247.
glycation end-products - physical quality - nutritive-value - animal feed - lysine - diet - digestibility - absorption - components - proteins
During processing of pet foods, the Maillard reaction (MR) can occur, which reduces the bioavailability of essential amino acids like lysine and results in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRPs). This study examined the effect of conditioning temperature (65 and 90 °C) and die hole length (ø 5 × 45, 65, and 80 mm) during pelleting processing of a standard dry dog food on selected indicators of the MR (total lysine, reactive lysine, fructoselysine, ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine, (5-hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, lysinoalanine), browning development and CIE-Lab color. Steam pelleting variables did not cause a significant loss of lysine or change in color and absorbance values. Analyzing the unprocessed ingredient mix suggests that the choice of the ingredients used in the ingredient mix, rather than the pelleting process applied, is responsible for the RL/TL ratio observed in the dry standard dog food used in this study. MRP content increased during steam pelleting (fructoselysine: 366.2 to 538.8 mg/kg DM; ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine: 12.6 to 14.8 mg/kg DM; lysinoalanine: 5.7 to 7.7 mg/kg DM; P <0.05). Increasing conditioning temperature from 65 to 90 °C increased fructoselysine (475.9 to 601.6 mg/kg DM; P <0.01) and ¿-N-carboxymethyllysine (14.3 to 15.1 mg/kg DM; P = 0.003). An increased die hole length of 80 mm decreased fructoselysine content compared to 45 and 65 mm (461.3 vs. 573.3 and 581.6 mg/kg DM; P <0.01) but increased lysinoalanine content (8.8 vs. 7.4 and 6.8 mg/kg DM; P = 0.002). Analyzing total and reactive lysine and absorbance values are not accurate enough to predict the MR and formation of MRPs during processing.
Effect of fungal treatments of fibrous agricultural by-products on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation and methane production
Tuyen, D.V. ; Phuong, H.N. ; Cone, J.W. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2013
Bioresource Technology 129 (2013). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 256 - 263.
white-rot fungi - wheat-straw - rice straw - invitro digestibility - pleurotus-ostreatus - digestion kinetics - sugarcane bagasse - detergent fiber - animal feed - lignin
Maize stover, rice straw, oil palm fronds and sugarcane bagasse were treated with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, or Pleurotus ostreatus at 24 °C for 0–6 weeks. The fungi increased total gas production from oil palm fronds by 68–132%, but none of the fungi improved the in vitro rumen fermentability of maize stover. C. subvermispora and L. edodes increased total gas production of sugarcane bagasse by 65–71%, but P. eryngii and P. ostreatus decreased it by 22–50%. There was a linear relationship (P <0.05) between the proportion of lignin in the original substrate and the increase in in vitro gas production observed for C. subvermispora and L. edodes treatments (R2 = 0.92 and 0.96, respectively). It is concluded that C. subvermispora and L. edodes have a particularly high potential to improve the nutritive value of highly lignified ruminant feeds.
Fungal strain and incubation period affect chemical composition and nutrient availability of wheat straw for rumen fermentation
Tuyen, Van Dinh ; Cone, J.W. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2012
Bioresource Technology 111 (2012). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 336 - 342.
white-rot fungi - solid-state fermentation - in-vitro digestibility - pleurotus-ostreatus - ceriporiopsis-subvermispora - trametes-versicolor - sugarcane bagasse - detergent fiber - crop residues - animal feed
Eleven white-rot fungi were examined for their potency to degrade lignin and to improve the rumen fermentability of wheat straw. The straw was inoculated with the fungi and incubated under solid state conditions at 24 °C for 0–49 days to determine changes in in vitro gas production and chemical composition. Results show that some fungi could degrade lignin by as much as 63%, yet the delignification was highly correlated with the degradation of hemicellulose (r = 0.96). Reduction in lignin was poorly (r = 0.47), but the ratio between lignin and cellulose loss was strongly (r = 0.87) correlated with the increase in gas production. Treatment with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for 49 days increased total gas production of the straw from 200 to 309 ml/g organic matter (OM). It was concluded that some fungi highly selective for lignin and not for cellulose are able to improve the nutritive value of wheat straw as a ruminant feed
Pelleting of diet ingredients: Diet selection and performance in choice-fed growing pigs
Brand, H. van den; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2007
Animal Feed Science and Technology 138 (2007)2. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 169 - 177.
physical quality - animal feed - lysine - foods - preferences - tryptophan - threonine - behavior - piglet - sex
An experiment was completed with individually housed growing pigs to examine whether pigs can compose their optimal diet when allowed a choice of three different pellets. Forty cross-bred pigs (20 castrates and 20 gilts) with an initial live weight of 22.0 ± 2.1 kg were allocated to either a complete control diet (C) or to a choice feed diet (CF) during a 4-week period. The C pigs received a complete feed as one pellet, whereas CF pigs could select their diet out of three pellets being: an energy-rich, protein-rich or premix-rest pellet. The CF pigs were offered their pellets in one feeding trough, which was divided in three compartments. All diets were administered ad libitum. Gilts fed the CF diet selected a higher crude protein (CP) diet than barrows (222 and 193 g/kg DM, respectively), whereas the C pigs, both gilts and castrates, were fed a diet with the same CP content (i.e., 204 g/kg DM; treatment by sex interaction; P