|Methane reduction by plant pigments and antioxidants in rumen fluid involves modifications, e.g. hydrogenatioor degradation of the active compoundsn,
Becker, P.M. ; Wikselaar, P.G. van; Ilgenfritz, J. ; Beekwilder, M.J. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Franz, C.H. ; Zitterl-Eglseer, K. - \ 2013
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift 100 (2013). - ISSN 0043-535X - p. 295 - 305.
bacteria - methanogenesis - anthocyanins - cleavage - bilberry - bisdemethoxycurcumin - demethoxycurcumin - resveratrol - inhibition - emissions
Methane is a major greenhouse gas, and ruminants cause about a quarter of all anthropogenic methane emissions. The objective of this study was to testplant secondary products in terms of their effects on methane production, and to follow active compounds analytically during incubation. In a simplifi ed model of ruminal methane production, a glycerol tripolylactate served as a central metabolites-generating and hydrogen-releasing substrate for rumen prokaryotes. The experimental additives, tested for their interfering potential with methane production, comprised bilberry fruit extract, tomato paste, paprika powder, grape seed extract, turmeric powder, curcumin, catechin, ferulic acid, ferulic acid ethyl ester and resveratrol. Being an unsaturated compound, fumarate, a competing electron acceptor to methane precursors, served as a well-described methane-reducing compound among the experimental additives in the in vitro tests. Methanemitigating effi ciencies were calculated by subtraction of the methane quantity produced in fl asks with the interfering additives from the quantity measured without any additive. Grape seed extract, bilberry fruit extract, turmeric powder, ferulic acid, catechin, and resveratrol reduced the production of methane in vitro. Grape seed extract, bilberry fruit extract, catechin, and resveratrol decreased methane formation to a higher extent than fumarate when added at comparable concentrations. Analysis of the secondary compounds in the assays by means of HPLC and revealed a considerably and in most cases significant (p
Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.
Toydemir, G. ; Capanoglu, E. ; Kamiloglu, S. ; Boyacioglu, D. ; Vos, C.H. de; Hall, R.D. ; Beekwilder, M.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Functional Foods 5 (2013)3. - ISSN 1756-4646 - p. 1402 - 1413.
phenolic-compounds - vitamin-c - anthocyanins - extract - tomato - degradation - metabolome - capacities - cultivars - stability
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale processing strategy. This was performed for 22 sampling points, with five independent repeats from a commercial cherry nectar production process. Anthocyanins contributed to >50% of the total antioxidant capacity of the samples. An in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion system was used to investigate serum availability of antioxidants. In this system anthocyanin bioavailability was much higher in the processed nectar than in the fresh fruit. Together these results indicate that processed sour cherry nectar is a rich source of stable antioxidants with high bioavailability, auguring well for the potential health-promoting capacity of sour cherry products.
Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit
Toydemir, G. ; Capanoglu, E. ; Gomez-Roldan, M.V. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Boyacioglu, D. ; Hall, R.D. ; Beekwilder, M.J. - \ 2013
Food Research International 53 (2013)1. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 218 - 225.
anthocyanins - tomato - tool - polyphenolics - metabolomics
The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyphenolic compounds was studied. From a Turkish industrial nectar production factory, five fruit batches were sampled during the processing from fruit to nectar, and for each batch 22 sampling points in the process were investigated. Untargeted LC–MS analysis revealed 193 compounds in sour cherry, of which 38 could be putatively identified. Only seven compounds were affected by the process from fruit to nectar, among which were five phenolic compounds. Waste residues such as press cake contained hardly any anthocyanins, while 87% of the major fruit anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-(2G-glucosylrutinoside), was found in the final nectar. In contrast, procyanidins showed a lower recovery (62%), and were still well represented in the discarded press cake. In comparison with other fruit juices, the recovery of anthocyanins in sour cherry nectar is remarkably high.
Recovery and concentration of phenolic compounds in blood orange juice by membrane operations
Destani, F. ; Cassano, A. ; Fazio, A. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Gebriele, B. - \ 2013
Journal of Food Engineering 117 (2013)3. - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 263 - 271.
osmotic distillation - antioxidant activity - bioactive compounds - citrus flavonoids - anthocyanins - cancer - evaporation - inhibition - extracts - kinetics
Cross-flow ultrafiltration (UF) and osmotic distillation (OD) were implemented on laboratory scale to obtain formulations of interest for food and/or pharmaceutical industry starting from the blood orange juice produced in the Calabria region. The freshly squeezed juice, after a depectinization step, was submitted to an UF process in order to recover natural antioxidants, such as hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins. The UF permeate, with an initial total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10.5°Brix, was concentrated by OD up to a final concentration of 61.4°Brix. The performance of both processes was analyzed in terms of productivity (permeate fluxes in UF and evaporation fluxes in OD) and quality of clarified and concentrated samples through the identification and quantization of phenolic compounds. The UF membrane showed a rejection towards the identified phenolic compounds in the range 0.4–6.9% and a little decrease of the TAA (8.2%) was observed in the UF permeate in comparison with the fresh juice. Phenolic compounds were also well preserved in the retentate of the OD process as demonstrated by the constant value of the ratio between the concentration of phenolic compounds in the OD retentate and the concentration of these compounds in the UF permeate stream (in the range 5.54–6.39).
Comparative analyses of seeds of wild fruits or Rubus and Sambucus species from Southern Italy: fatty acid composition of the oil, total phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the methanolic extracts
Fazio, A. ; Plastina, P. ; Meijerink, J. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Gabriele, B. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 140 (2013)4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 817 - 824.
chemical-composition - bioactive compounds - berry fruits - nitric-oxide - capacity - inhibition - anthocyanins - cultivar - disease - health
Fruit seeds are byproducts from fruit processing. Characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in seeds and evaluation of their potential biological properties is therefore of particular importance in view of a possible valorisation of seeds as a source of health beneficial components. In this work, we have analysed the seeds of Sambucus and Rubus species in order to identify their bioactive components and to determine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts. We first analysed their oil content, in order to assess the fatty acid profile and tocopherol content. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of the seeds were analysed for their total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. Polyphenols were identified by HPLC–ESI–MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the production of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators (NO, CCL-20) in RAW 264.7 cells. Our findings show that the methanolic extracts from Rubus seeds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and could therefore represent an attractive source of bioactive compounds for food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical applications.
Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate
Capanoglu, E. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Hall, R.D. ; Boyacioglu, D. ; Beekwilder, M.J. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 139 (2013)1-4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 521 - 526.
antioxidant activity - phenolic-compounds - wine - storage - anthocyanins - acid - extraction - quality
The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate from the seed and the skin fraction, pasteurization, clarification, filtration, evaporation, and filling-packing at 27 °C with a Brix of 45°. Samples from each of the processing steps were analyzed by a number of spectrophotometric analyses. A series of anthocyanin compounds was identified using HPLC-MS, and the fate of anthocyanins, quercetin rutinoside and procyanidins was followed using HPLC. The results indicate that the removal of seed and fruit skin removes most of the procyanidins and anthocyanins, while subsequent clarification and filtration treatments further reduce the anthocyanin content.
Diversity of (dihydro) hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in Colombian potato tubers
Narvaez Cuenca, C.E. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Zheng, Chaoya ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 139 (2013)1-4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1087 - 1097.
chlorogenic acid - liquid-chromatography - kukoamine-a - lc-msn - anthocyanins - polyamine - l. - glycoalkaloids - identification - accumulation
In potato tuber, caffeic acid (the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA)), its conjugates (HCAcs; i.e. chlorogenic acid (ChA), crypto-ChA, and neo-ChA), and anthocyanin-linked HCAs have been extensively described in the literature. In contrast, only little information is available on the occurrence of other HCAcs and didydrohydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (DHCAcs). Fifteen Colombian potato cultivars were screened for these less commonly described conjugates by reversed-phase ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and a heated electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer. A total of 62 HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs were found in extracts from peel and flesh. Among them, only twelve compounds were common to all cultivars in both peel and flesh. The less commonly described compounds accounted for 7.1–20.1% w/w of the total amount of HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs in whole tubers, highlighting their contribution to the total phenolic profile of potato tubers. Among all cultivars, the abundance (mg/100 g DW whole tuber) of neo-ChA (0.8–7.4) ranged in similar quantities as the less commonly reported feruloyl octopamine (1.2–5.2), 5-O-feruloyl quinic acid (0.1–7.5), cis-ChA (1.1–2.2), caffeoyl putrescine (0.6–2.5), sinapoyl hexose (0.1–1.8), N1,N14-bis-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermine (0.2–1.7), N1,N10-bis-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermidine (1.1–2.6), and N1,N5,N14-tris-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermine (trace – 11.1).
Analysis of genetically modified red-fleshed apples reveals effects on growth and consumer attributes
Espley, R.V. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Bava, C. ; Jaeger, S.R. ; Tomes, S. ; Norling, C. ; Crawford, J. ; Rowan, D. ; McGhie, T.K. ; Brendolise, C. ; Putterill, J. ; Schouten, H.J. ; Hellens, R.P. ; Allan, A.C. - \ 2013
Plant Biotechnology Journal 11 (2013)4. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 408 - 419.
myb transcription factor - polyphenol oxidase - tomato fruit - factor gene - anthocyanins - leaves - plants - biosynthesis - expression - protein
Consumers of whole foods, such as fruits, demand consistent high quality and seek varieties with enhanced health properties, convenience or novel taste. We have raised the polyphenolic content of apple by genetic engineering of the anthocyanin pathway using the apple transcription factor MYB10. These apples have very high concentrations of foliar, flower and fruit anthocyanins, especially in the fruit peel. Independent lines were examined for impacts on tree growth, photosynthesis and fruit characteristics. Fruit were analysed for changes in metabolite and transcript levels. Fruit were also used in taste trials to study the consumer perception of such a novel apple. No negative taste attributes were associated with the elevated anthocyanins. Modification with this one gene provides near isogenic material and allows us to examine the effects on an established cultivar, with a view to enhancing consumer appeal independently of other fruit qualities.
Correlation of Rutin Accumulation with 3-O-Glucosyl Transferase and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activities During the Ripening of Tomato Fruit
Capanoglu, E. ; Beekwilder, J. ; Matros, A. ; Boyacioglu, D. ; Hall, R.D. ; Mock, H.P. - \ 2012
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 67 (2012)4. - ISSN 0921-9668 - p. 371 - 376.
phenolic-compounds - grape berries - plants - expression - resistance - anthocyanins - antioxidant - metabolites - esculentum - induction
In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at different development stages (green, breaker, turning, pink, red, and deep red) were divided into flesh and peel fractions. In each sample, both the content of rutin and the enzymatic activities for PAL and 3-GT were recorded. The highest activities of PAL were recorded in the peel of turning fruit (3,000 µkat/mg fresh weight). In fruit flesh, maximal activity was observed in red fruit (917.3 µkat/mg). For both tissues, PAL activity strongly decreased at the final (deep red) fruit stage. The activity of 3-GT in peel peaked in the turning fruit stage (50.7 pkat/mg), while in flesh maximal activity (33.4 pkat/mg) was observed in green fruit, which rapidly declined at the turning stage. Higher levels of rutin were detected in the tomato peel compared to the flesh part with the highest level being found at the green stage. The relation of PAL and 3-GT activities to rutin content is also evaluated.
Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths
Kayode, A.P.P. ; Bara, C.A. ; Dalode-Vieira, G. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2012
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 46 (2012)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 49 - 55.
phenolic-compounds - anthocyanins - 3-deoxyanthocyanidins - vegetables - varieties - capacity - assay - acid - food - red
Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the biocolorant extract were evaluated using the response surface methodology. Extraction parameters affected the extraction rate of the biocolorant pigments and the colour characteristics of the extract. Maximum pigment yields were obtained at 50 °C and an ethanol concentration of the solvent of 51 mL 100 mL-1. Addition of HCl (1 mL 100 mL-1) to the solvent significantly improved the extractability of the biocolorant pigments. The crude extract from the leaf sheaths showed high antioxidant capacity with a total antioxidant capacity of 1026 mg of Trolox equivalent (TE) g-1 of DM. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Uncommonly high levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and antioxidant capacity in the leaf sheaths of dye sorghum
Kayode, A.P.P. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Hounhouigan, J.D. ; Berghofer, E. ; Siebenhandl-Ehn, S. - \ 2011
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59 (2011)4. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 1178 - 1184.
pigment characterization - phenolic-compounds - grain sorghum - anthocyanins - varieties - red - accumulation - stability - genotypes - purple
Extracts from leaf sheaths of farmers varieties of dye sorghum cultivated and used in Benin as a source of biocolorings were analyzed for their anthocyanidin and phenolic contents, as well as their antioxidant capacity. The aim was to identify and quantify the types of anthocyanin and phenolic acids. The total anthocyanin content of the leaf sheaths ranged from 13.7 to 35.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent/g of dry matter (DM), with an average of 27.0 mg/g. The total anthocyanin content is 90 times higher than levels usually reported in fruits and vegetables. Anthocyanin consisted essentially of apigeninidin and luteolinidin, two 3-deoxyanthocyanidins with many applications in food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. The apigeninidin content of the leaf sheaths was 30 times higher than that in cereal bran and ranged from 14.7 to 45.8 mg/g, with an average of 31.3 mg/g. The amount of luteolinidin ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/g, with a mean of 1.2 mg/g. The total phenolic content expressed as gallic acid equivalent averaged 95.5 mg/g. The free phenolic acids identified were benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and o-coumaric acid at amounts of 801.4, 681.6, and 67.9 µg/g, respectively. The leaf sheaths of dye sorghum have an antioxidant capacity [3.8-5.6 mmol of Trolox equivalent (TE)/g of DM] much higher than that reported for cereal bran and fruits and vegetables
Spectral dependence of photosynthesis and light absorptance in single leaves and canopy in rose
Paradiso, R. ; Meinen, E. ; Snel, J.F.H. ; Visser, P.H.B. de; Ieperen, W. van; Hogewoning, S.W. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2011
Scientia Horticulturae 127 (2011)4. - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 548 - 554.
optical-properties - visible radiation - quintinia-serrata - quantum yield - crop plants - red - quality - growth - green - anthocyanins
Little is known about the effects of leaf pigmentation (related to leaf ontogeny), on the spectral dependence of photosynthesis and most observations have been limited so far to single leaves. This study aimed to investigate photosynthesis and the related optical properties of two types of rose leaves, young reddish leaves and middle age green leaves, and to quantify the spectral dependence of photosynthesis at the canopy level. Photosynthesis was measured with CO2/H2O gas analyzer on intact leaves of rose ‘Akito’ at narrow band light of 18 wavelengths. Subsequently, the optical properties (transmittance, absorptance and reflectance) were measured with spectrophotometer. A mechanistic crop model was used for up scaling measurements at the single leaf level to the crop level (crop with LAI = 3). The green and the reddish leaves had similar total PAR absorptance, even though absorptance around 550 nm was slightly lower in the green leaves. The maxima of photosynthesis efficiency were at 640–680 nm for quantum yield (per absorbed light unit) and at 660–680 nm for action spectrum (per incident light unit), regardless the colour of the leaf blade. In the range 500–580 nm, both the quantum yield and the action spectrum were lower in reddish than in green leaves. Differences in optical properties and photosynthetic behaviour were related to the higher content of anthocyanins in red leaves. The spectral dependence of light absorption and photosynthesis at the canopy level differed distinctly from that at leaf level. The spectral differences in absorption at the leaf level almost disappeared at the canopy level. Consequently, while the action spectrum of green light (520–570 nm) was only 67% of that of red light (680 nm) at the leaf level, it increased to 79% at the crop level. Young reddish leaves had higher absorptance but lower action spectrum and quantum yield at green light. Spectral differences in photosynthesis at the canopy level are much smaller than at the leaf level. Our short term measurements suggest that optimizing spectral output of LED lamps may increase photosynthesis up to 12% for a canopy with green leaves and up to 17% for a canopy with reddish leaves when compared to the spectrum of HPS lamps.
|Cisgenese brengt appelveredeling in stroomversnelling
Dodde, H. ; Schouten, H.J. - \ 2008
De Fruitteelt 98 (2008)20. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 12 - 13.
fruitteelt - appels - rassen (planten) - veredelingsmethoden - weefselkweek - genen - anthocyaninen - genetische variatie - resistentieveredeling - cisgenese - fruit growing - apples - varieties - breeding methods - tissue culture - genes - anthocyanins - genetic variation - resistance breeding - cisgenesis
De veredeling van het eerste schurftresistente appelras duurde meer dan vijftig jaar. Cisgenese versnelt het veredelingsproces aanzienlijk door rechtstreekse toevoeging van de gewenste natuurlijke appelgenen aan een bestaand ras. Henk Schouten van PRI verwacht in 2012 de eerste schurftresistente appels van Inova-Fruitrassen te kunnen plukken
Antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and nutritional quality of different strawberry genotypes
Tulipani, S. ; Mezzetti, B. ; Capocasa, F. ; Bompadre, S. ; Beekwilder, M.J. ; Vos, C.H. de; Capanoglu, E. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Battino, M. - \ 2008
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (2008)3. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 696 - 704.
fragaria x ananassa - vitamin-c - berry phenolics - capacity - fruit - vegetables - identification - pigments - assay - anthocyanins
Strawberry contains high levels of micronutrients and phytochemical compounds. These exhibit functional roles in plant growth and metabolism and are also essential for the nutritional and organoleptic qualities of the fruit. The aim of the present work was to better characterize the phytochemical and antioxidant profiles of the fruit of nine different genotypes of strawberry, by measuring the total flavonoid, anthocyanin, vitamin C, and folate contents. Cultivar effects on the total antioxidant capacities of strawberries were also tested. In addition, the individual contribution of the main antioxidant compounds was assessed by HPLC separation coupled to an online postcolumn antioxidant detection system. This study showed the important role played by the genetic background on the chemical and antioxidant profiles of strawberry fruits. Significant differences were found between genotypes for the total antioxidant capacity and for all tested classes of compounds. The HPLC analyses confirmed qualitative and quantitative variability in the antioxidant profiles. These studies show that differences exist among cultivars, applicable in dietary studies in human subjects.
The in vivo antioxidant action and the reduction of oxidative stress by boysenberry extract is dependent on base diet constituents in rats
Barnett, L.E. ; Broomfield, A.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Hunt, M.B. ; McGhie, T.K. - \ 2007
Journal of Medicinal Food 10 (2007)2. - ISSN 1096-620X - p. 281 - 289.
dna-damage - vitamin-e - lipid-peroxidation - anthocyanins - capacity - fruit - cyanidin - humans - plasma - juice
Dietary antioxidants are often defined by in vitro measures of antioxidant activity. Such measures are valid indicators of the antioxidant potential, but provide little evidence of activity as a dietary antioxidant. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo antioxidant efficacy of a berry fruit extract by measuring biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein (carbonyls), lipids (malondialdehyde), and DNA (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine urinary excretion) and plasma antioxidant status (antioxidant capacity, vitamin E) in rats when fed basal diets containing fish and soybean oils, which are likely to generate different levels of oxidative stress. Boysenberry (Rubus loganbaccus x baileyanus Britt) extract was used as the dietary antioxidant. The basal diets (chow, synthetic/soybean oil, or synthetic/fish oil) had significant effects on the biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status, with rats fed the synthetic/fish oil diet having the lowest levels of oxidative damage and the highest antioxidant status. When boysenberry extract was added to the diet, there was little change in 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in urine, oxidative damage to proteins decreased, and plasma malondialdehyde either increased or decreased depending on the basal diet. This study showed that boysenberry extract functioned as an in vivo antioxidant and raised the antioxidant status of plasma while decreasing some biomarkers of oxidative damage, but the effect was highly modified by basal diet. Our results are further evidence of complex interactions among dietary antioxidants, background nutritional status as determined by diet, and the biochemical nature of the compartments in which antioxidants function
The Flavonol Quercetin-3-Glucoside Inhibits Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Absorption in Vitro
Walton, M.C. ; McGhie, T.K. ; Reynolds, G.W. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2006
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (2006)13. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4913 - 4920.
dependent glucose-transporter - lactase-phlorhizin hydrolase - small-intestinal lactase - brush-border-membrane - rat small-intestine - substrate-specificity - quercetin glucosides - mouse jejunum - elderly women - anthocyanins
At present, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for intestinal absorption of anthocyanins (ACNs). For example, it has not yet been established if ACNs are absorbed through an active transport mechanism, such as the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1), or by passive diffusion. Previously, we found that the absorption of ACNs differs between regions of the digestive tract and is maximal in the jejunum, suggesting that an active transport mechanism is involved. In the present study, we examined the effect of D-glucose (main substrate of SGLT1), phloridzin (inhibitor of SGLT1), and quercetin-3-glucose (Q3G, a flavonol) on the absorption of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G; ~5 mol/L) by mouse jejunum mounted in Ussing chambers. We found that the presence of either D-glucose (10, 20, and 40 mmol/L) or phloridzin (50, 100, and 200 mol/L) resulted in a small but insignificant inhibition of C3G disappearance from the mucosal solution (decrease of disappearance with glucose, 33%; with phloridzin, 18%; NS). However, when the flavonol Q3G (50 mol/L) was added to the mucosal solution together with the C3G, the disappearance of C3G was significantly decreased (74%; p <0.001), and Q3G disappeared instead. In addition, we found phloretin and quercetin, the aglycones of phloridzin and Q3G, respectively, present in the mucosal solution and tissue extracts, indicating hydrolysis of these compounds by the enterocytes of the jejunum. In contrast, the aglycone cyanidin was not detected at all. Our results show that in the mouse small intestine, ACN absorption is not solely dependent on the activity of the SGLT1 transporter, as D-glucose and phloridzin had only a slight effect on uptake. Q3G, however, clearly inhibited C3G disappearance. These results suggest that there might be a competitive inhibition between C3G and Q3G absorption. It is possible that an absorption mechanism other than the SGLT1 is involved, which has a structural preference toward flavonols
Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry
Beekwilder, M.J. ; Hall, R.D. ; Vos, C.H. de - \ 2005
BioFactors 23 (2005)4. - ISSN 0951-6433 - p. 197 - 205.
ellagic acid - vitamin-c - red raspberries - capacity - anthocyanins - phenolics - ellagitannins - storage - fruits - flavonoids
In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of ripeness, cultivar, storage and processing techniques, and the bioavailability of raspberry antioxidants in humans after eating the fruit. It is clear that raspberry, like several other fruits and vegetables such as tomato, strawberry, kiwi and broccoli, represents a valuable contrasting source of potentially healthy compounds and can represent an important component of a balanced diet
Leaf development and photosynthetic properties of three tropical tree species with delayed greening
Cai, Z.Q. ; Slot, M. ; Fan, Z.X. - \ 2005
Photosynthetica 43 (2005)1. - ISSN 0300-3604 - p. 91 - 98.
young leaves - rain-forest - expansion - stress - photoinhibition - anthocyanins - syzygium - plants - damage - red
Leaf developmental patterns were characterized for three tropical tree species with delayed greening. Changes in the pigment contents, photosynthetic capacity, stomata development, photosystem 2 efficiency, rate of energy dissipation, and the activity of partial protective enzymes were followed in developing leaves in an attempt to elucidate the relative importance of various photoprotective mechanisms during leaf ontogeny. Big leaves of Anthocephalus chinensis, a fast-growing light demanding species, expanded following an exponential pattern, while relatively small leaves of two shade-tolerant species Litsea pierrei and Litsea dilleniifolia followed a sigmoidal pattern. The juvenile leaves of A. chinensis and L. pierrei contained anthocyanin located below the upper epidermis, while L. dilleniifolia did not contain anthocyanin. Leaves of A. chinensis required about 12 d for full leaf expansion (FLE) and photosynthetic development was delayed 4 d, while L. pierrei and L. dilleniifolia required 18 or 25 d for FLE and photosynthetic development was delayed 10 or 15 d, respectively. During the leaf development the increase in maximum net photosynthetic rate was significantly related to changes in stomatal conductance and the leaf maturation period was positively related to the steady-state leaf dry mass per area for the three studied species. Dark respiration rate of leaves at developing stages was greater, and pre-dawn initial photochemical efficiency was lower than that of mature leaves. Young leaves displayed greater energy dissipation than mature leaves, but nevertheless, the diurnal photoinhibition of young L. dilleniifolia leaves was higher than that of mature leaves. The young red leaves of A. chinensis and L. pierrei with high anthocyanin contents and similar diurnal photoinhibition contained more protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase) than mature leaves. Consequently, red leaves may have higher antioxidant ability.
Production of bioavailable flavonoid glucosides in fruit juices and green tea by use of fungal a-L-rhamnosidases
Gonzalez-Barrio, R. ; Trindade, L.M. ; Manzanares, P. ; Graaff, L.H. de; Tomas-Barberan, F.A. ; Espin, J.C. - \ 2004
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52 (2004)20. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 6136 - 6142.
anthocyanins - resveratrol - antioxidant - inhibition - absorption - quercetin - stability - growth - humans
Flavonoid glucosides have been reported to be more bioavailable than their rutinoside counterparts. The aim of this study is to describe a first step in the use of alpha-L-rhamnosidases (RhaA and RhaB) from Aspergillus aculeatus as a way to produce functional beverages based on their potentially increased flavonoid bioavailability. Blackcurrant juice (BCJ), orange juice (OJ), and green tea infusion (GT) were incubated with either RhaA or RhaB at 30 degreesC for 10 h. Aliquots of controls and enzyme-treated samples were taken at different time points and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode-array detector-mass spectrometry of daughter fragments (HPLC-DAD-MS-MS). Both RhaA and RhaB selectively catalyze in situ the removal of terminal rhamnosyl groups in the three beverages despite the heterogeneity of assay conditions such as different rutinosides and pH. Incubation of the three beverages with the two rhamnosidases resulted in a hyperbolic decrease in the flavonoid rutinosides (anthocyanins in BCJ, flavanones in OJ, and flavonols in GT) and a concomitant increase in their flavonoid glucoside counterparts. The time required for conversion of 50% of the rutinoside into the corresponding flavonoid glucoside ranged from 30 min (RhaB-rutin in GT) to 6 h (RhaB-delphinidin 3-rutinoside in BCJ). The results presented in this paper are a step forward in the use of enzyme-treated beverages as a source of bioavailable flavonoid glucosides.
Colorants based on renewable resources and food-grade colorants for application in thermoplastics
Oever, M.J.A. van den; Boeriu, C.G. ; Blaauw, R. ; Haveren, J. van - \ 2004
Journal of Applied Polymer Science 92 (2004)5.. - ISSN 0021-8995 - p. 2961 - 2969.
natural pigments - anthocyanins
A series of colorants based on renewable resources and food-grade colorants have been evaluated for use in polypropylene (PP) and polyvinylchloride (PVC). It has been found that most of these colorants can be processed in PP at 200degreesC or even 260degreesC while maintaining good color intensity and color brightness. The colorants evaluated cover a large part of the color spectrum. In PP, the light stability of alizarin (red), carmine (red), indigo (blue), purpurin (red), quinizarin (red), and the aluminium lakes of quinoline yellow (yellow) and indigo carmine (blue) is close to the requirements for indoor applications. The blue colorants indigo and the aluminium lake of indigo carmine are, in principle, sufficiently light stable in PP for indoor applications. A few colorants showed bleeding from PP. Bonding of migrating colorants to the reactive carrier maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene, however, reduced bleeding of the colorant to a large extent. Also after processing in PVC at 200degreesC, good color intensity and saturation is maintained. Quinizarin, a structural analog of alizarin and purpurin, shows a light stability performance that is close to commercial lead chromate/molybdate orange based colorants. The best performing natural colorants are sufficiently heat and light stable for applications where moderate properties concerning heat resistance and (UV) light stability are required, such as underground PVC water drainage pipes and indoor PP applications. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.