Optimization of soybean processing into kinema, a Bacillus-fermented alkaline food, with respect to a minimum level of antinutrients
Sharma, A. ; Kumari, S. ; Wongputtisin, P. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Sarkar, P.K. - \ 2015
Journal of Applied Microbiology 119 (2015)1. - ISSN 1364-5072 - p. 162 - 176.
vitro protein digestibility - histamine-forming bacteria - unguiculata l. walp - cicer-arietinum l. - biogenic-amines - trypsin-inhibitor - phytic acid - antinutritional factors - chemical-composition - nutritional quality
Aims Optimization of traditional processing of soybeans using response surface methodology (RSM) to achieve a minimum level of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in kinema. Methods and Results Central composite rotatable designs were used to optimize the processing stages of kinema preparation. In each stage, the linear or quadratic effects of independent variables were significant in minimizing ANF levels. The predicted optimum condition for soaking was when the raw beans–water ratio was 1 : 10, and the soaking temperature, time and pH were 10°C, 20 h and 8·0 respectively. Here, tannins content (TC), phytic acid content (PAC) and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased (P <0·05). While haemagglutinating activity (HA) level remained unchanged (P <0·05), total biogenic amines content (TBAC) increased. The optimum condition for cooking was optimally soaked beans–water ratio of 1 : 5, and cooking pressure and time were 1·10 kg cm-2 and 20 min respectively. Here, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P <0·05), but TBAC remained unchanged compared to optimally soaked beans. TC and HA went below the level of detection. The optimum condition for fermentation was obtained when inoculum load was 103 total cells g-1 grits, and fermentation temperature and time were 37°C and 48 h respectively. Fermentation of optimally cooked beans caused a reduction (P <0·05) of PAC. While TIA remained unchanged (P <0·05), TBAC increased. In kinema, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P <0·05) over raw beans by 100, 61, 71 and 100% respectively. Good agreement was observed between predicted values and experimental values. Conclusions The processing treatments significantly minimized the level of ANFs in soybeans. Significance and Impact of the Study RSM was successfully deployed to obtain the optimum condition for kinema-making with a minimum level of ANFs without impairing sensory attributes of the product. The results are useful for commercial production of kinema.
Economic valuation of potential products from Jatropha seed in five selected countries: Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Mali, Indonesia, and The Netherlands
Lestari, D. ; Zvinavashe, E. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2015
Biomass and Bioenergy 74 (2015). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 84 - 91.
antinutritional factors - bulk chemicals - curcas seed - biomass - proteins - energy - oil
Currently, Jatropha seeds are mainly used to produce biodiesel, and a resultant press cakeis obtained as a by-product. Jatropha press cake fractionation and conversion into variouspotential products using biorefinery, could improve the economic value of Jatropha seed.The objectives of this study were to calculate the potential generated income and economicvalue of products from Jatropha. These were classified into two product groups: 1) Ruralproducts, and 2) Industrial products. The potential generated income is the summation ofthe net profit and the labour costs. Using the national gross domestic product (GDP) percapita as a reference, we calculated and compared the potential economic value, whichexpresses the number of people that could obtain a certain income for every hectare ofJatropha plantation, in five selected countries. These countries consisted of four developingcountries: Tanzania, Mali, Zimbabwe, and Indonesia, and a developed country, theNetherlands. This study shows that the potential generated income from rural productsper hectare of (imported) Jatropha was much lower than the income of one person inIndonesia and the Netherlands. In Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and Mali, the potential economicvalue per hectare Jatropha suggests that manufacturing rural products can generate potentialincome for one person. Manufacturing industrial products can generate potentialincome for one person in the Netherlands and approx. 7e39 people in Indonesia,Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and Mali. In conclusion, the potential generated income is highlydependent on the GDP per capita and the price of the selected products in each country.
Nutrient composition of selected newly bred and established mung bean varieties
Dahiya, P.K. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Grewal, R.B. - \ 2013
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 54 (2013)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 249 - 256.
greengram vigna-radiata - arietinum-l cultivars - phytic acid content - protein digestibility - antinutritional factors - starch digestibility - zinc bioavailability - human-nutrition - legume seeds - phytate
Seven newly bred and three established varieties of mung bean were analysed for proximate composition, minerals, anti-nutrients and in vitro mineral accessibility. They contained 18–23 g protein, 4.0–5.6 g crude fibre and 2.5–4.1 g ash per 100 g dry sample. Iron, zinc, calcium, sodium and potassium ranged from 3.4 to 4.6, 1.2 to 2.3, 79 to 115, 8.1 to 13.5 and 362 to 415 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. Phytic acid and polyphenols averaged 769 and 325 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. Varieties differed significantly in terms of nutrient and anti-nutrient contents. Phytic acid and polyphenols were negatively correlated with in vitro mineral accessibility and nutrient digestibility. Protein and starch digestibility ranged from 53 to 67 g/100 g dry weight and 20 to 29 mg maltose released/g dry weight, respectively. Average molar ratios of phytic acid to iron and zinc were 16.8 and 52.7, respectively. Differences in in vitro iron and zinc accessibility could not be explained by phytic acid to calcium nor magnesium molar ratios. However, the phytic acid amount in mung beans suffices to bind all minerals into indigestible complexes. The newly bred varieties have better agronomic yields but no better nutritional potential than the established varieties tested.
Keeping local foods on the menu: a study on the small-scale processing of cowpea
Madodé, Y.E.E. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel; D.J. Hounhouigan, co-promotor(en): Anita Linnemann; Rob Nout. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734358 - 176
vignabonen - voedselverwerking - landrassen - antinutritionele factoren - verteerbaarheid - west-afrika - benin - cowpeas - food processing - landraces - antinutritional factors - digestibility - west africa - benin
Agriculture plays a significant role in the economy of most African countries. Yet malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies occur regularly. Concomitantly, many carbohydrate rich staple foods and meat products are dumped on the African market and compet strongly with local products. The present thesis studied the potential of indigenous resources and locally developed practices to supply culturally acceptable and nutritious foods to African resource-poor people, using cowpea as model crop. This research is implemented using an interdisciplinary approach, which comprised plant breeding, food science and technology, human nutrition and social sciences. This thesis reports the findings of the research on food science and technology.
This study aimed to (i) characterise cowpea landraces in use in Benin with regard to nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional properties; (ii) determine present cowpea processing methods and eating habits with special reference to the content of cowpea dishes in available iron, zinc and calcium; (iii) assess the effect of the use of alkaline cooking aids on amino acids of cooked cowpea, and (iv) assess the impact of processing techniques on the flatulence generated by the intake of cowpea foods.
The genetic, nutritional and technological characterisation of cowpea landraces in use in Benin showed that a high level of similarity among unpigmented landraces as opposed to pigmented landraces. The cluster of unpigmented landraces significantely differed from the pigmented landraces for their fibre (24 vs. 56 g/kg, d.w.) and phenolics (3 vs. 8 g/kg, d.w.) contents as well as their seed size (200 vs. 139 g/1000 seeds, d.w.) and water absorption capacity (1049 vs. 1184 g/kg, d.w.).
An inventory of 18 cowpea dishes was obtained, which are produced by the combination of the following main unit operations: cooking, dehulling, deep-fat frying, steaming, roasting and soaking. Fermentation and germination are unusual technological practices in West-Africa. Consumers mainly consume Ata, Atassi and Abobo. These dishes contain little available iron because their [phytate] : [iron] molar ratio is above the required thresholds for a good iron uptake by the human body. The incorporation of cowpea leaves in certain dishes resulted in appropriate available iron and calcium potentials.
The constraints to cowpea processing were identified as: their long cooking time, the tediousness of the dehulling process and the perishability of beans and dishes. The local answer to the long cooking time is the use of alkaline cooking aids. These alkaline salts and the applied cooking conditions did not induce any significant change in the amino acid composition of pigmented landraces. Moreover, the toxicity potentially associated with this practice was not confirmed as no lysinoalanine could be quantified while using up to 0.5 % (w/v) of alkaline cooking aids.
Flatulence was indicated as the main constraint to cowpea consumption. Cowpea hulls are usually pointed as the main responsible for flatulence. In this research, galactose-oligosaccharides that are indigestible for humans and cause flatulence formation were not found in cowpea hulls. Fermentation wih Rhizopus or Bacillus bacteria reduced significantly the fermentability of cowpea in vitro and in vivo as compared with traditional processes.
The present study demonstrates the opportunities to improve the quality of cowpea dishes by the incorporation of the leaves and the possibilities to sustain the consumption of cowpea by focusing on soaking and/or fermentation processes.
Availability of protein-derived amino acids as feedstock for the production of bio-based chemicals
Lammens, T.M. ; Franssen, M.C.R. ; Scott, E.L. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2012
Biomass and Bioenergy 44 (2012). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 168 - 181.
distillers dried grains - condensed molasses solubles - jatropha-curcas l. - palm kernel meal - nutritional-value - reactive-extraction - antinutritional factors - nitrogen-degradability - growth-performance - ethanol-production
This review describes different potential sources for amino acids that could be used for the production of bulk chemicals in a biorefinery, such as agricultural byproduct streams. Volumes at which these sources and the amino acids therein are available were determined, and the most interesting amino acids in terms of their potential available quantity were identified. The investigated sources are maize and wheat DDGS, sugarcane vinasse and its leaves, sugar beet vinasse and its leaves, cassava leaves, press cakes of rapeseed, sunflower, soybean, palm oil and Jatropha, animal slaughter waste, microalgae, macroalgae, grass and alfalfa. It can be concluded that there are enough sources available to produce bio-based chemicals such as N-methylpyrrolidone with a market sizes around 100 kt per year from amino acids. Bulk chemicals such as acrylonitrile can partly be replaced in the future by their bio-based equivalent, depending on the amounts of biofuels that will be produced in the future. However, it is still necessary to find cost-effective methods for the isolation of amino acids from the discussed sources
Valorisation of Jatropha curcas: Solubilisation of proteins and sugars from the NaOH extracted de-oiled press cake
Kootstra, A.M.J. ; Beeftink, H.H. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2011
Industrial Crops and Products 34 (2011)1. - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 972 - 978.
antinutritional factors - acid pretreatment - products - biomass - crop
In this study, we investigated the possibilities for increasing the valorisation of de-oiled Jatropha press cake (DO-JPC). The studied raw material is the by-product of the alkaline protein extraction of the DO-JPC: NaOH Extracted DO-JPC (NEDO-JPC). Protein solubilisation of NEDO-JPC was performed under neutral and acidic conditions (pH 2, 100 mM maleic acid), at elevated temperature (100, 120, and 140 °C), and at 5% (w/w) dry solids loading. After the treatment, the amount of solubilised protein was determined, as well as the solubilisation of polymeric sugars and formation of sugar degradation products furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Although a clear influence is shown for temperature, no difference in protein solubilisation was found between treatments at pH 7 and pH 2. A maximum of 25% (w/w) of the available protein was solubilised, at 140 °C. The lignocellulose fraction of NEDO-JPC proved relatively recalcitrant to acid hydrolysis, suggesting a more intense treatment to be necessary to sufficiently increase accessibility for cellulolytic enzymes in a lignocellulosic bioethanol process. At €8.00 per tonne DO-JPC, it is concluded that the possibilities for valorisation of the protein fraction of NEDO-JPC at neutral and acid pH are limited, leaving the lignocellulose fraction as a source of valorisation to be investigated
Preparation, Consumption, and Nutritional Composition of West African cowpea dishes
Madode, Y.E.E. ; Houssou, P. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Hounhouigan, D.J. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2011
Ecology of Food and Nutrition 50 (2011)2. - ISSN 0367-0244 - p. 115 - 136.
kanwa alkaline salt - vigna-unguiculata - antinutritional factors - phytic acid - food - quality - phytate - benin - beans - digestibility
In Africa, nutrient intake deficiencies are widespread. We, therefore, investigated the potential contribution of cowpea dishes to the ingestion of several macro- and micronutrients. Processors and consumers were interviewed and cowpea dishes analyzed. Energy, protein, iron, zinc, and calcium contents ranged from 1647 to 2570 kJ, 10 to 25 g, 1 to 35 mg, 1.5 to 3.0 mg, 38 to 380 mg per 100 g d.w., respectively. The iron and calcium contents were highest in dishes containing leaves. The consumption of these dishes should be promoted along with research on how to further decrease the associated antinutritional factors of traditional cowpea dishes
Jatropha seed protein functional properties for technical applications
Lestari, D. ; Mulder, W.J. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2011
Biochemical Engineering Journal 53 (2011)3. - ISSN 1369-703X - p. 297 - 304.
soy protein - antinutritional factors - curcas - films - concentrate - interfaces - extraction - oilseed - plant - foams
Jatropha press cake, by-product after oil expression from Jatropha seeds, contains 24–28% protein on dry basis. Objectives of this research were to investigate functional properties, such as solubility, emulsifying, foaming, film forming, and adhesive properties, of Jatropha press cake proteins and compared those with relevant industrial proteins. From our study, we found that protein extracted from press cake proteins had a solubility of about 90% above pH 9. Emulsifying properties of press cake protein were comparable to sodium caseinates and reached the highest value at pH 9–10. Jatropha proteins formed films with tensile strength of 0.4–1.8 MPa with 10–75% elongation, which were below soy protein or wheat-gluten. Further oil removal from press cake decreased emulsifying properties, while increased foaming and adhesive properties of the extracted proteins. Protein extracted from de-oiled press cake showed better foaming properties than sodium caseinate at pH 10, but lower than egg white protein at all pH. Furthermore, press cake protein showed better adhesive properties than casein adhesives at the same dry matter content. Based on these results, Jatropha press cake protein showed most promising results on adhesive and emulsifying properties, which indicate the potential of Jatropha press cake protein as emulsifier or paper adhesive.
Improving Jatropha curcas seed protein recovery by using counter current multistage extraction
Lestari, D. ; Mulder, W.J. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2010
Biochemical Engineering Journal 50 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 1369-703X - p. 16 - 23.
antinutritional factors - products - oil - plant
Jatropha curcas seed press cake contains 23 wt% proteins (dry basis). Due to the toxic compounds in Jatropha, we will use the proteins for non-food applications. Related to non-food applications, an efficient protein extraction to obtain a high protein recovery and high protein concentration with good protein functional properties is required. To achieve this, we conducted protein extractions at room temperature by using different solvents at various solvent to solid ratios and performed multistage counter current extraction to improve protein recovery and protein concentration. We obtained the highest protein recovery of 82% by using 0.055 M NaOH at solvent to solid ratio of 10 g/g after four-stage counter current extraction. By using 0.055 M NaOH extraction at lower solvent to solid ratio of 4 g/g, protein recovery was 35% after one-stage extraction and improved up to 71% with a high protein concentration of 63 mg/mL after four-stage counter current extraction. The highest amount of protein was precipitated from crude extracts at pH 4–5.5 and resulted on precipitate with protein content of 70%. The multistage counter current extraction did not influence Jatropha seed protein molecular weight distributions, which were within the range of 3–98 kDa
Variation in commercial sources of soybean meal influences the severity of enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
Urán, P. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Jaafari, S. ; Baardsen, G. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Koppe, W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2009
Aquaculture Nutrition 15 (2009)5. - ISSN 1353-5773 - p. 492 - 499.
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - rainbow-trout - distal intestine - antinutritional factors - fish-meal - products - diets - histology - growth - soy
Soybean meal (SBM) is a potential alternative for the replacement of fishmeal in aquafeeds. In Atlantic salmon, however, dietary SBM causes an inflammation of the distal intestine, known as SBM-induced enteritis. The objective of the present study is to verify whether different (geographically spread) commercial sources of SBM yield contrasting inflammatory responses. To do so, six SBM batches from different origins were included in the Atlantic salmon diets at the level of 20%. After 4 weeks of feeding, the distal intestine of the salmon was sampled and scored by a semi-quantitative scoring system, which assessed six separated parameters, characterizing the extent of enteritis. The overall mean score as well as the score of the separate parameters varied between the different commercial sources of SBM included in the diet. The variation in SBM caused different degrees of disparity in the score of the separate parameters. The parameter that was most affected by the variation in the source of SBM was the disappearance of supranuclear vacuoles in enterocytes. In contrast, the increase in goblet cells showed the smallest variation between the different SBM sources. This study shows that different commercial sources of SBM can result in differences in the severity of SBM-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon
Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply
Kayodé, A.P.P. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Rob Nout; Anita Linnemann. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085044420 - 152
sorghum - voedselverwerking - ijzer - zink - fytinezuur - fytaten - antinutritionele factoren - zaadkieming - fermentatie - rassen (planten) - benin - sorghum - food processing - iron - zinc - phytic acid - phytates - antinutritional factors - seed germination - fermentation - varieties - benin
This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and their derived foods in northern Benin were surveyed. Three food categories were identified: pastes, porridges, and beverages. We distinguished more than 100 farmers’ varieties. A genome fingerprinting technique (AFLP) was used to cluster these farmers’ varieties into 45 distinct genotypes which were analyzed for their phytate content and Fe and Zn concentration and in vitro solubility. Seven of the identified genotypes contain adequate in vitro soluble Fe to meet consumers’ requirements. The impact of the local sorghum processing technologies on phytate, phenolics and Fe and Zn in vitro solubility was evaluated. Wet cleaning of sorghum grain, germination and fermentation are the most effective process operations to degrade phytate and phenolics and to increase the solubility of Fe and Zn. A mathematical model used to study the effect of processing variables on Fe and Zn solubility suggests that maximum mineral in vitro solubility in sorghum can be achieved, by processing the grains with combined germination and fermentation. Such combinations would enable the preparation of infant cereal porridges with improved nutrient contents.
Vergelijking van drie soja-eiwitten (Soycomil P, HP300 en LodeStar ProFa) in biggenvoeders
Rodenburg, T.B. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Mulder, A. - \ 2004
onbekend : Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (PV) (PraktijkRapport / Animal Sciences Group, Praktijkonderzoek : Varkens ) - 12
biggen - sojaeiwit - biggenvoeding - antinutritionele factoren - dieetbehandeling - voer - chemische samenstelling - voedertoevoegingen - prestatieniveau - diergezondheid - piglets - soya protein - piglet feeding - antinutritional factors - diet treatment - feeds - chemical composition - feed additives - performance - animal health
Sojaschroot bevat bepaalde antinutritionele factoren (ANF's), waardoor men deze grondstof beperkt kan opnemen in voeders voor jonge biggen. Door ontvette sojaflakes een specifieke behandeling te geven is het mogelijk het ANF-gehalte te verlagen of de effecten van ANF's te verminderen, zodat een hoogwaardige eiwitbron ontstaat. Er zijn aanwijzingen in de literatuur dat speciaal behandelde soja-eiwitproducten even hoogwaardige eiwitbronnen zijn als magere melkpoeder en beter dan sojaschroot. De vervanging van weipoeder, vismeel en/of geëxtrudeerde sojabonen en sojaschroot door een bepaald behandeld soja-eiwit product leidde tot een verbeterde groei en voederconversie. Ook was er een tendens tot een betere verteerbaarheid van aminozuren en een betere beschikbaarheid van eiwit bij gebruik van dit specifieke product. In opdracht van Loders Croklaan B.V., leverancier van additieven voor de mengvoederindustrie, heeft het Praktijkonderzoek van de Animal Sciences Group onderzocht wat het effect is van drie behandelde soja-eiwitten (Soycomil P, HP300 en LodeStar ProFa) op dierprestaties en gezondheid van gespeende biggen en op de economische resultaten. Op een leeftijd van gemiddeld 4 weken zijn de biggen gespeend en ingedeeld in de proef. De biggen zijn vanaf spenen 34 dagen gevolgd. In totaal zijn 540 biggen in de proef opgelegd. Per behandeling zijn 18 herhalingen uitgevoerd.
|Recent advances of research in antinutritional factors in legume seeds and rapeseed. Proceedings of the 3rd International ANF Workshop.
Jansman, A.J.M. ; Hill, G.D. ; Huisman, J. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 1998
Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - 476
peulgewassen - zaden - raapzaad - antinutritionele factoren - voer - diervoeding - voedingsmiddelen - voeding - analytische methoden - legumes - seeds - rapeseed - antinutritional factors - feeds - animal nutrition - foods - nutrition - analytical methods
The role of the intestinal flora as affected by non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chicks
Langhout, D.J. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.W.A. Verstegen; S. Tamminga; J.B. Schutte. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789054859123 - 173
vleeskuikens - kippen - voer - viscositeit - polysacchariden - antinutritionele factoren - darmmicro-organismen - darmen - ileum - dunne darm - verteerbaarheid - pectinen - rogge - tarwe - broilers - fowls - feeds - viscosity - polysaccharides - antinutritional factors - intestinal microorganisms - intestines - ileum - small intestine - digestibility - pectins - rye - wheat
It is well established that the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) of wheat, rye and barley have anti-nutritive properties in broiler chicks. The water-soluble fraction of these NSP are assumed to be primary responsible for the anti-nutritive activity, producing depression in digestibility of nutrients and performance.
This study was undertaken to investigate the role of the intestinal microflora on the anti-nutritive properties of water-soluble NSP by using citrus pectin as model substrate. Citrus pectin is a highly fermentable NSP fraction of a viscous nature. Inclusion of high-methylated citrus pectin (HMC) in diets of young chicks resulted in a decreased nutrient digestibility and performance. This was associated with an increase of the microbial activity in the small intestine. In addition, ileal composition of the microflora and the morphology of the small intestinal wall was changed. Furthermore, degradation of conjugated bile acids was increased significantly by including HMC in the diet.
The effect of low-methylated citrus pectin (LMC) on these parameters was less pronounced than with HMC. When the HMC diet was fed to germ-free chicks, digestibility of nutrients and performance were hardly affected. It was concluded that the intestinal microflora mediates the magnitude of the anti-nutritive properties of water-soluble NSP in broiler chicks.
|Recent advances of research in antinutritional factors in legume seeds : analytical methods, animal nutrition, feed (bio)technology, plant breeding : proceedings of the second international workshop on 'antinutritional factors (ANFs) in legume seeds', Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1-3 December 1993
Poel, A.F.B. van der; Huisman, J. ; Saini, H.S. - \ 1993
Wageningen : Wageningen Pers (EAAP publication 70) - ISBN 9789074134088 - 549
voederpeulvruchten - zaden - voer - diervoeding - voedertechnologie - antinutritionele factoren - plantenveredeling - fodder legumes - seeds - feeds - animal nutrition - feed technology - antinutritional factors - plant breeding
Recent advances of research in antinutritional factors in legume seeds. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Antinutritional Factors (ANF) in Legume seeds.
Huisman, J. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Liener, I.E. - \ 1989
Wageningen : Pudoc - ISBN 9789022009796 - 389
voederpeulvruchten - zaden - voer - diervoeding - voedertechnologie - antinutritionele factoren - plantenveredeling - fodder legumes - seeds - feeds - animal nutrition - feed technology - antinutritional factors - plant breeding