Acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos to embryo and larvae of banded gourami Trichogaster fasciata
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Saha, Sampa ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Bosma, Roel H. ; Rashid, Harunur - \ 2017
Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides Food Contaminants, and agricultural wastes 52 (2017)2. - ISSN 0360-1234 - p. 92 - 98.
aquatic environment - banded gourami - developmental toxicity - malformation - Organophosphorous pesticide
This study elucidated the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stages of banded gourami (Trichogaster fasciata). To determine the acute effects of chlorpyrifos on their survival and development, we exposedthe embryos and two-day-old larvae to six concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 100 µg L−1) of chlorpyrifos in plastic bowls. Log-logistic regression was used to calculate LC10 and LC50 values. Results showed that embryo mortality significantly increased with increasing chlorpyrifos concentrations. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of chlorpyrifos for embryos were 0.89 (0.50–1.58) and 11.8 (9.12–15.4) µg L−1, respectively. Hatching success decreased and mortality of larvae significantly increased with increasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos. The 24-h LC10 and LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of chlorpyrifos for larvae were 0.53 (0.27–1.06) and 21.7 (15.9–29.4) µg L−1, respectively; the 48-h LC10 and LC50 for larvae were 0.04 (0.02–0.09) and 5.47 (3.77–7.94) µg L−1, respectively. The results of this study suggest that 1 µg L−1 of chlorpyrifos in the aquatic environment may adversely affect the development and the reproduction of banded gourami. Our study also suggests that banded gourami fish can serve as an ideal model species for evaluating developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants.
Herstel en ontwikkeling van laagdynamische, aquatische systemen in het rivierengebied
Arts, Gertie ; Verdonschot, Ralf ; Maas, Gilbert ; Massop, Harry ; Ottburg, Fabrice ; Weeda, Eddy - \ 2016
Driebergen : Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren, VBNE (Alterra-rapport 2729) - 128
aquatische ecosystemen - aquatisch milieu - ecologisch herstel - rivierengebied - nederland - aquatic ecosystems - aquatic environment - ecological restoration - rivierengebied - netherlands
Na een inleiding (Hoofdstuk 1) beschrijft het rapport achtereenvolgens de macro-evertebraten (Hoofdstuk 2); de vissen, amfibieën en reptielen (Hoofdstuk 3); en de waterplanten van het rivierengebied (Hoofdstuk 4). Hoofdstuk 5 beschrijft de uitgevoerde GIS analyse en presenteert de resultaten en de kansenkaarten. Alle gegenereerde kaarten zijn opgenomen in twee bijlagerapporten. Hoofdstuk 6 geeft een discussie van het uitgevoerde onderzoek ten aanzien van de methode, de beschikbare gegevens en de analyse en plaatst de resultaten in het licht van uitgevoerde herstelmaatregelen in het rivierengebied. Hoofdstuk 7 vat de voornaamste conclusies samen. Hoofdstuk 8 geeft een overzicht van de gebruikte literatuur.
The neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic systems : analysis, occurrence and effects
Faassen, E.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Miguel Lurling. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577855 - 194
cum laude - neurotoxins - aquatic environment - urban areas - effects - environmental impact - daphnia magna - elisa - water quality - analytical methods - aquatic ecology - neurotoxinen - aquatisch milieu - stedelijke gebieden - effecten - milieueffect - daphnia magna - elisa - waterkwaliteit - analytische methoden - aquatische ecologie
Eutrophication is a major water quality issue and in many aquatic systems, it leads to the proliferation of toxic phytoplankton species. The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is one of the compounds that can be present in phytoplankton. BMAA has been suggested to play a role in the neurodegenerative diseases Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, although this hypothesis still needs to be confirmed. It is expected that the main human exposure pathways to BMAA are through direct contact with BMAA containing phytoplankton and through ingestion of BMAA contaminated food, such as fish and shellfish. However, reports on the occurrence of BMAA in aquatic systems have been conflicting and the cause of these reported differences was heavily debated. The use of different analytical methods seems to play a crucial role in the observed discrepancies, but initially, there was little consensus on which method produced most reliable results. The objectives of the work presented in this thesis therefore were to find out what has caused the differences in published results on BMAA concentrations, and to identify and produce reliable data on the presence of BMAA in aquatic systems. In addition, I aimed to determine the effect of BMAA exposure on a key species in many freshwater ecosystems, the grazer Daphnia magna.
The performances of different analytical techniques were compared, and LC-MS/MS analysis, either preceded by derivatisation or not, was found to produce most reliable results. LC-FLD and ELISA should not be used for BMAA analysis, as both methods risk misidentifying BMAA or overestimating its concentrations due to their low selectivity. When reviewing literature on the presence of BMAA in aquatic systems, it was found that the observed discrepancies in results could be explained by the use of unselective analytical methods in some studies, and by severe reporting deficiencies in others. When only studies that used appropriate analytical techniques and that correctly reported their work were taken into account, it was shown that BMAA could be present in phytoplankton and higher aquatic organisms, in concentrations of µg/g dry weight or lower. These results are in agreement with our findings of BMAA in cyanobacterial scums from Dutch urban waters. In a 2008 screening, BMAA was found to be present in 9 out of 21 analysed cyanobacterial scums, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 42 µg/g dry weight. When this screening was repeated 8 years later with 52 similar samples, BMAA was detected below the quantification limit in one sample and quantified in another sample at 0.6 µg/g dry weight.
In order to perform the work presented in this thesis, sensitive and selective analytical methods, mostly based on LC-MS/MS analysis without derivatisation, were developed. This resulted in a standard operating procedure for the underivatised LC-MS/MS analysis of BMAA in cyanobacteria. Also, a CYANOCOST initiated workshop was given, in which a group of scientists from 17 independent laboratories evaluated LC-MS/MS based methods in different matrices. A bound BMAA from found in the supernatant was the most abundant fraction in the positive samples that were tested: cycad seed, seafood and exposed D. magna. In addition, it was found that the deuterated internal standard used for quantification was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms, resulting in unprecise quantification of total BMAA.
BMAA was found to reduce survival, somatic growth, reproduction and population growth in D. magna. Animals did not adapt to BMAA exposure: exposed animals born from exposed mothers had a lower brood viability and neonate weight than animals exposed to BMAA, but born from unexposed mothers. In addition, D. magna was shown to take up BMAA from the growth medium and to transfer it to its offspring. D. magna therefore might be an important vector for BMAA transfer along the pelagic food chain, but whether BMAA plays a role in preventing zooplankton from controlling cyanobacterial blooms needs further investigation.
Although BMAA research has much progressed between the start of this thesis’ work and its completion, some important questions still require an answer. Most urgently, it should be determined whether BMAA is indeed involved in the neurological diseases mentioned above, and if so, which doses trigger the onset of these diseases. Human exposure pathways should then be more systematically quantified, and it might be prudent to investigate if the occurrence of BMAA is restricted to aquatic systems, or whether sources from terrestrial systems contribute to BMAA exposure as well.
Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions
Gils, J.A.G. ; Coppens, L.J.C. ; Laak, T.L. ter; Raterman, B.W. ; Wezel, A.P. van - \ 2015
Water Research 81 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 356 - 365.
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - geneesmiddelen - oppervlaktewater - inventarisaties - nederland - waste water treatment - water treatment - drugs - surface water - inventories - netherlands - personal care products - endocrine disrupting compounds - organic persistent pollutants - health-risk assessment - municipal waste-water - aquatic environment - drinking-water - climate-change - transformation products - continental-scale
For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.
Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency
Laak, T.L. ter; Kooij, P.J.F. ; Tolkamp, H. ; Hofman, J. - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014)22. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 12843 - 12855.
waste-water treatment - personal care products - treatment plants - environmental concentrations - transformation products - aquatic environment - risk-assessment - drinking-water - removal - fate
In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments. In total, 23 pharmaceuticals and 13 transformation products were observed in samples of river water collected from these rivers. Observed summed concentrations of pharmaceuticals and transformation products in river water ranged from 3.5 to 37.8 µg/L. Metformin and its transformation product guanylurea contributed with 53 to 80 % to this concentration, illustrating its importance on a mass basis. Data on the flow rate of different rivers and demographics of the catchments enabled us to calculate daily per capita loads of pharmaceuticals and transformation products. These loads were linked to sales data of pharmaceuticals in the catchment. Simple mass balance modelling accounting for human excretion and removal by sewage treatment plants revealed that sales could predict actual loads within a factor of 3 for most pharmaceuticals. Rivers that originated from Belgian and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments revealed significantly higher per capita loads of pharmaceuticals (16.0¿±¿2.3 and 15.7¿±¿2.1 mg/inhabitant/day, respectively) than the Dutch catchment (8.7¿±¿1.8 mg/inhabitant/day). Furthermore, the guanylurea/metformin ratio was significantly lower in waters originating from Belgium (and France) than in those from the Netherlands, illustrating that sewage treatment in the Belgian catchment is less efficient in transforming metformin into guanylurea. In summary, the current study shows that consumption-based modelling is suitable to predict environmental loads and concentrations. Furthermore, different consumption patterns and wastewater treatment efficiency are clearly reflected in the occurrence and loads of pharmaceuticals in regional rivers.
Implications of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment
Velzeboer, I. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bart Koelmans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739506 - 253
microplastics - polychloorbifenylen - nanotechnologie - adsorptie - ecotoxicologie - aquatisch milieu - verontreinigde sedimenten - aquatische ecologie - microplastics - polychlorinated biphenyls - nanotechnology - adsorption - ecotoxicology - aquatic environment - contaminated sediments - aquatic ecology
De productie en het gebruik van synthetische nanodeeltjes (ENPs) nemen toe en veroorzaken toenemende emissies naar het milieu. Dit proefschrift richt zich op de implicaties van ENPs in het aquatisch milieu, met de nadruk op het sediment, omdat er wordt verwacht dat ENPs hoofdzakelijk in het aquatisch sediment terecht zullen komen. ENPs kunnen directe effecten veroorzaken op organismen in het aquatisch milieu, indirecte effecten op het levensgemeenschap niveau en/of voedselweb en kunnen effecten op het gedrag en de risico’s van andere contaminanten hebben. Om de risico’s van ENPs vast te stellen, is niet alleen informatie nodig over het gevaar, oftewel de kans op een effect, maar ook over de kans op blootstelling.
Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells: Long-Term Metal(loid) Leaching at Their End-of-Life
Zimmermann, Y.S. ; Schäffer, A. ; Corvini, P.F.X. ; Lenz, M. - \ 2013
Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013)22. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 13151 - 13159.
heterojunction solar-cells - daphnia-magna - comparative toxicity - aquatic environment - selenium toxicity - bulk zno - water - cadmium - health - fate
The photovoltaic effect of thin-film copper indium gallium selenide cells (CIGS) is conferred by the latter elements. Organic photovoltaic cells (OPV), relying on organic light-absorbing molecules, also contain a variety of metals (e.g., Zn, Al, In, Sn, Ag). The environmental impact of such technologies is largely unknown, in particular when the physical integrity deteriorates upon end-of-life, possibly facilitating cell constituent leaching. This study analyzed long-term inorganic leaching from damaged OPV and CIGS into different model waters. Leachate concentrations were put into perspective by calculating the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for several scenarios. Roof-top acidic rain runoff from CIGS was found to be the predominant emission source for metals and metalloids, with Cd released to such extents that PEC (173.4 µg Cd L–1) would considerably exceed acute toxicity concentrations for Daphnia magna. Other PEC for CIGS (9.9 mg Mo L–
Microbial Removal of the Pharmaceutical Compounds Ibuprofen and Diclofenac from Wastewater
Langenhoff, A.A.M. ; Inderfurth, N.S. ; Veuskens, T. ; Schraa, G. ; Blokland, M. ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2013
BioMed Research International 2013 (2013). - ISSN 2314-6133 - 9
biodegradatie - geneesmiddelen - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - bioremediëring - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - verwijdering - oppervlaktewater - geneesmiddelenresiduen - biodegradation - drugs - waste water - waste water treatment - bioremediation - waste water treatment plants - removal - surface water - drug residues - personal care products - activated carbon - batch experiments - aquatic environment - metabolites - systems - sludge - acid - transformation
Studies on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals show that the widely used pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and diclofenac are present in relevant concentrations in the environment. A pilot plant treating hospital wastewater with relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals was evaluated for its performance to reduce the concentration of the pharmaceuticals. Ibuprofen was completely removed, whereas diclofenac yielded a residual concentration, showing the necessity of posttreatment to remove diclofenac, for example, activated carbon. Successively, detailed laboratory experiments with activated sludge from the same wastewater treatment plant showed bioremediation potential in the treatment plant. The biological degradation pathway was studied and showed a mineralisation of ibuprofen and degradation of diclofenac. The present microbes were further studied in laboratory experiments, and DGGE analyses showed the enrichment and isolation of highly purified cultures that degraded either ibuprofen or diclofenac. This research illuminates the importance of the involved bacteria for the effectiveness of the removal of pharmaceuticals in a wastewater treatment plant. A complete removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater will stimulate water reuse, addressing the worldwide increasing demand for clean and safe fresh water.
Towards a predictive model supporting coral reef management of Bonaire's coral reef. Progress report 2012
Meesters, H.W.G. ; Brinkman, A.G. ; Duyl, F.C. van; Gerla, D.J. ; Groot, A.V. de; Meer, J. van der; Ruardij, P. ; Vries, P. de - \ 2013
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C070/13) - 10
coral reefs - models - environmental management - aquatic environment - bonaire - koraalriffen - modellen - milieubeheer - aquatisch milieu - bonaire
Speciation analysis of aqueous nanoparticulate diclofenac complexes by solid-phase microextraction
Zielinska, K. ; Leeuwen, H.P. van; Thibault, S. ; Town, R.M. - \ 2012
Langmuir 28 (2012)41. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 14672 - 14680.
bovine serum-albumin - walled carbon nanotubes - drug binding-sites - capillary-electrophoresis - aquatic environment - antiinflammatory drugs - mass-spectrometry - metal-complexes - water samples - nd-spme
The dynamic sorption of an organic compound by nanoparticles (NPs) is analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the example case of the pharmaceutical diclofenac in dispersions of impermeable (silica, SiO(2)) and permeable (bovine serum albumin, BSA) NPs. It is shown that only the protonated neutral form of diclofenac is accumulated in the solid phase, and hence this species governs the eventual partition equilibrium. On the other hand, the rate of the solid/water partition equilibration is enhanced in the presence of the sorbing nanoparticles of SiO(2) and BSA. This feature demonstrates that the NPs themselves do not enter the solid phase to any appreciable extent. The enhanced rate of attainment of equilibrium is due to a shuttle-type of contribution from the NP-species to the diffusive supply of diclofenac to the water/solid interface. For both types of nanoparticulate complexes, the rate constant for desorption (k(des)) of bound diclofenac was derived from the measured thermodynamic affinity constant and a diffusion-limited rate of adsorption. The computed k(des) values were found to be sufficiently high to render the NP-bound species labile on the effective time scale of SPME. In agreement with theoretical prediction, the experimental results are quantitatively described by fully labile behavior of the diclofenac/nanoparticle system and an ensuing accumulation rate controlled by the coupled diffusion of neutral, deprotonated, and NP-bound diclofenac species.
Use of chemicals and biological products in Asian aquacultire and their potential environmental risks: a critical review
Rico, A. ; Satapornvanit, K. ; Haque, M.M. ; Min, J. ; Nguyen, P.T. ; Telfer, T. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2012
Reviews in Aquaculture 4 (2012)2. - ISSN 1753-5123 - p. 75 - 93.
species sensitivity distributions - fresh-water - macrobrachium-rosenbergii - veterinary antibiotics - aquatic environment - malachite green - mangrove areas - shrimp ponds - toxicity - fish
Over the past few decades, Asian aquaculture production has intensified rapidly through the adoption of technological advances, and the use of a wide array of chemical and biological products to control sediment and water quality and to treat and prevent disease outbreaks. The use of chemicals in aquaculture farms has raised environmental concerns owing to their potential impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Currently little is known about the environmental fate and effects of the chemicals used in Asian aquaculture. Consequently, we reviewed recent information on the use of chemical and biological products in the most important Asian aquaculture producing countries and briefly summarize their main potential environmental impacts. We provide an overview of the main factors controlling the use of these chemicals and describe the international risk assessment guidelines available for aquaculture chemicals. Finally, data gaps and research needs for their implementation in Asian countries are discussed. Our review aims to form a basis for developing environmental risk assessment studies of the chemicals used in Asian aquaculture.
Pulsvissen rendabel en milieuvriendelijker
Taal, C. - \ 2012
Kennis Online 9 (2012)april. - p. 6 - 6.
pulsvisserij - vismethoden - visserij - pleuronectiformes - aquatisch milieu - pulse trawling - fishing methods - fisheries - pleuronectiformes - aquatic environment
Onderzoek van IMARES, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, laat zien dat het vissen op platvis met pulsen in plaats van wekkerkettingen het bodemleven met de helft minder verstoort. Ook is het beter voor de portemonnee van de vissers.
|Gewapende vrede : beschouwingen over plant-dierrelaties
Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Weeda, E.J. - \ 2011
Zeist : KNNV uitgeverij (Vegetatiekundige Monografieën 3) - ISBN 9789050113526 - 191
plant-dier interacties - dieren - planten - ecologie - vogels - lepidoptera - biocenose - aquatisch milieu - terrestrische ecologie - plant-animal interactions - animals - plants - ecology - birds - lepidoptera - biocoenosis - aquatic environment - terrestrial ecology
Planten en dieren hebben elkaar nodig, maar staan ook op gespannen voet met elkaar. Dieren worden door planten aangetrokken voor bestuiving en het verspreiden van zaden, maar tegelijkertijd moeten deze laatste zich beschermen tegen overmatige vraat en fysiek geweld. Daarover gaat dit boek, een reeks beschouwingen over het fascinerende samenspel van plant en dier in de natuur. Aan bod komen onderwerpen als de relaties tussen een enkele plantensoort en zijn dierlijke partners, het functioneren van levensgemeenschappen in water of op land en de co-evolutie van grassen en grazers. Is er nog toekomst voor weidevogels in ons land en wat zal het effect zijn van klimaatverandering op onze dagvlinders? Welke methoden staan de bioloog ter beschikking om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in de samenhang tussen vegetatie en de daarvan afhankelijke fauna?
Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen romoval by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water
Graaff, M.S. de; Vieno, N.M. ; Kujawa, K. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
Water Research 45 (2011)1. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 375 - 383.
sewage-treatment plants - personal care products - waste-water - activated-sludge - aquatic environment - musk fragrances - surface waters - estrogens - antibiotics - behavior
Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (mu g/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical hormones) and pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, cetirizine, doxycycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and diclofenac) in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water followed by nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox was investigated. A new analytical method was developed to detect the presence of several compounds in the complex matrix of concentrated black water. Detected concentrations in black water ranged from 1.1 mu g/L for carbamazepine to >1000 mu g/L for paracetamol. Anaerobic treatment was only suitable to remove the majority of paracetamol (>90%). Metoprolol was partly removed (67%) during aerobic treatment. Deconjugation could have affected the removal efficiency of ibuprofen as concentrations even increased during anaerobic treatment and only after the anammox treatment 77% of ibuprofen was removed. The presence of persistent micro-pollutants (diclofenac, carbamazepine and cetirizine), which are not susceptible for biodegradation, makes the application of advanced physical and chemical treatment unavoidable. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Een verkenning naar de natuurwaarden van de Zeeuwse Banken
Goudswaard, P.C. ; Bemmelen, R.S.A. van; Bos, O.G. - \ 2011
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C061a/10) - 40
mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - kustgebieden - aquatisch milieu - natuurwaarde - natura 2000 - natuurbeleid - voordelta - marine areas - marine ecology - coastal areas - aquatic environment - natural value - natura 2000 - nature conservation policy - voordelta
Het gebied van de Zeeuwse Banken in Nederland is een onderdeel van een grotere geologische formatie die zich uitstrekt van de Franse Kanaal / Noordzeekust via het Belgische kustgebied tot in Nederland. Het Nederlandse deel van dit systeem loopt vanaf de Belgisch Nederlandse zeegrens in het zuidwesten en eindigt naar het noordoosten ter hoogte van de Kop van Goeree. Het gebied Zeeuwse Banken kwalificeert zich onder de habitatrichtlijn als type H1110 met een eigen karakteristiek buiten de directe kustzone waarin twee aansluitende Natura 2000 gebieden liggen: de Voordelta en de Vlakte van de Raan. Om tot een besluit over de aanwijzing van het gebied van de Zeeuwse Banken als aanvullend beschermd gebied te komen is met name kennis over de natuurwaarden van bodem, bodemfauna en vogels gevraagd. Daarbij is de vraag in hoeverre deze gebieden bijdragen aan meerwaarde ten opzichte van het totale te beschermen areaal.
Comparing the sensitivity of algal, cyanobacterial and bacterial bioassays to different groups of antibiotics
Grinten, E. van der; Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Brandhof, E.J. Van den; Stroomberg, G.J. ; Kraak, M.H.S. - \ 2010
Chemosphere 80 (2010)1. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 1 - 6.
tandem mass-spectrometry - environmental risk-assessment - aquatic environment - waste-water - fluoroquinolone antibiotics - antibacterial agents - antimicrobial agents - treatment plants - ecotoxicity test - vibrio-fischeri
Antibiotics may affect both primary producers and decomposers, potentially disrupting ecosystem processes. Hence, it is essential to assess the impact of antibiotics on aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the potential of a recently developed test for detecting antibiotics in animal tissue, the Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT), as a sensitive bioassay to assess the effects of antibiotics in water. To this purpose, we determined the toxicity of sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, flumequine, tylosin, streptomycin, and oxytetracycline, using the NAT adapted for water exposure. The sensitivity of the NAT was compared to that of bioassays with bacteria (Microtox), cyanobacteria and green algae. In the Microtox test with Vibrio fischeri as test organism, no effects were observed for any of the test compounds. For three of the six antibiotics tested, the cyanobacteria were more vulnerable than the green algae when using photosynthetic efficiency as an endpoint. The lowest EC50 values for four out of six tested antibiotics were obtained using the NAT bacterial bioassay. The bacterial plate system responded to antibiotics at concentrations in the mu g L-1 and lower mg L-1 range and, moreover, each plate proved to be specifically sensitive to the antibiotics group it was designed for. It is concluded that the NAT bioassay adapted for water exposure is a sensitive test to determine the presence of antibiotics in water. The ability of this test to distinguish five major antibiotic groups is a very strong additional value.
Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems
Hernandez Leal, L. ; Vieno, N. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
Environmental Science and Technology 44 (2010)17. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 6835 - 6842.
personal-care products - tandem mass-spectrometry - solid-phase extraction - waste-water - uv filters - aquatic environment - polycyclic musks - in-vitro - estrogenic activity - treatment plants
Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic + aerobic). All selected xenobiotics were detected in gray water samples in the low µg L-1 range. Generally, lower concentrations were measured after biological treatment and removal efficiencies were higher under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions. However, most of the xenobiotics were still detected in biologically treated gray water. The most persistent compounds were the fragrance tonalide and the UV-filters 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. Estimated estrogenic potential of the effluent ranged between 0.07 and 0.72 ng L-1 of 17ß-estradiol equivalents. Depending on the application of the effluent and its environmental risk, physical-chemical processes might be required to increase the removal efficiency of these compounds from gray water
Reduction of protein adsorption on silica and polysulfone surfaces coated with complex coacervate core micelles with poly(vinyl alcohol) as a neutral brush forming block
Brzozowska, A.M. ; Zhang, Q. ; Keizer, A. de; Norde, W. ; Cohen Stuart, M.A. - \ 2010
Colloids and Surfaces. A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 368 (2010)1-3. - ISSN 0927-7757 - p. 96 - 104.
bovine serum-albumin - polyelectrolyte multilayers - ultrafiltration membranes - poly(ethylene glycol) - polyvinyl pyridine - aqueous-solution - assembled monolayers - aquatic environment - organic pollutants - polymeric micelles
We have studied the formation and stability of complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) in solution, and the influence of C3M coatings on the adsorption of the proteins ß-lactoglobulin (ß-lac), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lysozyme (Lsz) on silica and polysulfone surfaces. The C3Ms consist of a block copolymer PAA50-65-b-PVA445 (poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(vinyl alcohol)), with a neutral PVA block, and the positively charged homopolymers: P2MVPI (poly(N-methyl 2-vinyl pyridinium iodide), or PAH·HCl (poly(allylamine hydrochloride)). In solution at pH 7 these micelles disintegrate if the salt concentration exceeds 100 mM NaCl. Adsorption of C3Ms and proteins was studied by fixed angle optical reflectometry at salt concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 mM NaCl. C3M consisting of PAH·HCl strongly suppresses protein adsorption on silica, also at low salt concentration. However, at high salt concentrations it enhances adsorption of BSA on hydrophobic polysulfone, probably due to the formation of complexes between BSA and PAH·HCl. Much smaller reduction of protein adsorption on silica and polysulfone was obtained by C3Ms consisting of P2MVPI.. In this case the effectiveness of the coating strongly depends on the type of protein. On polysulfone at 50 mM NaCl we have observed only reduction of Lsz adsorption whereas adsorption of the negatively charged proteins is enhanced rather than reduced by the coating. We relate the results obtained for C3M with P2MVPI to the low density of the PVA chains on the surfaces, partial segregation of polymer chains within coacervate layer, and penetration of the adsorbed layer by the proteins.
Verkennend onderzoek naar blauwalgengroei in de woonomgeving : blauwalgen in stadswater
Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Oosterhout, J.F.X. ; Beekman-Lukassen, W.D. ; Dam, H. van - \ 2010
Amersfoort : Stowa (Rapport / STOWA 2010 20) - ISBN 9789057734830 - 57
oppervlaktewater - plassen - stedelijke gebieden - aquatisch milieu - cyanobacteriën - monitoring - inventarisaties - kwantitatieve analyse - fluorescentie - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - noord-brabant - gelderland - surface water - ponds - urban areas - aquatic environment - cyanobacteria - monitoring - inventories - quantitative analysis - fluorescence - surface water quality - noord-brabant - gelderland
De leerstoelgroep Aquatische Ecologie en Waterkwaliteitsbeheer van Wageningen University is in 2006 begonnen met een inventarisatie van cyanobacteriënbloei in stedelijk water. De hoeveelheid cyanobacteriën, de soortensamenstelling, het voorkomen van drijflagen, de hoeveelheid gifstoffen en een aantal milieuvariabelen werden in kaart gebracht. Om een eerste indruk te verkrijgen van de cyanobacteriënbloei in oppervlaktewater in de woonomgeving, is in de zomer van 2006 (juli, augustus) een kleine selectie van 50 verschillende stadswateren in Noord-Brabant en Gelderland bemonsterd. Twee vijvers zijn gedurende 2006 intensiever bemonsterd om een indruk te verkrijgen van het verloop van de cyanobacteriënbloei in deze vijvers. De cyanobacteriën werden gekwantificeerd en onderscheiden van eukaryote algen met behulp van in vivo chlorofyl-a fluorescentie.
Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides
Brock, T.C.M. ; Alix, A. ; Brown, C.D. ; Capri, E. ; Gottesburen, E. - \ 2010
Boca Raton, London, New York : SETAC Press & CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9781439813478 - 440
pesticiden - risicoschatting - blootstelling - aquatisch milieu - toxicologie - ecotoxicologie - pesticides - risk assessment - exposure - aquatic environment - toxicology - ecotoxicology
Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for pesticides. This book provides guidance and recommendations for linking aquatic exposure and ecotoxicological effects in the environmental assessment of agricultural pesticides. International scientists share their expertise in aquatic exposure assessment, aquatic ecotoxicology, and the risk assessment and management of plant protection products. The book incorporates the tools and approaches currently available for assessing the environmental risks of time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides. It also discusses the science behind these techniques.