Marine communities : governing oil & gas activities and cruise tourism in the Arctic and the Caribbean
Bets, Linde K.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.P.M. van Tatenhove; A.P.J. Mol, co-promotor(en): M.A.J. Lamers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436571 - 207
oil and gas industry - oil spills - governance - international tourism - pollution by tourism - tourism impact - marine areas - marine environment - water pollution - environmental policy - caribbean - caribbean sea - arctic ocean - arctic regions - olie- en gasindustrie - olieverontreinigingen - governance - internationaal toerisme - verontreiniging door toerisme - impact van toerisme - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - milieubeleid - caribisch gebied - caribische zee - noordelijke ijszee - arctische gebieden
Oceans and seas are among the most ecologically vital and socio-economically important systems on the planet. Despite the acknowledged pristine nature of the marine environment, there is a growing interest in exploring the sea for human use such as offshore wind production, extraction of sand, oil and gas, deep sea mining, gene mining and aquaculture. This is the result of, among other things, the food and energy needs of the growing world population, globalisation processes and technological innovation. This intensified use of the sea has led to new governance initiatives to address the resulting environmental effects and risks for the marine environment.
Actors involved in governing maritime activities are not necessarily located in the same geographical place and may not even be in direct contact, but they increasingly interact through global and transnational institutions or networks. Globalisation results in communities characterised by the interplay between territorially defined actors (e.g. national states, port agencies and island communities) and less territorially defined actors (e.g. mobile and transnational industries). The community literature conceptualises communities as small spatial units, homogenous social structures or sets of shared norms. These conceptualisation of communities provide insufficient insights in the type of community involved in environmental governance of maritime activities.
This thesis, therefore, presents the marine community concept as a new analytical lens for studying environmental governance of maritime activities. A marine community is a community of socio-economic and policy actors and institutions organised around a certain maritime activity that influences or will be affected by the (marine) ecosystem in which the activity occurs.
The aim of this PhD thesis is twofold: first, to understand environmental governance of maritime activities by different marine communities, and second, to understand how different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community.
The central research question is: How can the marine community concept enrich our understanding of environmental governance of maritime activities in distinct maritime settings?
1. How are marine communities organised to govern environmental problems in different sectoral and geographical settings?
2. How do marine communities develop in relation to various institutional settings, and how do different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community?
A case study methodology and cross-case comparative analysis were chosen to study the research question. The selection of cases is based on two distinct marine regions (the Caribbean Netherlands and the European Arctic) and two different maritime activities (cruise tourism and oil & gas activities). The case studies are investigated through the collection of primary data from semi- structured interviews and (participatory) observations, supplemented with secondary data from literature, policy documents, social media, and newspapers.
Chapter 2 illustrates how the marine community of liquefied natural gas production in Hammerfest transforms from a local fisheries marine community into an international oil and gas marine community in Northern Norway, driven by a discourse on economic growth. This is implemented through a strong institutional coalition between the Norwegian State and Statoil in which both actors participate in the user and policy community. Although non-governmental organisations, Sámi indigenous people, fisheries and local inhabitants of Hammerfest engage in strategic and oppositional coalitions to strive for environmental and community development related to liquefied natural gas production, the success of these coalitions is constrained by centralised decision-making by the institutional coalition.
Chapter 3 illustrates the institutional change in the marine community of oil transhipment at St. Eustatius. Since 2010, St. Eustatius is a special municipality of the Netherlands, and since 2015, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & Environment, instead of the island government, is responsible for the environmental management of the oil terminal at St. Eustatius. The Dutch Ministry relies on Dutch and European standards for environmental management, which deviate from the standards of small islands. This structural power change, however, is not perceived as legitimate by part of the local population of St. Eustatius. This chapter analyses the reversal of the existing power relationships from strong intertwinement of the user and policy community, stereotypical of small island developing states, to the user and policy community drifting apart.
In Chapter 4, the marine community of cruise tourism at Bonaire is situated between the transnational cruise network and the local tourism industry of Bonaire. This case study analyses how two interconnected flows of cruise ships and passengers are governed by this transnational-local interplay. An important conclusion is that the transnational cruise ship flow increasingly determines the local cruise passenger flow at Bonaire. As a result, the marine community, and the user community especially, increasingly connects and adapts to the requirements of the transnational cruise network.
Chapter 5 analyses the changes in the marine community of expedition cruise tourism at Svalbard changes because of the establishment of the self-governing Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators. Collective self-governance complements regulation by the Norwegian government through the implementation of an industry code of conduct and providing access to knowledge and information, such as statistical information and a track-and-trace system for cruise ships. At the same time, the demanding information generation and provision of collective self-governance creates distance between the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators and the Governor of Svalbard in the policy community and the expedition crew in the user community. Information generation and provision becomes a challenge for sustainable cruise tourism. Once information provision requires too much time and resources, self-interest is prioritised over collective interest.
In Chapter 6 the conclusions of the thesis are drawn, based on the cross-case comparative analysis. First, the comparison of environmental governance illustrates the use of different problem-solving styles in marine regions. The islands of Bonaire and St. Eustatius (in the Caribbean Netherlands) are eager for short- term economic growth. The lack of a strong government results in a curative problem-solving style in relation to urgent environmental problems. In the European Arctic the activities are more recent. Governance, therefore, attempts to prevent problems through stakeholder involvement and informed decision-making. Second, the analysis shows that environmental governance of maritime activities depends upon the mobility of the maritime activity and consequently the level at which regulations are developed and implemented. A difference is observed between governing through transnational regulations predominantly by the user community for cruise tourism and governing through territory-bound regulations predominantly by the policy community for oil and gas.
In the second part of the conclusion, marine communities as a governance arrangement is discussed in relation to theories on governance modes and shifts, policy styles and mobilities. In the first place, changes in governance modes illustrate a shift towards more contemporary modes, such as open co-governance and self-governance, with St. Eustatius being the exception because of its political situation. In this thesis the complexity of governance is further structured according to two analytical dimensions: the governance style, ranging from reactive to proactive, and the governance process, which distinguishes governance of the marine community from governance through the marine community. In the analysis it becomes clear that the spatial scale of the maritime activity is crucial as it defines the mobility of the activity and the marine community. Therefore, the thesis concludes that the maritime activity has a larger influence on environmental governance than the marine region. The chapter ends with methodological reflections, future research and policy implications for the new concept of marine community.
A clash of plants : Vegetation succession and its interaction with permafrost dynamics in the Arctic lowland tundra
Li, Bingxi - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Berendse, co-promotor(en): M.M.P.D. Heijmans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436168 - 100
ecological succession - ecology - plant succession - vegetation - tundra - permafrost - lowland areas - arctic regions - siberia - ecologische successie - ecologie - plantensuccessie - vegetatie - toendra - permafrost - laaglandgebieden - arctische gebieden - siberië
Arctic ecosystems have been affected by severe climate change during the last decades. The increase in temperature in the Arctic has been almost double of the global rate of warming since the beginning of the 20th century. Like other ecosystems in the high latitude region, Arctic tundra appears to be extremely sensitive to the continuous warming of the past decades, which has led to dramatic vegetation changes such as rapid shrub expansion. While researchers are keen to talk about the shrubification of the Arctic tundra, there has been rather little attention for alternative vegetation shifts, such as those related to local permafrost collapse in lowland tundra. The general vegetation succession route of the ice-rich lowland tundra ecosystem is yet largely unknown. Therefore, we choose a typical Arctic lowland site (Kytalyk natural reserve) in the Northeastern Siberia to explore how vegetation is changing in this ecosystem, and how changes in the abiotic environment and vegetation succession interact.
On the basis of field observations I assumed that the plant species composition of each vegetation patch at the study site changes continuously following cycles over time. To test this assumption, two multiple-year field experiments (Chapter 2 and Chapter 3) were carried out. In addition, we applied dendrochronological techniques (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5) and molecular tools (Chapter 4). On the basis of the results of these studies, I depicted a complete vegetation succession loop in the Arctic lowland tundra, which is closely related to the dynamics of the permafrost. In this vegetation succession loop, four stages with distinctive vegetation types have been identified.
The Betula nana L. shrubs mainly dominate the well-drained elevated areas. In a field experiment, removal of B. nana shrubs resulted in abrupt permafrost degradation, rapid soil moisture increase and invasion of the grass species Arctagrostis latifolia (R. Br.) Griseb. After a short time period, when small ponds or drainages had developed, this fast-responding grass species is replaced by Eriophorum sedges. In the subsequent stage the Sphagnum mosses invade the sedge vegetation. The new Sphagnum moss carpets not only suppress the growth of Eriophorum sedges, but also create moist but unsaturated substrates that appear to be appropriate for the germination of B. nana seeds. These conditions provide new opportunities for B. nana shrubs to establish.
The reproduction mode of B. nana at the study site has been studied using molecular tools (micro- satellites), as it may explain how existing B. nana patches developed and how shrub vegetation may expand in the future (Chapter 4). The conventional point of view is that sexual reproduction of perennial plants in the Arctic tundra, like B. nana, is rare due to the pressure of the harsh environment. However, the results of our molecular study (Chapter 4) tell a different story. While vegetative reproduction of B. nana is common, sexual reproduction of B. nana is more prevalent. Seed dispersal of B. nana between different patches at the study site is not hampered by the short between-patch distances, but vegetative reproduction of B. nana appeared to be restricted to 1-2 m distances from the parent plants.
The influences of the climate on B. nana shrubs were further investigated using the dendrochronological analyses (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5). The radial growth of B. nana is positively correlated with early summer temperature, while relatively high summer precipitation during the warm years also stimulates the growth of B. nana. Moreover, sufficient summer precipitation facilitates the establishment of B. nana seedlings. Since sexual reproduction is prevalent at the site, it is suggested that the present B. nana shrubs established simultaneously, during periods with suitable climate conditions.
Along with the vegetation succession cycles, permafrost underlying the vegetation experiences clear degradation-recovery cycles. We detected a close interaction between vegetation shifts and permafrost dynamics. While abrupt permafrost degradation drove a quick vegetation shift from the B. nana dominated stage to the water-logged Eriophorum sedge dominate stage, the changes of vegetation cover affect the stability of the permafrost as well. The removal of B. nana shrub cover triggered rapid permafrost degradation (Chapter 2), while the development of Sphagnum moss carpets, which have a high isolation capacity, reduced permafrost temperature, facilitating permafrost recovery (Chapter 3).
Vegetation composition in the Arctic tundra not only influences permafrost stability, but also affects the methane emission of the site. Eriophorum sedges are able to transport methane from deep soil to the air via their aerenchyma tissues, leading to high methane fluxes. In contrast, the Sphagnum mosses significantly suppress the methane emission, since endophytic CH4-oxidizing bacteria are widespread inside the aerobic unsaturated Sphagnum carpets (Chapter 3).
To sum up, our findings provide crucial information to better understand changes in the Arctic tundra ecosystem, helping to obtain better predictions of future vegetation shifts and the associated consequences for greenhouse gas emissions, permafrost stability and the heat balance of the Earth surface.
Arctic climate change and decadal variability
Linden, Eveline C. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wilco Hazeleger, co-promotor(en): R. Bintanja. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579453 - 197
climatic change - arctic regions - global warming - temperature - models - carbon dioxide - sea water - barents sea - klimaatverandering - arctische gebieden - opwarming van de aarde - temperatuur - modellen - kooldioxide - zeewater - barentszzee
High northern latitudes exhibit enhanced near-surface warming in a climate with increasing greenhouse gases compared to other parts of the globe, indicating an amplified climate response to external forcing. Decadal to multidecadal variability sometimes enhances and at other times reduces the long-term trends. Therefore, the influence of internal variability should be taken into account when externally forced climate signals are assessed.
Governing sustainable management of resources in the Russian Arctic : informational govenance
Pristupa, A.O. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Amelung, B. - \ 2014
hulpbronnenbeheer - economische ontwikkeling - arctische gebieden - barentszzee - noordelijke ijszee - klimaatverandering - politieke processen - mariene ecologie - milieubeheer - resource management - economic development - arctic regions - barents sea - arctic ocean - climatic change - political processes - marine ecology - environmental management
This research studies state and non-state environmental arrangements in marine resource management, their interrelations and implications for conventional state-driven marine environmental regime.
Kennis voor een duurzame Noordpool
Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den - \ 2013
ecosystemen - arctische ecologie - arctische gebieden - ecosystems - arctic ecology - arctic regions
Met behulp van prachtige beelden vertelt marien bioloog Martine van den Heuvel-Greve van IMARES Wageningen UR over haar onderzoek op Spitsbergen naar mogelijke effecten van nieuwe activiteiten in het Noordpoolgebied. Door nieuwe kennis te ontwikkelen hoopt zij bij te kunnen dragen aan het internationale dialoog over waar en hoe nieuwe activiteiten kunnen plaatsvinden. De Noordpool staat sterk in de belangstelling. Door het terugtrekkende zee-ijs komt ruimte vrij voor nieuwe activiteiten zoals olie- en gaswinning, scheepvaart en toerisme. Deze nieuwe activiteiten bieden kansen, maar ook complexe uitdagingen zoals de mogelijke druk op mens en milieu. Niet alleen olie- en gasmaatschappijen en milieuorganisaties zijn actief in dit gebied, maar ook onderzoekers. Ze onderzoeken de veranderende Arctische ecosystemen en de wijze waarop nieuwe activiteiten deze ecosystemen beïnvloeden. Tijdens een expeditie naar Spitsbergen in juni 2013 zijn de onderzoekers en hun activiteiten een week lang gevolgd door een camerateam. Er werd gefilmd in het dorp Ny-Ålesund, 1235 kilometer van de Noordpool. Ook de omgeving van Ny-Ålesund is vastgelegd, waaronder het prachtige Kongsfjorden en de Blomstrand gletsjer. Deze productie is tot stand gekomen dankzij de samenwerking tussen de Maritime Campus Netherlands, NHL Hogeschool en IMARES Wageningen UR. De beelden zijn gemaakt door Ruben Kocx van HPM. http://www.wageningenur.nl/arctic
Wageningen University and Research centre : Your partner for sustainable development in the Arctic
Bolman, B.C. ; Koomen, A.J. ; Valeeva, N.I. ; Karman, C.C. - \ 2011
[Den Haag etc.] : LEI, Alterra, IMARES (Position Paper / LEI etc. ) - 31
duurzame ontwikkeling - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieubescherming - toegepast onderzoek - universitair onderzoek - gebiedsgericht beleid - klimaatverandering - arctische gebieden - noordelijke ijszee - sustainable development - natural resources - environmental protection - applied research - university research - integrated spatial planning policy - climatic change - arctic regions - arctic ocean
This position paper explores new claims in the Arctic region. These claims are closely connected to new developments in the region such as climate change and the utilisation of natural resources. The aim of the paper is to illustrate how Wageningen University and Research centre contributes to sustainable development in the Arctic.
Pristine wilderness of the Taimyr peninsula : 2008 expedition to the Pyasina Delta, Taimyr peninsula, Russian Federation
Raad, J.A. ; Mazurov, Y.L. ; Ebbinge, B.S. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2190) - 138
alopex lagopus - branta bernicla - ganzen - lemmingen - wild - arctische gebieden - nestelen - predatie - larus - klimaatverandering - alopex lagopus - branta bernicla - geese - lemmings - wildlife - arctic regions - nesting - predation - larus - climatic change
Ecological Dutch-Russian expedition to the Pyasina delta (Great Arctic : report of the expedition in 2007
Demongin, L. ; Kokorev, Y. ; Muskens, G.J.D.M. ; Popov, I. ; Prokudin, A. ; Thissen, J. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2189) - 60
lemmingen - arctische ecologie - ganzen - roofvogels - vogels - toendra - vogelnesten - expedities - poolgebieden - arctische gebieden - lemmings - arctic ecology - geese - predatory birds - birds - tundra - birds' nests - expeditions - polar regions - arctic regions
Poolpositie-NL - NL: Nieuw Nederlands Polair Programma (NNPP) 2010 - 2014
Baar, H. de; Broeke, M. van den; Hacquebord, L. ; Kroef, D. van der; Lindeboom, H.J. ; Wortel, R. ; Zeijst, V. van - \ 2009
Den Haag : NWO Gebied Aard- en Levenswetenschappen - 47
poolgebieden - arctische gebieden - geografie - noordelijke ijszee - mariene ecologie - ecologie - onderzoek - overheidsbeleid - nederland - arctische ecologie - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - polar regions - arctic regions - geography - arctic ocean - marine ecology - ecology - research - government policy - netherlands - arctic ecology - scientific research
Frozen desert alive : the role of sea ice for pelagic macrofauna and its predators : implications for the Antarctic pack-ice food we
Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P. - \ 2009
University of Groningen. Promotor(en): W.J. Wolff, co-promotor(en): Jan Andries van Franeker. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789064643392 - 240
arctische gebieden - antarctica - ijs - kril - voedselwebben - mariene ecologie - macrofauna - arctic regions - ice - krill - food webs - marine ecology
Studies on breeding shorebirds at Medusa Bay, Taimyr, in Summer 2002
Schekkerman, H. ; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Calf, K.M. ; Leeuw, J.J. de - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 922) - 101
vogels - nestelen - voortplanting - monitoring - arctische gebieden - predatie - geleedpotigen - rusland - waadvogels - birds - nesting - reproduction - monitoring - arctic regions - predation - arthropods - russia - waders
In the summer of 2002 a combined Dutch-Russian expedition took place to the Willem Barentz field station at Medusa Bay near Dikson in north-western Taimyr, Russia. The expedition was organised by Alterra and the Agricultural Department of the Dutch Embassy in Moscow. Research questions addressed by the Alterra team and basic results obtained during the 2002 season are presented in this report. More elaborate analyses and discussion of the data will be made elsewhere. Where useful, results are compared with data collected in 2000 and 2001. Subjects of study generally concerned breeding biology of arctic breeding shorebirds, especially with respect to timing of breeding.
Studies on breeding shorebirds at Medusa Bay, Taimyr, in summer 2001
Tulp, I. ; Schekkerman, H. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 451) - 111
vogels - nestelen - diergedrag - voortplanting - monitoring - kustgebieden - arctische gebieden - ecologie - geleedpotigen - predatie - rusland - waadvogels - oevers - broedgedrag - fauna - noordpoolgebied - ornithologie - steltlopers - Siberië - birds - nesting - animal behaviour - reproduction - monitoring - coastal areas - arctic regions - ecology - arthropods - predation - russia - waders - shores - fauna
In the Summer of 2001 a combined Dutch-Russian expedition took place to the Willem Barentz field station at Medusa Bay near Dikson in north-western Taimyr. The expedition was organized by Alterra, the Working Group for International Waterbird and Wetland Research (WIWO) and the Agricultural Department of the Dutch Embassy in Moscow. The results obtained by the Alterra team are presented in this report. Subjects of study generally concerned breeding biology of arctic breeding shorebirds, especially aspects related to timing of breeding and adult body condition. This report's purpose is not to discuss the findings thoroughly but merely to summarize the research questions addressed and present all basic information collected during the 2001 season. Topics included are spring arrival and autumn departure of waders from the tundra, breeding phenology, nest success, biometrics of adult waders, chick growth rate, return rates of adult shorebirds, and seasonal and weather-related variation in arthropod availability. Where useful, results are compared with data collected in a previous expedition in 2000. More elaborate analyses and discussion of the data will be made elsewhere.
|Mirrors in ice; fulmarine petrels and Antarctic ecosystems
Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2001
S.n. - ISBN 9789036713528 - 284
procellariiformes - vogels - ecologie - ecosystemen - arctische gebieden - antarctica - birds - ecology - ecosystems - arctic regions
|The role of predators in regulating goose numbers
Ebbinge, B.S. - \ 2000
In: Heritage of the Russian Arctic : research, conservation and international co-operation : proceedings of the international scientific Willem Barents memorial arctic conservation symposium held in Moscow, Russia 10-14 March 1998 / Ebbinge, B.S., Mazourov, Y.L., Tomkovich, P.S., - p. 348 - 355.
ganzen - vogels - bevolkingsdruk - predatoren - arctische gebieden - geese - birds - population pressure - predators - arctic regions
|Heritage of the Russian Arctic; research, conservation and international co-operation
Ebbinge, B.S. ; Mazourov, Y.L. ; Tomkovich, P.S. - \ 2000
Moscow : Ecopros - ISBN 9785886210576 - 640
ecosystemen - ecologie - vegetatie - vogels - arctische gebieden - ecosystems - ecology - vegetation - birds - arctic regions
Studies on breeding shorebirds at Medusa Bay, Taimyr, in Summer 2000
Tulp, I. ; Schekkerman, H. ; Klaassen, R. - \ 2000
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 219) - 85
vogels - nestelen - diergedrag - voortplanting - monitoring - kustgebieden - arctische gebieden - ecologie - geleedpotigen - predatie - rusland - oevers - waadvogels - birds - nesting - animal behaviour - reproduction - monitoring - coastal areas - arctic regions - ecology - arthropods - predation - russia - waders - shores
In the Summer of 2000 a combined Dutch-Russian expedition took place to the Willem Barentz field station at Medusa Bay near Dikson in north-western Taimyr. The expedition was organized by Alterra, the Working Group for International Waterbird and Wetland Research (WIWO) and the Dutch Agricultural Department of the Dutch Embassy in Moscow. As a background document containing all basic information collected during the 2000 season, the results obtained by the Alterra team and part of the results obtained by the WIWO team will be presented in this report. Its purpose is not to discuss data thoroughly but merely to summarize the research questions addressed and present the basic data. More elaborate analyses and discussion of the data will be made in theform of papers in international refereed journals, in combination with results from the 2001 season. Subjects of study generally concerned breeding biology of arctic breeding shorebirds and were all related to the timing of breeding.
|Landbouw in arctische gebieden
Anonymous, - \ 1971
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 3298)
landbouw - poolgebieden - koude klimaatzones - arctische gebieden - bibliografieën - agriculture - polar regions - cold zones - arctic regions - bibliographies