The genetic and functional analysis of flavor in commercial tomato : the FLORAL4 gene underlies a QTL for floral aroma volatiles in tomato fruit
Tikunov, Yury M. ; Roohanitaziani, Raana ; Meijer-Dekens, Fien ; Molthoff, Jos ; Paulo, Joao ; Finkers, Richard ; Capel, Iris ; Carvajal Moreno, Fatima ; Maliepaard, Chris ; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska ; Labrie, Caroline W. ; Verkerke, Wouter ; Heusden, Adriaan W. van; Eeuwijk, Fred van; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Bovy, Arnaud G. - \ 2020
The Plant Journal (2020). - ISSN 0960-7412
2-phenylethanol - aroma - flavor - quantitative trait loci - Solanum lycopersicum - tomato - volatiles
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has become a popular model for genetic studies of fruit flavor in the last two decades. In this article we present a study of tomato fruit flavor, including an analysis of the genetic, metabolic and sensorial variation of a collection of contemporary commercial glasshouse tomato cultivars, followed by a validation of the associations found by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of representative biparental segregating populations. This led to the identification of the major sensorial and chemical components determining fruit flavor variation and detection of the underlying QTLs. The high representation of QTL haplotypes in the breeders’ germplasm suggests that there is great potential for applying these QTLs in current breeding programs aimed at improving tomato flavor. A QTL on chromosome 4 was found to affect the levels of the phenylalanine-derived volatiles (PHEVs) 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane. Fruits of near-isogenic lines contrasting for this locus and in the composition of PHEVs significantly differed in the perception of fruity and rose-hip-like aroma. The PHEV locus was fine mapped, which allowed for the identification of FLORAL4 as a candidate gene for PHEV regulation. Using a gene-editing-based (CRISPR-CAS9) reverse-genetics approach, FLORAL4 was demonstrated to be the key factor in this QTL affecting PHEV accumulation in tomato fruit.
Good practice in food-related neuroimaging
Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Dagher, Alain ; Hare, Todd A. ; Kullmann, Stephanie ; Laan, Laura N. van der; Poldrack, Russell A. ; Preissl, Hubert ; Small, Dana ; Stice, Eric ; Veldhuizen, Maria G. - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 (2019)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 491 - 503.
aroma - data sharing - food choice - food viewing - functional magnetic resonance imaging - good practice - neuroimaging - satiation - taste
The use of neuroimaging tools, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, in nutritional research has increased substantially over the past 2 decades. Neuroimaging is a research tool with great potential impact on the field of nutrition, but to achieve that potential, appropriate use of techniques and interpretation of neuroimaging results is necessary. In this article, we present guidelines for good methodological practice in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies and flag specific limitations in the hope of helping researchers to make the most of neuroimaging tools and avoid potential pitfalls. We highlight specific considerations for food-related studies, such as how to adjust statistically for common confounders, like, for example, hunger state, menstrual phase, and BMI, as well as how to optimally match different types of food stimuli. Finally, we summarize current research needs and future directions, such as the use of prospective designs and more realistic paradigms for studying eating behavior.
Aromameter onthult smaakverlies groente en fruit
Woltering, E.J. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 5 - 5.
groenten - fruit - smaak - bemonsteren - meting - apparatuur - innovaties - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - reductie - aroma - verandering - vegetables - fruit - taste - sampling - measurement - apparatus - innovations - keeping quality - reduction - aroma - change
Een tomaat in de koelkast verliest al snel onomkeerbaar zijn smaak. Dat blijkt uit metingen met een nieuw apparaat, ontwikkeld door Wageningen UR. Dat kan snel en nauwkeurig veranderingen in het aroma vaststellen.
Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice
Calingacion, M.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Robert Hall; M.A. Fitzgerald, co-promotor(en): Roland Mumm. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572188 - 198
oryza sativa - rijst - rassen (planten) - cultivars - genetische diversiteit - gewaskwaliteit - aroma - geur en smaak - consumentenvoorkeuren - plantenveredeling - veredelingsprogramma's - oryza sativa - rice - varieties - cultivars - genetic diversity - crop quality - aroma - flavour - consumer preferences - plant breeding - breeding programmes
Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice
Mariafe N. Calingacion
Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits such as flavour and aroma, especially of non-fragrant rices, has not been given high priority. In this study, we utilised a multi-disciplinary approach to understand better quality traits of aroma and flavour in rice grains, and to determine whether good flavour in the grain could be combined with stress tolerant genotypes.
To understand what factors drive rice preferences, an extensive survey among members of the International Network for Quality Rice who are local experts in grain quality evaluation programs in 25 countries was conducted (Chapter 2). The objective was to identify the grain quality characteristics of the popular rice varieties in each region. Eighteen combinations of size and shape of the grain, amylose content (AC), gelatinisation temperature (GT) and fragrance were identified. These trait combinations reveal the complexity of consumer preferences. The two most popular combinations both have long and slender grains, while one has low amylose, low GT and is aromatic, and the other has intermediate AC and intermediate GT and is non-aromatic. Further evaluation of varieties having the same combination of grain quality traits showed that consumers readily identify differences between these varieties. For example, BRS Primavera and IR64 that are popular in Brazil and in the Philippines, respectively, have the same combination of all 18 traits, however, panellists of sensory evaluation can easily perceive differences in aroma and flavour of BRS Primavera and IR64. This emphasises that the current tools we have available to assess rice quality are unable to capture all the quality traits consumers are looking for in rice.
In Chapter 3, a novel multiplatform metabolomic and ionomic approach with genome-wide genotyping was utilised to investigate the effect of different nitrogen fertiliser regimes on the biochemical profile of three premium waxy rice varieties, Hom Nang Nouane (HNN), Kai Noi Leuanag (KNL) and Tha Sa No (TSN) from Lao PDR. The current tools used to phenotype grain quality such as GT, values from viscosity curves, and hardness and stickiness, were unable to differentiate between HNN, KNL and TSN either on the basis of nitrogen treatment nor genotype. However, metabolite profiling of metabolites and minerals followed by multivariate statistical methods readily separated the genotypes on each platform, and discriminatory compounds that were identified were relevant to consumers in terms of flavour, taste and nutrition. However, despite yield differences, nitrogen treatment did not significantly affect the overall metabolite and mineral profiles of the samples. Using 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, the Euclidean distance between each variety was calculated and compared to the distance between each variety for each metabolomic platform. Procrustes analysis was used to rotate and scale the variety mean scores on the metabolite principal components to give the best fit to the genetic principal coordinates. Comparing the triangles whereby each vertex of the triangle is a variety and the length of each side is equal to the scaled Euclidean distance, mineral elements, polar metabolites and volatile compounds all associate very well with the genetic distance between each variety. This study highlights that multiple metabolomic platforms are potential phenotyping tools to characterise rice quality in a comprehensive and efficient way, and in a way that provides data that is relevant to consumers.
To gain insights on the influence of water availability to the metabolomic profile of drought tolerant rice, two contrasting varieties, Apo and IR64, and a mapping population derived from them were extensively characterised in Chapters 4 and 5. Apo is drought tolerant but has unacceptable grain quality while IR64 is drought susceptible with premium grain quality. Apo and IR64 were grown under irrigated and drought conditions. Yield of Apo from both water conditions was higher than yield of IR64 under the same conditions. Moreover, metabolite profiling and sensory analysis showed that grains of Apo were not affected by drought conditions i.e. panellists perceived no difference in the aroma of Apo from both conditions and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the volatiles showed one cluster of Apo from both conditions. However, grains of IR64 formed two clusters based on water condition in the PCA and panellists were able to perceive ‘water-like metallic’ aroma in IR64 that was grown under drought conditions but this was not detected in grains from the irrigated treatment. This suggests that response to water stress in the metabolomic profile of the grain is variety dependent.
In Chapter 5, a mapping population derived from Apo and IR64 was grown, with the parents, under irrigated and drought conditions. The yield of more than half of the population was higher than the yield of Apo and IR64 under both irrigated and drought conditions; this indicates significant transgressive segregation. Using a dense linkage map based on genotyping by sequencing data, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of drought stress identified one major QTL on chromosome 3 that is likely to be qDTY3.1 which was previously detected in a population derived from Apo as the drought tolerant parent. All the lines of the population carrying this QTL showed significantly higher yield under drought than those without it, indicating the potential importance of this QTL in drought tolerance.
Metabolite profiling and sensory analysis were also conducted in the grains of the population. More than a hundred volatiles were detected in the headspace of rice samples and PC1 and PC2 explained 55.6% of the variation in the metabolite profiles with many of the lines clustering in between the Apo and IR64 parent values. Six novel metabolite QTLs for volatile compounds were identified - 1 QTL was detected in chromosome 1 for 3,7-dimethyl-octen-1-ol, 1 QTL for hexanol in chromosome 2, and 4 QTLs for pentanol, hexanol, hexanal, and heptanone in chromosome 3. Interestingly, three lines were observed by the panellists to have similar aroma as IR64 while four lines were observed to have similar aroma as that perceived in Apo. Lines 20, 164 and 28 were perceived by the panellists to have high levels of corn, dairy and sweet aromatic features. Moreover, the yield of these 3 lines under both irrigated and drought conditions was similar to that of the Apo parent under the same conditions with Line 28 yielding the highest under drought and has the QTL associated with yield under drought on chromosome 3.
Finally, the potential of metabolomics as a phenotyping tool in characterising grain quality is further highlighted in Chapter 6. Combining metabolomics with high throughput genotyping and sensory analysis offers new breadth of approach in understanding grain quality of rice. Three lines identified that carry IR64 quality along with high yield in both irrigation and drought, are recommended to enter a rice breeding program at the stage of advanced replicated and multi-location testing. By using advanced tools of phenotyping and genotyping, with validation by sensory panels, these three advanced lines have been selected in just three years.
A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste
Eggink, P.M. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2012
Food Chemistry 132 (2012)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 301 - 310.
bell peppers - gas-chromatography - tomato - fruit - flavor - metabolomics - frutescens - diversity - quality - aroma
In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory expert panel. Metabolic contrasts between genotypes were caused by clusters of volatile and non-volatile compounds, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors. Clusters of phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles formed the major determinants of the genotypic differences. Flavour was described with the use of 14 taste attributes, of which the texture related attributes and the sweet-sour contrast were the most discriminatory factors. The attributes juiciness, toughness, crunchiness, stickiness, sweetness, aroma, sourness and fruity/apple taste could be significantly predicted with combined volatile and non-volatile data. Fructose and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were highly correlated with aroma, fruity/apple taste and sweetness. New relations were found for fruity/apple taste and sweetness with the compounds p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-beta-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol and (E)-geranylacetone. Based on the overall biochemical and sensory results, the perspectives for flavour improvement by breeding are discussed.
Cross-modal interactions in complex food matrices
Knoop, J.E. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit, co-promotor(en): Markus Stieger; J.H.F. Bult. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730367 - 218
sensorische evaluatie - perceptie - zintuigen - smaak - aroma - appelsap - kazen - zout - caloriearm voedsel - sensory evaluation - perception - senses - taste - aroma - apple juice - cheeses - salt - low calorie foods
In the light of increasing rates of nutrition related diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and stroke it is necessary to reduce sugar, salt and fat contents of industrial produced food. Reduction of those components generally leads to changes of the sensory properties of the products and rejection by the consumer. Traditional compensation strategies like the use of taste enhancers, artificial sweeteners or fat replacers often lead to off-flavours and consequently to consumer rejection. This thesis describes cross-modal interactions as an alternative strategy to reduce sugar, salt and fat. In the past cross-modal interactions have been describe to influence taste and texture perception, however up to now research focused on simple model systems lacking in perceptual, as well as chemical complexity. This thesis aimed on the application of cross modal interactions involving aroma modification to complex food systems, such as apple juice and cheese. It was investigated whether aromas are able to modify taste perception in complex food matrices and what the driving factors are to which extend aromas can enhance taste perception. Furthermore different cross modal approaches were combined in order to investigate possible additive or synergistic effects on taste enhancement.
At first, the question whether individual aroma components can be identified that have the capacity to enhance taste perception in a complex beverage was addressed [chapter 2]. Apple juice was choosen to represent a complex matrix where interactions between taste and aroma are a natural product characteristic. Ethylhexanoate was identified to significantly enhance sweetness in apple juice, while three other esters selected on the same basis did not show sweetness enhancement. Ethylhexanoate induced sweetness enhancement appeared to be concentration dependent. Concentrations of 5 ppm were found to be most effective to enhance sweetness in this specific system. However, next to sweetness undesired attributes such as flowery and synthetic were also increased significantly. As a conclusion it has to be noticed that flavour balance in complex food is fragile and has to be carefully altered in order to use odour induced taste enhancement as a tool in sugar, salt and fat reduction. Chapter 3 describes the masking of off-flavours induced by ethylhexanoate as described in chapter 2. It was hypothesised that ethylhexanoate induced off-flavours can be masked by restoring flavour balance by equally adding combinations of all four esters. A combination of ethylhexanoate, ethylbutanoate and ethyl-2-methylbutanoate was found to be most effective to restore flavour quality while maintaining ethylhexanoate induced sweetness enhancement. It was concluded that all components that are naturally part of an aroma are needed to achieve a balanced product.
Optimisation of odour presentation time in order to achieve maximum taste enhancement was subject to the study described in chapter 4. Swallowing is the key to aroma release during food consumption. It was demonstrated that aroma is most presented most effectively either 1.7 – 2.5 seconds before or 2.6 – 3.6 seconds after the moment of swallow. Aroma presented directly at the moment of swallow was found to be least effective to enhance taste. It is assumed that olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) do not transmit the activation signal to the brain at the exact moment of swallow in order to spare energy and function most effective, as during normal food consumption the aroma is released shortly after swallowing. This hypothesis was further tested in an fMRI study. Preliminary results support this theory, however at the moment of completion of this thesis data evaluation was still in progress.
In chapter 5 further optimisation of odour/taste interactions was studied, by investigating the influence of temperature on odour induced taste enhancement. Consumption temperatures differ strongly among products. As aroma release strongly depends on the temperature of the food, it was hypothesised that the magnitude of aroma effects on taste perception changes over consumption temperature. Subjects consumed a sweet and a savoury system at four different temperatures (7, 25, 37 and 50°C). Stimuli temperature and odour presentation were fully controlled by temperature optimised gustometry and olfactometry. Both aroma/taste systems were known to have induced taste enhancement in the past (sweet: apple flavoured tea/ethylhexanoate; savoury: broth/sotolon). No significant effect of temperature was found for either of the stimulus pairs. Results indicate that the complexity of the experiment led to confusion by the panelists under fully randomised stimuli delivery conditions. It was therefore concluded, that temperature effects on the magnitude of odour induced taste enhancement need to be studied in a reduced experimental design.
Temporal contrast as a strategy to enhance salty taste was studied in the experiments described in chapter 6. Salty solutions of different NaCl concentrations were presented in alternating sequence by a gustometer, creating a sensory contrast of low-in salt and high-in salt pulses. It was demonstrated that the sensory contrast induced by the pulsed delivery led to significant taste enhancement. It was shown that high concentrations of NaCl delivered in short pulses were most effective to enhance salty taste. It was concluded that pulsed stimulus delivery can be an additional tool to reduce salt and sugar concentrations in industrial produced food. Chapter 7 combines both cross-modal strategies to enhance taste in this thesis so far, odour induced taste enhancement and temporal contrast of stimulus delivery. Subjects were presented with taste and aroma pulses timed via a gustometer. The aroma was either presented in-phase or out-of-phase with the taste stimulus. A cumulative effect of aroma/taste interactions and temporal contrast of tastant delivery was found, resulting in higher taste enhancement than each of the strategies alone. Overall highest sweetness enhancement was observed when aroma and taste pulses were presented out-of-phase.
Texture modification is a third cross-modal strategy to enhance taste perception. Combinatory effects of texture modification and odour induced taste enhancement are subject to the study reported in chapter 8. Apple juice containing gels were engineered differing in textural properties, aroma and sugar concentration. In contrast to the results presented in chapter 7, only an additive but no synergistic effect was found for those strategies. Texture modification was found to be more effective than aroma modification.
Chapter 9 studies effects of aroma on the taste and the texture of cheese and dairy model gels. In the first study subjects consumed different types of cheese with and without a nose-clip. This way the contribution of the aroma phase on the flavour and texture perception of cheese was studied. Saltiness was influenced significantly by the aroma. It was concluded that the aroma of cheese strongly contributes to a cheeses salty taste. Furthermore it was observed that a decrease in cheese firmness strongly correlated with an increase in buttery aroma notes. This was further studied in fully controlled dairy model gels. For gels tasting of cream cheese a significant decrease in firmness was found upon increasing aroma concentration. No effect of butter aroma on firmness was found for yoghurt-like gels. This once more demonstrates the importance of congruency between stimuli. Only congruent sensory impressions can influence each other. In addition, an increase in creaminess was observed with increasing aroma concentration. The results described in chapter 9 clearly show that aromas cannot only modify taste perception, but also are a valid tool for texture modification.
This thesis demonstrates for the first time, that flavour and texture modification and subsequently the reduction of sugar, salt and (possibly also) fat can be achieved by using cross modal interactions in complex food matrices. New methods have been developed and existing methods have been combined to study aroma/taste interactions in fully controlled settings. Its multidisciplinary approach combines chemical, physical and psychological knowledge in order to discuss and explain results. It furthermore shows that combinations of different strategies are most effective in order to achieve healthier products reduced in sugar, salt and fat.
Solid phase extraction in combination with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the detailed investigation of volatiles in South African red wines
Weldegergis, B.T. ; Crouch, A.M. ; Górecki, T. ; Villiers, A. de - \ 2011
Analytica Chimica Acta 701 (2011)1. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 98 - 111.
bar sorptive extraction - organic-compounds - oak - components - aroma - aldehydes - modulator - pinotage - barrels - indexes
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) has been applied for the analysis of volatile compounds in three young South African red wines. In spite of the significant benefits offered by GC × GC–TOFMS for the separation and identification of volatiles in such a complex matrix, previous results utilizing headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) demonstrated certain limitations. These were primarily associated with the choice of sample preparation technique, which failed to extract some influential semi-volatile wine constituents. Therefore, in the current report, we utilized solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with GC × GC–TOFMS for the detailed investigation of particularly low-level semi-volatiles in South African wine. 214 compounds previously reported in grapes and related beverages were tentatively identified based on mass spectral data and retention indices, while 62 additional compounds were positively identified using authentic standards. The method proved particularly beneficial for the analysis of terpenes, lactones and volatile phenols, and allowed us to report the presence of numerous volatile compounds for the first time in Pinotage wines.
Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines
Weldegergis, B.T. ; Villiers, A. de; Crouch, A.M. - \ 2011
Food Chemistry 128 (2011)4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1100 - 1109.
bar sorptive extraction - white wines - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - instrumental analysis - isoamyl acetate - gc-ms - fermentation - aroma - yeast - classification
The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various producers. Thirty-nine volatile components partially responsible for the flavour of wine were quantified. In order to investigate possible correlation between volatile content and grape variety and/or geographical origin, analysis of variance, factor analysis (FA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used. Significant differences in the levels of certain volatiles were observed as a function of region and cultivar, with the latter factor proving to be more influential. A few volatile compounds were identified as potential predictors of the white wine cultivars. Prediction for red wine cultivars was poor, with the exception of Pinotage wines, for which three compounds (isoamyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol and ethyl octanoate) were identified as accurate predictors. The reasons for the importance of these three volatile compounds in distinguishing young Pinotage wines are discussed, and possible reasons for the unique levels in wines of this cultivar are highlighted
Maatregelen ter vermindering van fijnstofemissie uit de pluimveehouderij; deskstudie naar mogelijke toevoegingen aan de oliefilm
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Harn, J. van - \ 2010
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 353) - 12
reductie - reductiemiddelen - ammoniak - aroma - olieproducten - innovaties - emissie - pluimveehouderij - stallen - strooisel - luchtkwaliteit - fijn stof - reduction - reducing agents - ammonia - aroma - oil products - innovations - emission - poultry farming - stalls - litter (plant) - air quality - particulate matter
In this desk study it was determined which additives are suitable for the oil in the oil film system to reduce ammonia and odour emissions.
|Reviewing progress towards finding an acceptable natural flavour alternative to salt
Busch, J.L.H.C. ; Batenburg, M. ; Velden, R. van der; Smit, G. - \ 2009
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 20 (2009)5. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 66 - 68.
taste - perception - aroma - 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5h)-furanone - enhancement - impact
The level of sodium in food products needs to be lowered in order to help reduce incidences of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases of the world population. Important functionalities of salt (NaCl) – salty taste and flavour enhancement – are to be delivered by replacer systems. One approach is enhancement of saltiness by aroma. We show that saltiness and the overall flavour profile are increased upon addition of extra beef flavouring in a salt-reduced beef bouillon. Furthermore, the saltiness enhancement potency of the single compound sotolone (savoury note) is demonstrated. Practical perspectives of the application of aroma for sodium reduction and routes of natural production of sotolone are discussed.
Verification of the geographical origin of European butters using PTR-MS
Macatelli, M. ; Akkermans, W. ; Koot, A.H. ; Buchgraber, M. ; Paterson, A. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2009
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 22 (2009)2. - ISSN 0889-1575 - p. 169 - 175.
reaction-mass-spectrometry - sweet cream butter - food - headspace - flavor - aroma
In the present study, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in combination with partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was evaluated as a method for the prediction of the origin of European butters. Eighty-three commercial butters from three European regions were subjected to headspace analysis using PTR-MS. Data were collected for the mass range m/z 20-150 using a dwell time of 0.2 s mass-1, resulting in a cycle time just under 30 s. The log transformed headspace concentrations of the masses were subjected to PLS-DA in order to estimate classification models for the butter samples. One model predicted the region of origin; a second set of models predicted dichotomously whether or not a butter originated from a particular EU country. The performance of each model was evaluated by means of a 10-fold double cross validation procedure. For 76% of the butters the region of origin was predicted correctly in the cross validation. The success rate of the countries, averaged over all dichotomous models, was 88% but large differences between countries were observed. Additional work is required to study the underlying factors that determine the geographical differences in butter volatile compositions
Removing the taint : bottlenecks and possible directions for a solution in the marketing of the meat of non-castrated male pigs
Klep, L.M.F. - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI 2008-027) - 19 p.
marketing van voedingsmiddelen - varkensvlees - varkens - beren (varkens) - berengeur - smet - aroma - smakelijkheid - castratie - consumentenvoorkeuren - consumentengedrag - voedselacceptatie - nederland - houding van consumenten - vleesproductie - markten - voedselconsumptie - food marketing - pigmeat - pigs - boars - boar taint - taint - aroma - palatability - castration - consumer preferences - consumer behaviour - food acceptability - netherlands - consumer attitudes - meat production - markets - food consumption
Wageningen UR has published a summary note on the subject of the castration of boars. There is a need in practice for a summary in simple language of the present knowledge about castration and the possible directions for a solution. This note summarises the knowledge gained up to the present. Further information can be found in the reports of various subsidiary studies, to which reference is made in the various footnotes in the text.
Butter and butter oil classification by PTR-MS
Ruth, S.M. van; Koot, A.H. ; Akkermans, W. ; Araghipour, N. ; Rozijn, M. ; Baltussen, M.A.H. ; Wisthaler, A. ; Mark, T.D. ; Frankhuizen, R. - \ 2008
European Food Research and Technology 227 (2008)1. - ISSN 1438-2377 - p. 307 - 317.
reaction-mass-spectrometry - sweet cream butter - trace gas-analysis - volatile compounds - food authenticity - dairy-products - flavor - quality - aroma
The potential of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a tool for classification of milk fats was evaluated in relation to quality and authentication issues. Butters and butter oils were subjected to heat and off-flavouring treatments in order to create sensorially defective samples. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by means of PTR-MS analysis, sensory analysis and classical chemical analysis. Subsequently, partial least square-discriminant analysis models (PLS-DA) were fitted to predict the matrix (butter/butter oil) and the sensory grades of the samples from their PTR-MS data. Using a 10-fold cross-validation scheme, 84% of the samples were successfully classified into butter and butter oil classes. Regarding sensory quality, 89% of the samples were correctly classified. As the milk fats were fairly successfully classified by the combination of PTR-MS and PLS-DA, this combination seems a promising approach with potential applications in quality control and control of regulations.
Beren op de weg : knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen rond de afzet van vlees van niet-gecastreerde mannelijke varkens
Klep, L.M.F. ; Huirne, R.B.M. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport 2008-018) - ISBN 9789086152131 - 19
berengeur - smakelijkheid - beren (varkens) - aroma - smet - varkens - mannelijke dieren - houding van consumenten - consumentengedrag - vleeskwaliteit - vleeswaren - vleesproductie - markten - consumptie - voedselconsumptie - nederland - dierhouderij - boar taint - palatability - boars - aroma - taint - pigs - male animals - consumer attitudes - consumer behaviour - meat quality - meat products - meat production - markets - consumption - food consumption - netherlands - animal husbandry
Wageningen UR has published a summary note on the subject of the castration of boars. There is a need in practice for a summary in simple language of the present knowledge about castration and the possible directions for a solution. This note summarises the knowledge gained up to the present. Further information can be found in the reports of various subsidiary studies, to which reference is made in the various footnotes in the text
Geographical origin classification of olive oils by PTR-MS
Araghipour, N. ; Colineau, J. ; Koot, A.H. ; Akkermans, W. ; Rojas, J.M.M. ; Beauchamp, J. ; Wisthaler, A. ; Märk, T.D. ; Downey, G. ; Guillou, C. ; Mannina, L. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2008
Food Chemistry 108 (2008)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 374 - 383.
resolution gas-chromatography - mass-spectrometry - volatile compounds - quality - aroma - extraction - headspace
The volatile compositions of 192 olive oil samples from five different European countries were investigated by PTR-MS sample headspace analysis. The mass spectra of all samples showed many masses with high abundances, indicating the complex VOC composition of olive oil. Three different PLS-DA models were fitted to the data to classify samples into `country¿, `region¿ and `district¿ of origin, respectively. Correct classification rates were assessed by cross-validation. The first fitted model produced an 86% success rate in classifying the samples into their country of origin. The second model, which was fitted to the Italian oils only, also demonstrated satisfactory results, with 74% of samples successfully classified into region of origin. The third model, classifying the Italian samples into district of origin, yielded a success rate of only 52%. This lower success rate might be due to either the small class set, or to genuine similarities between olive oil VOC compositions on this tight scale.
Kwaliteit van champignons : geremde hoedopening en meer smaak
Braaksma, A. ; Schaap, D.J. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations - 33
eetbare paddestoelen - kwaliteit - smaak - aroma - gewassen, groeifasen - protocollen - groeiremmers - oogsttijdstip - jasmonzuur - edible fungi - quality - taste - aroma - crop growth stage - protocols - growth inhibitors - harvesting date - jasmonic acid
Het doel is te komen tot een praktisch toepasbare methode en protocollen om op het bed componenten toe te dienen die effect hebben op remming van de hoedopening en verhoging van smaak tijdens de naoogst-fase. Het idee is bij voorkeur vlak voor de oogst jasmonaten toe te dienen en na te gaan of hoedopeningsremming wordt bereikt in de naoogst fase. In de wetenschappelijke literatuur wordt melding gemaakt van het feit dat toedienen van een voorloper in de biosynthese van de belangrijkste smaakcomponent, 1-octen-3-ol, meer van deze smaakcomponent wordt aangemaakt en de smaak intenser wordt. Dit is aangetoond bij extracten van champignon voor toepassing in de levensmiddelenindustrie als toevoeging van champignonaroma (patent van Nestlé, Zwitserland) en in vloeibare mycelium cultures.
Geurend sortiment verkoopt : maak de juiste keuze
Hoffman, M.H.A. - \ 2007
De Boomkwekerij 2007 (2007)14. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 10 - 11.
plantenkwekerijen - sierplanten - overblijvende planten - welriekendheid - aroma - reuk - cultivars - rassen (planten) - nurseries - ornamental plants - perennials - fragrance - aroma - smell - cultivars - varieties
De laatste jaren komt er meer erkenning voor de eigenschap 'geur' in sierplanten, die eigenschap is jarenlang miskend en verwaarloosd bij het selecteren van nieuwe cultivars. Planten die lekker ruiken hebben zonder twijfel een streepje voor op planten die niet geuren. Steeds vaker komen geuraanduidingen in catalogi en labels te staan. Met lijst van Top 10 geurende gewassen
Loss of essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dranunculus L.) due to drying
ArabHosseini, A. ; Padhye, S. ; Beek, T.A. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van; Huisman, W. ; Posthumus, M.A. ; Müller, J. - \ 2006
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86 (2006)15. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 2543 - 2550.
aroma - constituents - volatiles - parsley
The effect of hot air-drying on the essential oil constituents and yield in French and Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. The tarragon leaves were dried at air temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 °C. The drying stopped when the moisture content of the samples reached 10% or for some of the treatments reached 7, 20 and 30%. The essential oil of the fresh and dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The decrease of oil during the drying process was highest at 60 °C drying temperature. For French tarragon the decrease in the amount of oil was significantly lower at 90 °C. The effect of the relative humidity of the drying air at each temperature was not significant. The main compounds were estragole in French tarragon (69%) and sabinene in Russian tarragon (40%). The drying process changed the relative percentage of the constituents in the oil; for instance, the relative percentages of estragole decreased and sabinene increased in French tarragon
Sensory and instrumental analysis of food aromas
Bult, J.H.F. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.H.A. Kroeze; Fons Voragen, co-promotor(en): H.N.J. Schifferstein; J.P. Roozen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045236 - 172
aroma - aromatische verbindingen - geur en smaak - geurstoffen en smaakstoffen - zintuiglijke waarneming - sensorische evaluatie - gaschromatografie - aroma - aromatic compounds - flavour - flavour compounds - organolepsis - sensory evaluation - gas chromatography
Food aromas are generally perceived as unitary aromas, i.e. fried potatoes smell like fried potatoes and roasted coffee smells like roasted coffee. Nonetheless, nearly all food aromas are produced by a multitude of volatile components that contribute to an extensive collection of aromas in various compositions. Of the hundreds of volatiles released from fried potatoes and roasted coffee a major se!ection does not produce an odour, many others do produce an odour that contributes to one of both aromas, many others contribute to both. In spite of this, food aromas are not being perceived as collections of discernable odours.
Central theme of this thesis is a method used to fractionate, identify and characterise the odorous components in mixtures of odorants: gas chromatography olfactometry (GCO). GCO entails the pressurised transfer of volatiles through a capillary column, after capturing these from the headspace of a foodstuff. Since the column delays volatiles differentially, panellists may sniff these volatiles sequentially on their release from the capillary. This allows the separate sensory evaluation of components in the aroma mixture.
A well-established practice in technological studies is that measurement reliability of instruments is estimated and minimised. Although sniffing panels are generally employed as instruments that assess the odour impact of chemical components in food aromas, reliability assessment is generally not applied to their application. Paradoxically, there are no practically available valid methods that may assess the reliability of panel responses. In addition, studies of systematic bias of panel responses in GCO studies are not available, although some common assumptions in GCO studies are not valid psychologically. For instance, intense odorants that arc qualitatively similar to the aroma quality are generally identified as character impact components. However, perception studies showed that odorants may affect (viz. suppress) each others odour contribution in a mixture. Therefore, assumptions regarding the contribution of singular odorants to aromas on basis of GCO, is premature.
This thesis introduces methodology to estimate GCO response reliability and reports the empirical testing of this methodology (chapters 2, 3 and 4). In addition, several GCO assumptions considered psychologically disputable, are evaluated in empirical studies. These studies entail the effect of stimulus context on the estimated reliability of GCO results (chapter 4), the evaluation of the contribution of GCO-identified 'character impact components' to an apple model aroma (chapter 5), the effects of task instruction on the identification of odorants in food aromas (chapter 6), the effects of peri-threshold components on a supra-threshold food aroma (chapter 7) and the effects of sequentially presented odorants on their mutual odour intensities as a function of qualitative odour similarity (chapter 8). The general conclusions of this thesis are, that panel responses in the temporary absence of odorants must be used to estimate the reliability of panel odour detections, and that mechanisms that systematically affect response variation should be known and considered m GCO.
Up- and downregulation of Fragaria x ananassa O-methyltransferase: Impacts on Furanone and Phenylpropanoid metabolism
Lunkenbein, S. ; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Coiner, H. ; Boone, M.J. ; Krens, F.A. ; Schwab, W. - \ 2006
Journal of Experimental Botany 57 (2006)10. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 2445 - 2453.
strawberry fragaria-ananassa - flavor compounds - gene-expression - tomato fruit - molecular-biology - dna microarrays - messenger-rnas - cell-wall - identification - aroma
A complex mixture of hundreds of substances determines strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) aroma, but only 15 volatiles are considered as key flavour compounds. Of these, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is regarded as the most important, but it is methylated further by FaOMT (Fragariaxananassa O-methyltransferase) to 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) during the ripening process. It is shown here that transformation of strawberry with the FaOMT sequence in sense and antisense orientation, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, resulted in a near total loss of DMMF, whereas the levels of the other volatiles remained unchanged. FaOMT repression also affected the ratio of feruloyl 1-O-ß-D-glucose and caffeoyl 1-O-ß-D-glucose, indicating a dual function of the enzyme in planta. Thus, FaOMT is involved in at least two different biochemical pathways in ripe strawberry fruit