Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials – trend analysis of monitoring results
Adamse, Paulien ; Fels, Ine van der; Jong, Jacob de - \ 2017
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34 (2017)8. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1298 - 1311.
arsenic - cadmium - chemical contaminant - element - feed material - Heavy metals - lead - mercury - monitoring programme - trends

This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring programme and from representatives of the feed industry during the period 2007–13 were used. Data covered a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in the Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML) set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90th percentile concentrations of each of these elements were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae, as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (1) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (2) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed (lower ML). Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programmes, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

Risicobeoordeling van contaminanten in afval- en reststoffen bestemd voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal
Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Wijnen, H.J. van; Struijs, J. ; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Poorter, L.R.M. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 70) - 158
biogas - co-vergisting - arsenicum - residuen - zware metalen - verontreinigende stoffen - pesticiden - biociden - mestbeleid - landbouwbeleid - organische verontreinigende stoffen - risicoschatting - co-fermentation - arsenic - residues - heavy metals - pollutants - pesticides - biocides - manure policy - agricultural policy - organic pollutants - risk assessment
A number of wastes and by-products were reviewed for their suitability as substrates for co-digestion with animalmanure to produce biogas and a digestate for use as a fertiliser. The review included 21 substances proposed byLTO Noord (Dutch Farmers Union – Northern Netherlands) and Biogas Branche Organisatie (BBO, the Dutch BiogasIndustry Association) for inclusion in Annex Aa of the Fertiliser Act. At the request of the Ministry of EconomicAffairs a further 6 substances were added (21+6). In addition, 119 substances were re-reviewed in connection witha change to the reference composition for animal manure. The review focused on the possible adverseenvironmental effects of using the digestate as a fertiliser and followed the protocol for assessing the value andrisks of waste used as a fertiliser, version 2.1. The risk assessment included the inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Cu,Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, As) and organic contaminants (dioxine, PCBs, PAHs, mineral oil, residues of crop protectionproducts) as required by the Fertiliser Act. For all the wastes and by-products, data on composition were collectedfrom the literature and from analyses provided by stakeholders. Expert judgment was used where data were notavailable or were insufficient to conduct a risk assessment as prescribed by the protocol. Criteria for expertjudgment were developed for such situations. Two alternative risk assessment methods were developed for theresidues of pesticides and biocides, based partly on expert judgement. These methods were compared with themethod prescribed by the protocol. These three methods reflect different policy judgements; the protection level setby policymakers will determine which method should be used. The 21+6 substances were evaluated in accordancewith the protocol and using the three methods for evaluating the residues of pesticides and biocides. The resultswere compared with registered co-digestion materials in Flanders, Denmark and Germany. Recommendations aregiven to support policy decisions on the choice of alternative risk assessment method to be used to permit the codigestionof wastes and by-products in biogas production that produce an agronomically and environmentallyacceptable digestate for fertiliser use
Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh
Amin, N. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof; Wim Rulkens, co-promotor(en): Harry Bruning. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858164 - 243
plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsstudies - watervoorziening - milieubescherming - grondwater - grondwaterverontreiniging - watervoerende lagen - pijpleidingen - arsenicum - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - landbouwhuishoudens - waterfilters - drinkwater - sociologie - bangladesh - zuid-azië - rural development - rural areas - development - development studies - water supply - environmental protection - groundwater - groundwater pollution - aquifers - pipelines - arsenic - community involvement - agricultural households - water filters - drinking water - sociology - bangladesh - south asia
To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In this research, therefore, the development of an appropriate technology for an As-free, safe drinking water supply is considered from a local perspective and a societal context. To achieve the goal and objectives of this research, four research questions were formulated (Chapter 1). The first research question is about the technological and socio-economic performance of community-based pipeline water supply systems that use deep aquifers. The second question deals with available and currently implemented household-level arsenic removal technologies in rural Bangladesh. The third addresses the weaknesses, limitations, strengths and advantages of the technologies in terms of a number of technological, social, economic and gender indicators. Fourth, the question is posed of the most promising arsenic removal option for rural house¬holds in terms of its techno¬logical performance and social acceptability and suitability from a gender perspective. The occurrence of As in the Delta region is of geochemical origin and its distribution in the groundwater has distinct regional patterns and depth trends. An overview of the arsenic problem in Bangladesh is given in Chapter 2.

The overall objective of the research was to develop a socially appropriate and gender-sensitive household-level As removal filter. Technical, socio-economic and cultural aspects were incorporated in this research to assess the development of a sustainable innovation through multi- and interdisciplinary approaches. The technical validation of the systems was carried out through laboratory-based research, to address the efficiency, robustness, operational and maintenance convenience, safety and viability of the technology. For the social research, the model by Spaargaren and Van Vliet (2000) was adjusted to address the filter’s suitability in terms of lifestyle, domestic time-space structures, affordability, standards of comfort, cleanliness, convenience and modes of provision. In addition, I also considered the household resource-based affordability during the operation and maintenance phase, in terms of a socio-technological and gender perspective. A conceptual model was developed to guide the research and to answer the research questions (Chapter 1). The socio-economic data on the main concepts of this research work were collected through a survey (Appendix 2).

In this research, a synthesis of knowledge resulting from disciplinary, open-ended collaboration and local perspectives is achieved. Such a transdisciplinary research approach ensures an integration of knowledge through the participation of a variety of stakeholders, including end users, and mutual learning between the different stakeholders, such as users of the Modified Garnet Homemade Filter (MGH Filter), caretakers, village committees, implementing organizations and donors, users of water, households, and women.

The community–based piped water supply in Bangladesh
There are several alternative sources to get safe and As-free drinking water in Bangladesh. A community-based piped water supply system using deep aquifers is one of them. In this research, three community-based piped water supply systems were compared to evaluate their technological and economic sustainability, the sustainability of using deep aquifers for the long term, and the social and gender appropriateness of the systems, based on the users’ perspective (Chapter 4). The technical performance of the three systems in different geological conditions was found satisfactory in terms of their efficacy, water quality, adequacy of the water supply, and operations and maintenance. The water is As- and Fe-free and is of good taste. The concentration of As is below the limiting range of drinking water in Bangladesh (50µgL-1As), as well as within the WHO and new EPA standards (10µgL-1As). The sustainable use of deep aquifers for a longer period is a serious issue. To address the sustainability, hydro-geological factors need to be well understood. Overextraction of water from deep aquifers could induce a downward migration of dissolved As and permanently destroy the deep resource. Only one system is practicing chlorination to disinfect the water in the overhead tank, while the other two systems do not have such a provision. However, the field data reveal that the three systems are technologically acceptable and do not require disposal of contaminated sludge.

The women who are using one of the three water supply systems are satisfied about the water supply systems. They think the systems reliable in their delivery of adequate water and convenient and comfortable for the women users. Women can get water close to their house, which saves collection time and a physical burden. The appointed caretakers are operating the systems efficiently, including maintenance and the collection of the monthly bill from the beneficiaries. The economical sustainability seems to be satisfactory, provided the initial costs are subsidized by external financial assistance with only a little contribution from the communities, which varies from five to seven percent of the total capital cost. The community participation in sharing the installation cost for the system and the monthly bill are fixed, based on the economical condition of the households. However, a drawback of the community-based piped water system is disruption of the system due to its sensitivity to power failure, which is a big problem in Bangladesh. Other shortcomings are the limitations to extend the system to meet the increasing demand of the village people. On the long term, economical sustainability factors need to be considered, such as the availability of funds and the participation of the users in the system’s management, which were absent in all three systems.

Currently available and implemented household-level arsenic removal technologies

The application of arsenic removal technologies to provide safe drinking water in rural areas plays a vital role where other, alternative options and safe aquifers are not easily available and where community-based pipeline water supply systems are not feasible. In this research, physico-chemical and biological as well as conventional techniques for the removal of arsenic were reviewed (Chapter 5). Based on literature, an inventory was carried out of 40 available and currently implemented technologies at the household level in terms of their arsenic removal efficiency, cost and users’ acceptance. All the technologies remove As from the water to a limited extent. Therefore, there is scope for further development of these technologies. A multiple-criteria analysis (MCA) approach was applied to select a technology for the further development of an appropriate arsenic removal filter for household-level use. In the research, based on the integrated assessments, the MCA-GARNET technology was selected for further development.

An assessment of the performances of the three governmentally certified arsenic removal technologies for rural household use was carried out (Chapter 5). This research concludes that the government’s investments in an improved water supply so far have failed to meet the needs of the poor villagers, because they are not able to buy the costly Alcan and Read-F filters. Even the relatively cheap Sono filter proved to be unaffordable for the poorest. Furthermore, assessing the As removal efficiency and life span of these filters is difficult at this preliminary stage, and so is predicting how the disposal of the spent filter materials will be carried out by the users. The As leaching from the sludge/waste generated by the three treatment processes is dependent on the type of removal mechanism and the ultimate sludge disposal methods.

Development of a chemical-free arsenic removal technology for household use

In this research, by the active participation of potential end users and other stakeholders, I have included local knowledge and social and gender perspectives in the process of the development of an innovative As removal filter (MGH filter) (Chapter 6). The MGH filter efficiency and breakthrough point were studied at different operational variables, such as filter bed thickness, types of filter media and flow rate. The toxicity of the spent material was addressed by a TCLP test. The developed filter meets the Bangladesh standard for arsenic in drinking water (50µgL-1). It can reduce the arsenic concentrations of the shallow tube well water samples from 160-959µgL-1 to 0-50µgL-1. It can also remove bacteriological contamination in terms of total coliform and fecal coliform counts from >500 to 0 cfu/100 mL-1 . The filter consists of two-bucket filters in series, each with three filter material layers of 14 cm thickness each, containing sand, brick chip and sand (Figure 7.1). The first-class brick chips of 1.3 cm size and Sylhet coarse sands were found to be the most efficient. The major advantage of this unit is that it does not require any daily addition of chemicals and can be operated at a high flow rate. It needs to be cleaned regularly to prevent bacterial contamination, while its maintenance requires treatment with bleaching powder at 15-day intervals. The filter is cost–effective and viable; the investments and operational cost are about € 10.8-13.4 and € 0.11-0.14 per 100 liters of treated water, respectively.

In this research, a multi-perspective and participatory socio-technological assessment of the filter’s performance during the field level application was carried out in two phases: the trial phase during March 2008 and the evaluation phase during July 2008 (Chapter 7). Eight MGH filters were distributed among eight households in the research area in Kumarbhog. In this research, the multi-perspective assessment comprised interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches to evaluate the performance of the filters for household use. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were used. The suitability and acceptability of the filters were evaluated through systematic observation, interviewing, FGDs and eight case studies of the filter users. The compatibility and appropriate¬ness of the filter were viewed from a gender pers¬pective, since access to safe water is an important practical gender need of women, directly related to their domestic and reproductive role.

Women of the selected eight rural households adopted the technology and ran the filters successfully during the trial phase. As elsewhere in developing countries, in Bangladesh too, rural women are the managers of water for household use. They hardly participate in income generation. The male household head controls the allocation of household income and expenditures, which caused problems when women wanted to re-install their filter. The household survey revealed that sometimes, women cannot be bothered to fetch safe water from far away and, instead, drink the con¬taminated water from their own shallow tube wells. Having the appliance inside the house complied well with the social norms and religious restrictions (purdah) that women have to abide by. In these circumstances, the MGH filter was eagerly accepted by the eight households, because it reduced women’s social and physical burden to fetch As-free, safe water far from their home. In the evaluation phase, some filters were unused because the women could not persuade their husbands to purchase the necessary filter bed materials. During the evaluation phase, the performance of the filters declined compared to the trial phase, because not all users followed the instructions on its operation and maintenance, such as proper chlorination and clean¬liness of the appliance. Disposal of spent filter material was carried out in different ways by the MGH filter users, but more investigation is needed to enable an environmentally friendly disposal of the As-rich sludge.

A new filter system has been developed that can be used by women at the household level. In terms of the simplicity of construction, operation and maintenance, As removal efficiency, and bacterial removal efficiency, its technical performance is good. It is also very cost-effective. However, because such a system always needs to be completely safe for producing drinking water, on the long term as well as under local and household conditions other than those investigated in this research project, further evaluation and additional research will be necessary. In this research, the filter was field-tested under controlled conditions for a month and evaluated after three months. Considering the need for arsenic treatment options in Bangladesh and other developing countries, further research on the performance of the MGH technology could have important positive implications for a safe water supply. Therefore, to allow for seasonality, the MGH filter should be pilot-tested and properly developed over a period of at least a year, in different geographical conditions. A social, economic and technical validation of the MGH filter should be included in the pilot-testing in different parts of the country by applying interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches. Because women are the collectors and managers of drinking water, doing the validation in different parts of the country allows for variation in women’s roles and position and the local socio-cultural context. The MGH filter should be submitted for certification by the government of Bangladesh after further testing and development. The technological principle of the MGH filter may be used to research and develop a community-based low-cost arsenic removal water supply system in rural areas. The results of this research testify to the feasibility of a gender-sensitive, socially acceptable and technologically sound, sustainable solution to the problem of the As contamination of water for household use in rural areas in Bangladesh.


Adsorptive removal of manganese, arsenic and iron from groundwater
Buamah, R. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C. Schippers, co-promotor(en): B. Petrusevski. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855262 - 183
grondwater - grondwaterverontreiniging - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - volksgezondheid - adsorptie - waterzuivering - mangaan - arsenicum - ijzer - ghana - grondwaterkwaliteit - groundwater - groundwater pollution - water management - water supply - public health - adsorption - water treatment - manganese - arsenic - iron - ghana - groundwater quality
To determine the scale of the problem of arsenic, iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Ghana a survey was performed in the first phase of the research to provide in depth information with respect to these contaminants. Presence of these mentioned contaminants in groundwater is not peculiar to Ghana alone. Many countries in the world have similar problems with their groundwater. Establishing the existence of the problem also calls for the need to find remedies. Over the years much studies have been done in the Unesco-ihe on the adsorptive mechanisms and techniques for iron and arsenic removal from groundwater. Therefore in this study much emphasis is placed on the adsorptive removal of manganese from groundwater. This research has the following as it objectives: 1. The conduction of a survey for the arsenic, iron and manganese content in selected groundwater aquifers in Ghana. 2. Determination of the arsenic, manganese and iron adsorption capacities of different locally available filter media. 3. Determination of the effect of pH on adsorption capacities of the selected media for arsenic, manganese and iron. To determine the effect of iron (II), manganese (II) presence on arsenic adsorption capacity of selected media – (competition). 4. Studies on the rate of oxidation of Fe (II) and Mn (II) adsorbed onto one or more selected media under different conditions (e.g. dissolved oxygen, pH etc.). 5. Determination of the rate of adsorption of Mn (II) onto one or more selected media under different oxic conditions. 6. To develop a conceptual model that describes the processes involved in adsorptive arsenic, manganese and iron removal. To investigate to what extent these processes can be described in a quantitative way with one or more mathematical models . Generally the study has the following relevance: 1. Provide a base line data on the arsenic and manganese content of selected groundwater aquifers in Ghana. 2. Provide information on the adsorption capacities of locally available filter media for manganese. 3. Contribute to the knowledge on the kinetics and mechanisms of catalytic adsorptive iron, manganese removal. 4. Provide an efficient backwashing procedure for regeneration of adsorptive sites in iron-oxide coated filters operating in the oxidative adsorption mode.
Resultaten ringtest 2008 zware metalen en arseen in compost en zuiveringsslib in het kader van de voormalige regeling "Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen"
Alewijn, M. ; Driessen, J.J.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rapport / RIKILT 2009.001) - 21
zware metalen - arsenicum - analytische methoden - kwaliteitscontroles - compost - rioolslib - heavy metals - arsenic - analytical methods - quality controls - composts - sewage sludge
Resultaten ringtest 2007 zware metalen en arseen in een monster compost en een monster zuiveringsslib in het kader van de regeling "bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen"
Driessen, J.J.M. ; Oostrom, J.J. van - \ 2007
Wageningen : RIKILT, Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid (Rapport / RIKILT 2007.019) - 20
zware metalen - arsenicum - rioolslib - afvalcompost - organische meststoffen - kwaliteitsnormen - bemesting - heavy metals - arsenic - sewage sludge - refuse compost - organic fertilizers - quality standards - fertilizer application
In het besluit kwaliteit en gebruik overige organische meststoffen (BOOM) worden zuiveringsslib, compost en zwarte grond als overige meststoffen aangemerkt. Deze dienen te voldoen aan kwaliteitseisen voor o.a. zware metalen. Het voornaamste doel is de belasting van de bodem te verminderen
Solubility of arsenic in multi-component systems : from the microscopic to macroscopic scale
Stachowicz, M. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem van Riemsdijk. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047650 - 207
bodemchemie - arsenicum - oplosbaarheid - grondwaterverontreiniging - grondwaterwinning - drinkwater - watervoerende lagen - soil chemistry - arsenic - solubility - groundwater pollution - groundwater extraction - drinking water - aquifers
Arsenic in groundwater has generated one of the most important problems with respect to the quality of drinking water in the modern world. The aim of this thesis has been to assess, as good as possible for the present state of the art, the factors and processes that govern the arsenic behavior in contaminated aquifers. The research tactics have included 3 sequential steps: (1) obtaining adsorption datasets for systems simulating relevant groundwater field situations; (2) interpretation of these data with a molecular based adsorption model and the model application to predict the adsorption behavior of arsenic for a range of compositions relevant in the field; (3) providing quantitative understanding of the behavior of arsenic in natural waters. This knowledge may contribute to a better understanding of the problem, the long-term solutions, such as an optimization of treatment techniques for drinking water as well as a methodology to guide the positioning of new arsenic-free wells
Resultaten ringtest 2006 zware metalen en arseen in een monster compost en een monster zuiveringsslib in het kader van de regelin 'Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen'
Driessen, J.J.M. ; Oostrom, J.J. van - \ 2006
Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 2006.016) - 17
compost - zware metalen - arsenicum - rioolslib - tests - analyse - organische meststoffen - nederland - kennis - composts - heavy metals - arsenic - sewage sludge - analysis - organic fertilizers - netherlands - knowledge
Arsenic analysis in produced formation water (PFW) from Chinguetti FPSO in Mauritania
Korytar, P. ; Galiën, W. van der - \ 2006
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C058/06) - 5
arsenicum - testen - formatie - water - bemonsteren - observatie - discussie - arsenic - testing - formation - sampling - observation - discussion
Woodside Mauritania has commissioned IMARES to organize testing of produced formation water (PFW) from Chinguetti FPSO in Mauritania for arsenic (As (III) and As (V)). This report provides the results of the testing, observations made during the sampling and discussion of the results.
Spatial analysis of factors implicated in Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in Ghana
Duker, A.A. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A. Stein; M. Hale, co-promotor(en): J. Carranza. - [s.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9085042437 - 155
ziekten - symptomen - ruimtelijke verdeling - geografische informatiesystemen - zweren - arsenicum - statistische analyse - ghana - diseases - symptoms - spatial distribution - geographical information systems - ulcers - arsenic - statistical analysis - ghana
Resultaten ringtest 2005 zware metalen en arseen in twee monsters zuiveringsslib in het kader van de regeling "Bemonstering en Analyse Overige Organische Meststoffen" (BOOM)
Driessen, J.J.M. ; Oostrom, J.J. van; Polanen, A. van - \ 2005
Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 2005.011)
zware metalen - arsenicum - kwaliteitscontroles - referentienormen - rioolslib - laboratoriummethoden - heavy metals - arsenic - quality controls - reference standards - sewage sludge - laboratory methods
In The Netherlands a large quantity of domestic, agricultural and industrial organic wastes is produced. After purification or composting processes these substances can be partly re-used as organic fertilisers on the condition that this does not lead to contamination of the environment. In the so called Dutch regulation "Besluit kwaliteit en gebruik Overige Organische Meststoffen" (BOOM) (1) sewage sludge, compost and soil are considered as organic fertilisers. For these fertilisers the regulation sets maximum residue limits for the heavy metals cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead, nickel, zinc and arsenic. By BOOM, normalised methods (NEN) are prescribed for the determination of these elements. RIKILT organised as supervisor of the regulation BOOM an interlaboratory study to check the performance of the laboratories involved in BOOM analysis
Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse
Schröder, T.J. ; Hiemstra, T. ; Vink, J.P.M. - \ 2005
Environmental Science and Technology 39 (2005)18. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7176 - 7184.
bodemverontreiniging - zware metalen - arsenicum - stroomvlakten - rivieren - geochemie - nederland - bodemkwaliteit - rijn - maas - soil pollution - heavy metals - arsenic - floodplains - rivers - geochemistry - netherlands - soil quality - river rhine - river meuse - ray-absorption spectroscopy - hydrous manganese oxide - natural organic-matter - goethite alpha-feooh - biotic ligand model - ion-binding - surface complexation - contaminated soils - pb(ii) sorption - acute toxicity
The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected 194 soil samples at 133 sites distributed in the Dutch part of the Rhine and Meuse river systems. We measured the total amounts of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the soil samples and the metal fraction extractable by 2.5 mM CaCl2. We found a strong correlation between heavy metal contamination and organic matter content, which was almost identical for both river systems. Speciation calculations by a fully parametrized model showed the strengths and weaknesses of the mechanistic approach. Cu and Cd concentrations were predicted within one log scale, whereas modeling of Zn and Pb needs adjustment of some model parameters. The statistical fitting approach produced better results but is limited with regard to the understanding it provides. The log RMSE for this approach varied between 0.2 and 0.32 for the different metals. The careful modeling of speciation and adsorption processes is a useful tool for the investigation and understanding of metal availability in river flood plain soils
Resultaten ringtest 2004 zware metalen en arseen in een monster compost en een monster slib in het kader van de Regeling "Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen" (BOOM)
Oostrom, J.J. van; Polanen, A. van; Driessen, J.J.M. - \ 2004
onbekend : RIKILT - Analyse & Ontwikkeling (Rapport / RIKILT 2004.018) - 17
zware metalen - arsenicum - referentienormen - laboratoriummethoden - kwaliteitscontroles - rioolslib - compost - heavy metals - arsenic - reference standards - laboratory methods - quality controls - sewage sludge - composts
Geschiktheid van bermmaaisel als meststof; een verslag van acht praktijkproeven
Spijker, J.H. ; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Jong, J.J. de; Niemeijer, C.M. ; Scheepens, P.C. ; Vries, E.A. de - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 963) - 64
grassen - vegetatie - maaien - grasmaaisel - organisch afval - wegbermen - compostering - toxiciteit - voedingsstoffen - zware metalen - arsenicum - nederland - bedijking - grasses - vegetation - mowing - grass clippings - organic wastes - roadsides - composting - toxicity - nutrients - heavy metals - arsenic - netherlands - embankments
In acht pilots is op praktijkschaal bermmaaisel verzameld en voorbewerkt met als doel te kunnen inzetten als meststof in de landbouw. Dit bermmaaisel is geanalyseerd op organische-stofgehalte, homogenitiet van de organische stof, contaminatie met zware metalen en de aanwezigheid van vitale onkruidzaden. De resultaten zijn vergeleken met de eisen zoals het ministerie van LNV deze heeft geformuleerd in 2002.
Resultaten ringtest 2002 zware metalen en arseen in twee monsters compost in het kader van de regeling "Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen" (BOOM)
Polanen, A. van; Oostrom, J.J. van; Driessen, J.J.M. - \ 2002
Wageningen : RIKILT, Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid (Rapport / RIKILT 2002.011) - 16
zware metalen - arsenicum - organisch afval - monsterverwerking - compost - kwaliteitscontroles - analytische scheikunde - heavy metals - arsenic - organic wastes - sample processing - composts - quality controls - analytical chemistry
Resultaten ringonderzoek 2001 zware metalen en arseen in grond en compost in het kader van de regeling "Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen" (BOOM)
Polanen, A. van; Oostrom, J.J. van; Roos, A.H. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor land- en tuinbouwprodukten (RIKILT) (Rapport / RIKILT 2001.026) - 19
zware metalen - arsenicum - organisch afval - monsterverwerking - compost - kwaliteitscontroles - analytische scheikunde - heavy metals - arsenic - organic wastes - sample processing - composts - quality controls - analytical chemistry
Typologie bermgraskwaliteit : typologie van de milieuhygiënische kwaliteit van bermgras voor het onderwerken op landbouwgronden
Bok, A.J. ; Kopinga, J. ; Schnaar, M. ; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 246) - 48
grassen - wegbermen - besmetters - arsenicum - zware metalen - landverbetering - organische verbeteraars - kwaliteit - nederland - grasses - roadsides - contaminants - arsenic - heavy metals - land improvement - organic amendments - quality - netherlands
Resultaten ringonderzoek 2001 zware metalen en arseen in grond en compost in het kader van de regeling 'Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen' (BOOM)
Polanen, A. van; Oostrom, J.J. van; Roos, A.H. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor land- en tuinbouwproducten (RIKILT) (Rapport RIKILT 2001.026) - 15 p.
heavy metals - arsenic - quality circles - organic wastes - sample processing - composts - analytical chemistry
Resultaten ringtest 2000 zware metalen en arseen in grond en compost in het kader van de regeling "Bemonstering en analyse overige organische meststoffen" (BOOM)
Polanen, A. van; Oostrom, J.J. van; Roos, A.H. - \ 2000
Wageningen : Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor land- en tuinbouwprodukten (RIKILT) (Rapport / RIKILT 2000.006)
arsenicum - zware metalen - kunstmeststoffen - nederland - kwaliteitscontroles - arsenic - heavy metals - fertilizers - netherlands - quality controls
Resultaten ringtest 1999 zware metalen en arseen in grond en compost in het kader van de regeling "Bemonstering en analyse Overige Organische Meststoffen" (BOOM)
Polanen, A. van; Oostrom, J.J. van; Roos, A.H. - \ 1999
Wageningen : DLO-Rijks-Kwaliteitsinstituut voor land- en tuinbouwprodukten (RIKILT-DLO) (Rapport / RIKILT-DLO 99.010) - 17
organische stof - organische meststoffen - zware metalen - arsenicum - nederland - kwaliteitscontroles - analytische scheikunde - organic matter - organic fertilizers - heavy metals - arsenic - netherlands - quality controls - analytical chemistry
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