Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe
Tsiafouli, M.A. ; Thébault, E. ; Sgardelis, S. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Putten, W.H. van der; Birkhofer, K. ; Hemerik, L. ; Vries, F.T. de; Bardgett, R.D. ; Brady, M. ; Bjornlund, L. ; Bracht Jörgensen, H. ; Christensen, S. ; Herfelt, T. D'; Hotes, S. ; Hol, W.H.G. ; Frouz, J. ; Liiri, M. ; Mortimer, S.R. ; Setälä, H. ; Stary, J. ; Tzanopoulos, J. ; Uteseny, C. ; Wolters, V. ; Hedlund, K. - \ 2015
Global Change Biology 21 (2015)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 973 - 985.
food-web structure - land-use intensity - taxonomic distinctness - community structure - phylogenetic diversity - arthropod communities - temporal variability - 7-year period - ecosystem - management
Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems.
Review of available evidence regarding the vulnerability of off-crop non-target arthropod communities in comparison to in-crop non-target arthropod communities
Lange, H.J. de; Lahr, J. ; Brouwer, J.H.D. ; Faber, J.H. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra / Wageningen UR / EFSA (Supporting publications 2012 EN-348) - 53
pesticiden - geleedpotigen - milieueffect - ecotoxicologie - houtwallen - akkerranden - bomen - arthropodengemeenschappen - pesticides - arthropods - environmental impact - ecotoxicology - hedgerows - field margins - trees - arthropod communities
EFSA is revising and updating the Ecotoxicology Guidance Document on Terrestrial Risk Assessment of Pesticides (SANCO/10329/2002). For this purpose an overview of available scientific information on several topics is needed. The aim of the current literature survey was to collect and summarize the published scientific literature on (1) the composition of non-target arthropod species that occur in and outside crops, (2) their vulnerability to pesticides and (3) their potential to recover from a pesticide impact. The survey was aimed at all major groups of non-target arthropods occurring in and outside crops. In order to collect relevant literature on-line searches in various databases were carried out in December 2011 and January 2012. The searches addressed two types of scientific information: (1) publications with the results of ecotoxicological field studies in which the effects of pesticides on in-field and off-field communities of non-target arthropod communities are investigated, and (2) publications with the results of ecological studies that describe and compare the composition of in-crop and off-crop communities of non-target arthropods. The literature searches initially yielded over 1,500 articles for which the abstracts were screened, but the number of suitable papers that was finally reviewed was less than 100. The taxonomic groups for which sufficient information was found were ground beetles (Carabidae), rove beetles (Staphylinidae), spiders (Aranea), hoverflies (Syrphidae) springtails (Collembola) and bugs (Heteroptera). Most studies of these groups were conducted in Europe and for the larger part in cereals. Types of off-crop habitats varied greatly (hedgerows, flower strips, grass edges, trees, etc.). For these taxonomic groups, the number of species and their abundance was higher in the off-crop habitat than in the crop. Most species were only found in one or a few studies, indicating that geographic location and specific crop and off-crop habitat are important factors determining the species composition. For other important non-target arthropod taxonomic groups, no suitable studies were found to evaluate in- and off-crop differences in species composition and abundance. These taxonomic groups include grasshoppers, butterflies, isopods, lady beetles, bees and wasps. The available literature was not suitable or contained very little information to assess the sensitivity to pesticides and recovery and thus the vulnerability of individual species from a pesticide impact in the field. Therefore an additional approach, vulnerability analysis based on species traits, was used. The analysis was done for a selection of thirteen species that represent the mentioned dominant taxonomic groups. This vulnerability analysis showed that for insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, the average vulnerability of typical off-crop species was higher than that of typical in-crop species. The average vulnerability of species that occur in both habitats was intermediate. The difference between off-crop and in-crop species can be explained by differences in exposure and especially recovery. In-crop species are less exposed (for instance because they breed out of the pesticide spraying season) and have a greater capacity to disperse, migrate and reproduce. It is plausible that such species are more typical of in-crop habitats because they are better adapted to the varying circumstances and frequent disturbances that occur within arable fields. In the same vulnerability analysis, the two current non-target arthropod standard test species, the parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi and the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri, were found to be the least vulnerable of all species analysed
Impact of anthropogenic disturbances on beetle communities of French Mediterranean coastal dunes
Comor, V.N.R. ; Orgeas, J. ; Ponel, P. ; Rolando, C. ; Delettre, Y.R. - \ 2008
Biodiversity and Conservation 17 (2008)8. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1837 - 1852.
arthropod communities - sandy beach - environmental-factors - surface-activity - adaptations - coleoptera - dynamics - zonation
In coastal dunes, influenced by anthropogenic activities such as tourism, it is important to determine the relative influence of environmental factors at different spatial scales to evaluate the sensitivity of local communities to disturbances. We analyzed beetle communities of 14 dunes of the French Mediterranean coast: four in the relatively preserved Camargue area, and ten in the Var department, where tourism is intensive. Beetle communities were studied three times in early spring using sand sampling. Species-environment relationships were evaluated at the regional, landscape and local scale using redundancy analysis (RDA) and variability partitioning. About 28 species were identified, of which 15 were sand-specialist species, which accounted for more than 93% of total abundance. The beetle communities of Camargue were significantly different from those of the Var department owing to the pullulation of a Tenebrionid species (Trachyscelis aphodioides Latr.) in the Var, except for one restored dune where the community was very similar to those of Camargue. Our results showed no longitudinal gradient between the two regions. Local factors (dune height, preservation and disturbance index) significantly explained most of the variation in the dominance of T. aphodioides, while some other local factors were important for other psammophilous species. This study also suggests that dune beetle communities are strongly affected on beaches intensively managed for tourism, but beetles are still abundant in much disturbed sites.
Kansen voor geleedpotigen in bermen : acht jaar onderzoek langs de weg
Noordijk, J. ; Raemakers, I.P. ; Schaffers, A.P. ; Nijs, L.J. de; Gleichman, J.M. ; Sykora, K.V. - \ 2006
Entomologische Berichten 66 (2006)6. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 166 - 173.
arthropodengemeenschappen - insectengemeenschappen - geleedpotigen - wegbermen - maaien - arthropod communities - insect communities - arthropods - roadsides - mowing
Geleedpotigen leven onder steeds moeilijker omstandigheden. De gebieden waar ze leven raken steeds verder versnipperd. Om die reden is het belangrijk om de overgebleven soorten beter te beschermen. Zo ontstond er ook hernieuwde belangstelling voor het leven van geleedpotigen in bermen. Bermen blijken een belangrijke ecologische waarde te hebben. Dit vraagt een doordachte aanpak van het maaien van bermen