Predictability of species diversity by family diversity across global terrestrial animal taxa
Zou, Yi ; Werf, Wopke van der; Liu, Yunhui ; Axmacher, Jan Christoph - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)4. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 629 - 644.
arthropods - biodiversity conservation - biogeographical distribution - higher taxa surrogate - meta-analyses - PREDICTS database - Shannon diversity
Aim: Although biodiversity is in sharp decline around the globe, collectiing precise information on changes in overall species richness remains extremely challenging. Efficient and reliable proxy methods are therefore needed, with the diversity of higher taxa representing one such potential proxy for species-level diversity. Nonetheless, the stability of using this measure across different regions and animal taxa at the global scale has never been investigated thoroughly. Location: Global. Time period: Up to 2016. Major taxa studied: Animalia. Methods: We used a large global dataset containing published studies on diversity in the terrestrial Animalia to analyse the relationship between diversity at the family, genus and species level across different orders. Results: Family and species diversity were positively correlated, with the strongest correlations in Diptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera. Correlations were slightly weaker in family–species than in genus–species relationships, whereas differences were stronger in observed richness than in diversity indices. Across all taxa, family–species correlations of Shannon diversity index values were independent of sample size, and they showed limited variation across biomes for the three orders containing sufficient case studies for this analysis. Based on the Shannon diversity index, the species diversity per site increased linearly with the increase in family diversity, with an average species : family diversity index ratio of 2.5, slightly lower than the ratio of 2.7 for observed species and family richness values. Main conclusions: Our study confirmed that recording family-level diversity can be a meaningful proxy for determining species-level diversity patterns in biodiversity studies, and trade-offs between identification costs and retained information content need to be considered when using higher taxon surrogacy.
Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, R. ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, D. ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, M.V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-lópez, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, J.A. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
University of Würzburg
biodiversity - agroecosystem - landscape composition - landscape configuration - functional traits - arthropods - natural pest control - pollination - yields
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non‐crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold respectively. Arable‐dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield‐enhancing ecosystem services.
Potatoes, pathogens and pests : effects of genetic modifi cation for plant resistance on non-target arthropods
Lazebnik, Jenny - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.J.A. Loon; M. Dicke. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431620 - 151
solanum tuberosum - potatoes - oomycetes - phytophthora infestans - genetic engineering - transgenic plants - disease resistance - risk assessment - nontarget organisms - arthropods - insect pests - herbivores - trophic levels - ecological risk assessment - greenhouse experiments - field experimentation - solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - oömyceten - phytophthora infestans - genetische modificatie - transgene planten - ziekteresistentie - risicoschatting - niet-doelorganismen - geleedpotigen - insectenplagen - herbivoren - trofische graden - ecologische risicoschatting - kasproeven - experimenteel veldonderzoek
Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into susceptible potato varieties may alleviate the environmental impact of chemical control. Genetically modified plants are subject to an environmental risk assessment, and this includes testing for risks to the non-target arthropod community associated with the crop. The thesis begins with a review about the main plant defense responses and their role in influencing sequential interactions between herbivores and plant pathogens. The experimental chapters each focus on different aspects of the interaction between potato plants (both resistant and susceptible), the target pathogen (P. infestans) and several non-target insects. With each chapter, the scope widens: from the molecular gene expression in potato leaves in response to sequential attacks, to field scale biodiversity analyses. At the molecular level, one of the main findings was that the genomic position of the Rpi-vnt1 insertion conferring resistance to P. infestans influenced potato gene expression measured in leaves, when interacting with the non-target insect pests Myzus persicae (Green peach aphid) and Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle). Insect performance differed between the resistant GM and susceptible non-GM comparator. In the following chapter, the differences in insect performance were tested across a range of conventionally bred cultivars varying in resistance to P. infestans. Differences in M. persicae performance between several cultivars greatly outweighed the differences previously detected between the GM and non-GM comparator. These results are crucial in shaping the way risk is assessed in the context of GM crops, and these results are supported in our experiments assessing effects on biodiversity with pitfall traps in the field. The third trophic level was also addressed by comparing the performance of the parasitoid Aphidius colemani reared on GM and non-GM fed aphids, both with an without exposure to P. infestans. Differences in parasitoid performance were only found on the susceptible cultivar when inoculated with P. infestans. In the last experimental chapter the risk assessment is taken to the field comparing pitfall trap catches over two years and in two countries. Different methods for statistical analysis of biodiversity data were compared to arrive at recommendations for such analysis in the framework of environmental risk assessments. Drawing on these lessons, the discussion ends with ideas for the development of protocols for environmental risk assessments in the light of expected scientific progress in agricultural biotechnology.
Early-season crop colonization by parasitoids is associated with native vegetation, but is spatially and temporally erratic
Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Walters, B.J. ; Hove, A.L.T. ; Cunningham, S.A. ; Werf, W. van der; Douma, J.C. ; Schellhorn, N.A. - \ 2015
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 207 (2015). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 10 - 16.
terebrans hymenoptera-ichneumonidae - managing ecosystem services - biological-control - bemisia-tabaci - pest-control - agricultural landscapes - habitats - biodiversity - populations - arthropods
Semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes may support parasitoid populations that provide biocontrol services by suppressing populations of crop pests, but little is known about the spatial pattern and variability of these services at different levels of scale. Here we investigate the rarely studied phenomenon of early-season crop colonization by parasitoids and the relationship with the surrounding landscape. We assessed parasitism of whiteflies by placing whitefly infested cotton seedlings in remnant vegetation, arable land 25–125 m from remnant vegetation, and arable land further than 400 m from remnant vegetation. Twelve to twenty sentinel plants were exposed in a 25 × 25 m grid pattern in plots in each habitat. The experiment was conducted at 18 locations across two landscapes and repeated three times in a 2-week period in 2007 and 2008. Parasitism was observed during the first three days after the introduction of the whitefly infested seedlings and was in all cases caused by Encarsia spp. The mean number of parasitized whitefly per plant was 0.106 ± 0.025 and was highest on cotton plants placed in remnant vegetation, declining with increasing distance from remnant vegetation. A regression model with land use and meteorological variables received more statistical support from the data than models with only landscape and time period as factors. Parasitism levels were influenced by the proportion of remnant vegetation, grassland, as well as wind, temperature, dew point temperature and year. Early-season colonization of whitefly infested seedlings by parasitoids was erratic and characterized by large spatial (inter-plant and inter-plot) and temporal variation. Our study confirms that remnant vegetation function as reservoirs for parasitoids and that parasitoids can penetrate arable fields beyond 125 m within 3 days. However, variation in the occurrence of parasitism makes it difficult to predict parasitoid colonization at a specific place and time. Therefore, field-based scouting for pests and parasitoids is necessary, even in landscapes with a high biocontrol potential.
Performance of Orius insidiosus after storage, exposure to dispersal material, handling and shipment processes
Bueno, V.H.P. ; Carvalho, L.M. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2014
Bulletin of Insectology 67 (2014)2. - ISSN 1721-8861 - p. 175 - 183.
augmentative biological-control - sauteri poppius heteroptera - hemiptera anthocoridae - natural enemies - say hemiptera - cold-storage - reproduction - predator - temperature - arthropods
Storage, handling and shipment procedures are important factors influencing the quality of biological control agents. This study aimed to evaluate biological parameters and performance of Orius insidiosus (Say) after different storage periods at low temperatures, after exposure to different dispersal materials in containers, and after handling the predator during the shipment and delivery processes. Storage periods were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 days at temperatures of 5, 8, 10 and 12 ± 1 °C, RH 70 ± 10% and under continuous scotophase. A mix of 75% adults and 25% 5th instar nymphs of O. insidiosus was kept in plastic containers (200 mL) for a 72 h period, supplied with eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as food, farmer’s friend inflorescence (Bidens pilosa L.) as oviposition substrate and source of moisture, and one of the following dispersal materials: vermiculite + rice hulls (1:1), vermiculite, folded paper towels, sawdust, and coffee husk. Also, similar mixes of nymphs and adults were exposed to a 72 h shipment and delivery process. We found that O. insidiosus can be stored up to 10 days at 8 °C without loss of quality. Interestingly, storage of mated female predators results in a much higher fecundity post-storage than storage of virgin females. Vermiculite + rice hulls was by far the best dispersal material, and shipment of the predators by post during 72 h in Styrofoam boxes with plastic containers with vermiculite + rice hulls and A. kuehniella eggs did not negatively affect their survival and predation capacity. Our results can be used in planning mass-rearing and shipment, and to improve the quality of the predator O. insidiosus by using the right storage temperature, storage period and dispersal material.
Habitat selection of brood-rearing Northern Wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe and their invertebrate prey
Oosten, H. van; Burg, A.B. Van den; Versluijs, R. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2014
Ardea 102 (2014)1. - ISSN 0373-2266 - p. 61 - 69.
assemblage structure - nitrogen deposition - species richness - plant diversity - home-range - grasslands - conservation - communities - arthropods - migration
Birds consider both variation in prey abundance and accessibility in their decision of where to forage. Acidification and nitrogen deposition affect both prey abundance and accessibility by stimulating growth of nitrophilic grasses at the expense of forbs. Management practises such as mowing or grazing primarily affect vegetation structure which also influences the abundance and accessibility of invertebrates. Hence, for effective management and conservation purposes It is paramount to understand the relationships between vegetation structure, densities of preferred prey and habitat-use of birds. In this study we explore such relationships for the nationally endangered Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe in dune grasslands along the Dutch coast. Our findings support the hypothesis that forager mobility and food accessibility are of greater importance during patch selection than food abundance per se in ground foraging birds. The abundance of all potential prey and three of the four most important actual prey groups was highest in tall grass, but Northern Wheatears foraged preferentially in short grass. Clearly, encroachment by tall grass will diminish habitat suitability for Northern Wheatears due to lowered prey accessibility. We propose that a mixture of short and tall vegetation and landscape management allows for dispersal of arthropods between different (micro)habitats. We provide densities of the important prey in a coastal area where Northern Wheatears still successfully breed. This enables site-managers to efficiently investigate presence and abundance of important prey In seemingly suitable areas but where Northern Wheatears do not breed. Eventually we may be able to discern whether food shortage poses a bottleneck for Northern Wheatears in these uninhabited areas.
Begrazingsintensiteit en insectenrijkdom in heideterreinen
Noordijk, J. ; Colijn, E. ; Smit, J. ; Veling, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2013
De Levende Natuur 114 (2013)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 204 - 211.
insectengemeenschappen - fauna - geleedpotigen - begrazingsbeheer - heidegebieden - begrazingsexperimenten - noord-brabant - insect communities - fauna - arthropods - grazing management - heathlands - grazing experiments - noord-brabant
Begrazing als beheervorm wordt breed toegepast in heidegebieden om op een betaalbare manier openheid van het landschap en variatie in levensgemeenschappen te handhaven. De wijze van uitvoering luistert daarbij nauw, maar goede inzichten in de effecten van graasdruk op insecten ontbraken tot nu toe. Dit artikel geeft de resultaten van een veldonderzoek naar de invloed van begrazingsintensiteit op de soortenrijkdom van sprinkhanen, Heidecicade, vlinders, zweefvliegen, bijen en mieren in Noord-Brabantse heideterreinen.
Truncated VP28 as oral vaccine candidate against WSSV infection in shrimp: an uptake and processing study in the midgut of Penaeus monodon
Kulkarni, V. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Singh, I.S.B. ; Sudheer, N.S. ; Vlak, J.M. ; Caipang, C.M.A. ; Brinchmann, M. ; Kiron, V. - \ 2013
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 34 (2013)1. - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 159 - 166.
spot syndrome virus - prophenoloxidase activating system - cyprinus-carpio l - monoclonal-antibodies - hemocytes - arthropods - exocytosis - protection - immersion - decapoda
Several oral vaccination studies have been undertaken to evoke a better protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a major shrimp pathogen. Formalin-inactivated virus and WSSV envelope protein VP28 were suggested as candidate vaccine components, but their uptake mechanism upon oral delivery was not elucidated. In this study the fate of these components and of live WSSV, orally intubated to black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was investigated by immunohistochemistry, employing antibodies specific for VP28 and haemocytes. The midgut has been identified as the most prominent site of WSSV uptake and processing. The truncated recombinant VP28 (rec-VP28), formalin-inactivated virus (IVP) and live WSSV follow an identical uptake route suggested as receptor-mediated endocytosis that starts with adherence of luminal antigens at the apical layers of gut epithelium. Processing of internalized antigens is performed in endo-lysosomal compartments leading to formation of supra-nuclear vacuoles. However, the majority of WSSV-antigens escape these compartments and are transported to the inter-cellular space via transcytosis. Accumulation of the transcytosed antigens in the connective tissue initiates aggregation and degranulation of haemocytes. Finally the antigens exiting the midgut seem to reach the haemolymph. The nearly identical uptake pattern of the different WSSV-antigens suggests that receptors on the apical membrane of shrimp enterocytes recognize rec-VP28 efficiently. Hence the truncated VP28 can be considered suitable for oral vaccination, when the digestion in the foregut can be bypassed.
Schmallenberg virus in Culicoides spp. biting midges, the Netherlands, 2011
Elbers, A.R.W. ; Meiswinkel, R. ; Weezep, E. van; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. ; Kooi, E.A. - \ 2013
Emerging Infectious Diseases 19 (2013)1. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 106 - 109.
ephemeral fever - culicoides - cattle - arthropods - isolations - europe
To determine which species of Culicoides biting midges carry Schmallenberg virus (SBV), we assayed midges collected in the Netherlands during autumn 2011. SBV RNA was found in C. scoticus, C. obsoletus sensu stricto, and C. chiopterus. The high proportion of infected midges might explain the rapid spread of SBV throughout Europe. During early summer 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, spread across much of northern Europe, infecting ruminant livestock. The Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) includes Shamonda virus, Akabane virus, Sathuperi virus, and Aino virus. These viruses cause teratologic effects in ruminants and are arthropod-borne, and most have been isolated in the Old World from mosquitoes and Culicoides spp. biting midges (1). Recent preliminary studies indicate that =1 species of Culicoides midges act as field vectors for SBV in Europe (2). To determine which Culicoides midge species harbor SBV, we analyzed midges collected from 3 livestock holdings in eastern and northeastern parts of the Netherlands.
Hyperparasitoids Use Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles to Locate Their Parasitoid Host
Poelman, E.H. ; Bruinsma, M. ; Zhu, F. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Boursault, A.E. ; Jongema, Y. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Vet, L.E.M. ; Harvey, J.A. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2012
PloS Biology 10 (2012)11. - ISSN 1545-7885 - 13 p.
higher trophic levels - cotesia-glomerata - natural enemies - hymenoptera - braconidae - rubecula - quality - performance - arthropods - behavior
Plants respond to herbivory with the emission of induced plant volatiles. These volatiles may attract parasitic wasps (parasitoids) that attack the herbivores. Although in this sense the emission of volatiles has been hypothesized to be beneficial to the plant, it is still debated whether this is also the case under natural conditions because other organisms such as herbivores also respond to the emitted volatiles. One important group of organisms, the enemies of parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, has not been included in this debate because little is known about their foraging behaviour. Here, we address whether hyperparasitoids use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their host. We show that hyperparasitoids find their victims through herbivore-induced plant volatiles emitted in response to attack by caterpillars that in turn had been parasitized by primary parasitoids. Moreover, only one of two species of parasitoids affected herbivore-induced plant volatiles resulting in the attraction of more hyperparasitoids than volatiles from plants damaged by healthy caterpillars. This resulted in higher levels of hyperparasitism of the parasitoid that indirectly gave away its presence through its effect on plant odours induced by its caterpillar host. Here, we provide evidence for a role of compounds in the oral secretion of parasitized caterpillars that induce these changes in plant volatile emission. Our results demonstrate that the effects of herbivore-induced plant volatiles should be placed in a community-wide perspective that includes species in the fourth trophic level to improve our understanding of the ecological functions of volatile release by plants. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the impact of species in the fourth trophic level should also be considered when developing Integrated Pest Management strategies aimed at optimizing the control of insect pests using parasitoids.
An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Dierenfeld, E.S. - \ 2012
Zoo Biology 31 (2012)1. - ISSN 0733-3188 - p. 40 - 54.
iron storage disease - nutrient composition - tenebrio-molitor - beta-carotene - nutrition - insects - birds - food - arthropods - conversion
The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), false katydids (Microcentrum rhombifolium), beetles of the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), and superworm beetles (Zophobas morio), as well as woodlice (Porcellio scaber). Dry matter (DM), crude protein, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash, macro and trace minerals, vitamins A and E, and carotenoid concentrations were quantified. Significant differences were found between species. Crude protein content ranged from 38 to 76% DM, fat from14 to 54% DM, and ash from 2 to 8% DM. In most species, calcium:phosphorus was low (0.08-0.30:1); however, P. scaber was an exception (12:1) and might prove useful as a dietary source of calcium for insectivores. Vitamin E content was low for most species (6-16¿mg/kg DM), except for D. melanogaster and M. rhombifolium (112 and 110¿mg/kg DM). The retinol content, as a measure of vitamin A activity, was low in all specimens, but varied greatly among samples (0.670-886¿mg/kg DM). The data presented can be used to alter diets to better suit the estimated requirements of insectivores in captivity. Future research on the topic of composition of invertebrate prey species should focus on determination of nutrient differences owing to species, developmental stage, and diet.
New Mossmites from the Netherlands (Acari: Oribatida)
Siepel, H. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Smits, N.A.C. ; Vierbergen, H. - \ 2012
In: Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen / Kleukers, R., van Nieukerken, E.J., Leiden : SEISN en NCBN (Nederlandse faunistische mededelingen 38) - p. 89 - 93.
bodemecologie - geleedpotigen - soortendiversiteit - habitats - soil ecology - arthropods - species diversity - habitats
Mossmites are small micro-arthropods which live in the soil. In a number of ongoing Alterra proejcts and checks of the Plant Disease Control Unit nine mossmite species have been recorded which were not yet included in the recently published Dutch checklist, nor in the supplements. The total number of mossmites species in The Netherlands is now 336. More species are to be expected in underexplored areas and habitats, some of which are to be investigated in the near future
Review of available evidence regarding the vulnerability of off-crop non-target arthropod communities in comparison to in-crop non-target arthropod communities
Lange, H.J. de; Lahr, J. ; Brouwer, J.H.D. ; Faber, J.H. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra / Wageningen UR / EFSA (Supporting publications 2012 EN-348) - 53
pesticiden - geleedpotigen - milieueffect - ecotoxicologie - houtwallen - akkerranden - bomen - arthropodengemeenschappen - pesticides - arthropods - environmental impact - ecotoxicology - hedgerows - field margins - trees - arthropod communities
EFSA is revising and updating the Ecotoxicology Guidance Document on Terrestrial Risk Assessment of Pesticides (SANCO/10329/2002). For this purpose an overview of available scientific information on several topics is needed. The aim of the current literature survey was to collect and summarize the published scientific literature on (1) the composition of non-target arthropod species that occur in and outside crops, (2) their vulnerability to pesticides and (3) their potential to recover from a pesticide impact. The survey was aimed at all major groups of non-target arthropods occurring in and outside crops. In order to collect relevant literature on-line searches in various databases were carried out in December 2011 and January 2012. The searches addressed two types of scientific information: (1) publications with the results of ecotoxicological field studies in which the effects of pesticides on in-field and off-field communities of non-target arthropod communities are investigated, and (2) publications with the results of ecological studies that describe and compare the composition of in-crop and off-crop communities of non-target arthropods. The literature searches initially yielded over 1,500 articles for which the abstracts were screened, but the number of suitable papers that was finally reviewed was less than 100. The taxonomic groups for which sufficient information was found were ground beetles (Carabidae), rove beetles (Staphylinidae), spiders (Aranea), hoverflies (Syrphidae) springtails (Collembola) and bugs (Heteroptera). Most studies of these groups were conducted in Europe and for the larger part in cereals. Types of off-crop habitats varied greatly (hedgerows, flower strips, grass edges, trees, etc.). For these taxonomic groups, the number of species and their abundance was higher in the off-crop habitat than in the crop. Most species were only found in one or a few studies, indicating that geographic location and specific crop and off-crop habitat are important factors determining the species composition. For other important non-target arthropod taxonomic groups, no suitable studies were found to evaluate in- and off-crop differences in species composition and abundance. These taxonomic groups include grasshoppers, butterflies, isopods, lady beetles, bees and wasps. The available literature was not suitable or contained very little information to assess the sensitivity to pesticides and recovery and thus the vulnerability of individual species from a pesticide impact in the field. Therefore an additional approach, vulnerability analysis based on species traits, was used. The analysis was done for a selection of thirteen species that represent the mentioned dominant taxonomic groups. This vulnerability analysis showed that for insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, the average vulnerability of typical off-crop species was higher than that of typical in-crop species. The average vulnerability of species that occur in both habitats was intermediate. The difference between off-crop and in-crop species can be explained by differences in exposure and especially recovery. In-crop species are less exposed (for instance because they breed out of the pesticide spraying season) and have a greater capacity to disperse, migrate and reproduce. It is plausible that such species are more typical of in-crop habitats because they are better adapted to the varying circumstances and frequent disturbances that occur within arable fields. In the same vulnerability analysis, the two current non-target arthropod standard test species, the parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi and the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri, were found to be the least vulnerable of all species analysed
Inhibition of lipoxygenase affects induction of both direct and indirect plant defences against herbivorous insects
Bruinsma, M. ; Broekhoven, S. ; Poelman, E.H. ; Posthumus, M.A. ; Müller, M.J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2010
Oecologia 162 (2010)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 393 - 404.
volatile biosynthesis - oviposition preference - differential induction - tritrophic interaction - arabidopsis-thaliana - nicotiana-attenuata - parasitic wasps - specialist - responses - arthropods
Herbivore-induced plant defences influence the behaviour of insects associated with the plant. For biting–chewing herbivores the octadecanoid signal-transduction pathway has been suggested to play a key role in induced plant defence. To test this hypothesis in our plant—herbivore—parasitoid tritrophic system, we used phenidone, an inhibitor of the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX), that catalyses the initial step in the octadecanoid pathway. Phenidone treatment of Brussels sprouts plants reduced the accumulation of internal signalling compounds in the octadecanoid pathway downstream of the step catalysed by LOX, i.e. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and jasmonic acid. The attraction of Cotesia glomerata parasitoids to host-infested plants was significantly reduced by phenidone treatment. The three herbivores investigated, i.e. the specialists Plutella xylostella, Pieris brassicae and Pieris rapae, showed different oviposition preferences for intact and infested plants, and for two species their preference for either intact or infested plants was shown to be LOX dependent. Our results show that phenidone inhibits the LOX-dependent defence response of the plant and that this inhibition can influence the behaviour of members of the associated insect community.
How diverse is the genus Wolbachia? Multiple-gene sequencing reveals a putatively new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Ros, V.I.D. ; Fleming, V. ; Feil, E.J. ; Breeuwer, J.A.J. - \ 2009
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75 (2009)4. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 1036 - 1043.
phylogenetic analysis - cytoplasmic incompatibility - reproductive incompatibility - bacterium wolbachia - filarial nematodes - dna amplification - genome sequence - f-supergroup - pipientis - arthropods
At least 20% of all arthropods and some nematode species are infected with intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia. This highly diverse genus has been subdivided into eight “supergroups” (A to H) on the basis of nucleotide sequence data. Here, we report the discovery of a new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from the spider mite species Bryobia species V (Acari: Tetranychidae), based on the sequences of three protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA, and groEL) and the 16S rRNA gene. Other tetranychid mites possess supergroup B Wolbachia strains. The discovery of another Wolbachia supergroup expands the known diversity of Wolbachia and emphasizes the high variability of the genus. Our data also clarify the existing supergroup structure and highlight the use of multiple gene sequences for robust phylogenetic analysis. In addition to previous reports of recombination between the arthropod-infecting supergroups A and B, we provide evidence for recombination between the nematode-infecting supergroups C and D. Robust delineation of supergroups is essential for understanding the origin and spread of this common reproductive parasite and for unraveling mechanisms of host adaptation and manipulation across a wide range of hosts
Microarthropoden als indicatoren van de kwaliteit van landbouwgronden : invloed van mest en biologische bedrijfsvoering op de bodem
Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Maslak, M. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Schouten, A.J. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1985) - 34
landbouwgronden - drijfmest - stalmest - biologische landbouw - geleedpotigen - mijten - collembola - bodembiologie - nederland - bodemkwaliteit - agricultural soils - slurries - farmyard manure - organic farming - arthropods - mites - collembola - soil biology - netherlands - soil quality
Preliminary studies of pest constraints to cotton seedlings in a direct seeding mulch-based system in Cameroon
Brevault, T. ; Guibert, H. ; Naudin, K. - \ 2009
Experimental Agriculture 45 (2009). - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 25 - 33.
cover crops - tillage systems - soil macrofauna - management - agroecosystem - arthropods - predators - argentina - community - residues
The present study evaluated the pest constraints of an innovative crop management system in Cameroon involving conservation tillage and direct seeding mulch-based strategies. We hypothesized that the presence of mulch (i) would support a higher density of phytophagous arthropods particularly millipedes as well as pathogenic fungi that cause severe damage to cotton seedlings and (ii) would reduce early aphid infestations. The impact of two cover-crop mulches Calopogonium mucunoides and Brachiaria ruziziensis on the vigour of seedling cotton stands and arthropod damage was assessed in two independent field experiments conducted in 2001 and 2002 respectively. In both experiments the presence of mulch negatively affected cotton seedling stand by 13–14% compared to non-mulched plots and the proportion of damaged seedlings was higher in mulched than in non-mulched plots supporting the hypothesis that mulch favoured soil pest damage. In both experiments insecticidal seed dressing increased the seedling stand and the number of dead millipedes collected and fungicide had little or no effect on seedling stand and vigour. It was however observed in 2002 that the fungicide seed dressing had a positive effect on seedling stand in non-mulched plots but not in mulched plots suggesting that fungi may have been naturally inhibited by B. ruziziensis mulch. The dynamics of aphid colonization was not influenced by the presence of mulch. In 2001 taller seedlings were found in mulched than non-mulched plots probably due to greater water and nutrient availability in C. mucunoides-mulched plots than in non-mulched plots
Hooiwagenwaarnemingen uit Zeeuwse akkerranden
Noordijk, J. ; Wijnhoven, H. - \ 2009
Entomologische Berichten 69 (2009)3. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 78 - 82.
insecten - geleedpotigen - bouwland - akkerranden - zeeland - insects - arthropods - arable land - field margins - zeeland
Hooiwagen gegevens voor Nederland zijn vrij schaars en Zeeland is een van de provincies met de minste waarnemingen. De auteurs (o.a. vanuit CML) hebben in 2006 en 2007 via bodemvalmonsters waarnemingen verricht bij Zeeuwse akkerranden. Het aantal waarnemingen kon voor Zeeland verviervoudigd worden. Er werden 10 soorten aangetroffen, waarvan vier nieuw voor de provincie
Arthropods in linear elements : occurence, behaviour and conservation management
Noordijk, J. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Karle Sykora, co-promotor(en): Andre Schaffers. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854920 - 188
geleedpotigen - wegbermen - vegetatiebeheer - maaien - coleoptera - araneae - insecten - nederland - conservering - landschapselementen - veluwe - arthropods - roadsides - vegetation management - mowing - coleoptera - araneae - insects - netherlands - conservation - landscape elements - veluwe
Soortenrijke graslanden zijn zeldzaam geworden in Nederland en wegbermen vormen belangrijke wijkplaatsen voor dit biotoop. Om de soortenrijkdom in graslanden in stand te houden moeten ze gemaaid worden, gebeurt dit niet dan verruigt de vegetatie; een proces dat door atmosferische stikstofdepositie aanzienlijk wordt versneld. Dit onderzoek geeft resultaten van twee experimenten in grazige bermen. In een periode van vijf jaar werd met bodemvallen het effect van vijf maairegimes onderzocht op de aanwezigheid van loopkevers, snuitkevers, mieren en grondbewondende spinnen. Uitgaande van gangbare vormen van bermbeheer en verwaarlozing. Het tweede experiment betrof een middel-productieve berm; hier werd het effect van de verschillende beheerstypen op bloembezoekende insecten bestudeerd
Het toenemend belang van infectieziekten die worden overgebracht door vectoren
Scholte, E.J. ; Reusken, C.B.E.M. ; Takken, W. ; Jongejan, F. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2009
Infectieziekten bulletin 19 (2009)9. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 311 - 316.
ziekten overgebracht door vectoren - infectieziekten - geleedpotigen - ziekten overgebracht door teken - ingevoerde infecties - klimaatverandering - zoönosen - ziekten overgebracht door muskieten - volksgezondheid - vector-borne diseases - infectious diseases - arthropods - tickborne diseases - imported infections - climatic change - zoonoses - mosquito-borne diseases - public health
Dit artikel gaat over de voor Nederland belangrijkste arthropodenvectoren (geleedpotigen, in dit artikel voornamelijk muggen en teken) en de door hen overgebrachte infectieziekten. Daarnaast wordt de rol van landschappelijke aanpassingen, klimaatverandering, intensiever internationaal reizigers- en handelsverkeer en veranderend gedrag met betrekking tot recreatie beschreven. Tenslotte wordt de verdere kennisbehoefte aangegeven