Optimal use of biogas from waste streams : an assessment of the potential of biogas from digestion in the EU beyond 2020
Kampman, Bettina ; Leguijt, Cor ; Scholten, Thijs ; Tallat-Kelpsaite, Jurga ; Brückmann, Robert ; Maroulis, Georgios ; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Meesters, Koen ; Sikirica, Natasa ; Elbersen, Berien - \ 2017
Luxembourg : European Commission - 158
biogas - gas production - fermentation - assessment - production possibilities - residual streams - european union - biobased economy - biogas - gasproductie - fermentatie - beoordeling - productiemogelijkheden - reststromen - europese unie - biobased economy
As the European Commission is working on the further development and concretisation of the post-2020 climate and energy policies, this study was commissioned to zoom in on the potential role, cost and benefits of biogas, and to assess the key barriers and drivers of biogas deployment in the EU. An important question to address was what policies at both EU and Member State level can best contribute to the effective and efficient growth of biogas deployment in the EU. The study focussed on biogas production by digestion processes of local waste streams, i.e. on biogas production from sewage sludge, landfill gas and from suitable organic waste streams from agriculture, the food industry and households.
Sustainable development of agriculture: contribution of farm-level assessment tools
Olde, Evelien de - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): I.J.M. de Boer, co-promotor(en): E.A.M. Bokkers; F.W. Oudshoorn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430685 - 152
sustainable agriculture - sustainability - sustainability indicators - sustainability criteria - assessment - tools - reliability - validity - farming systems - duurzame landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - duurzaamheidscriteria - beoordeling - gereedschappen - betrouwbaarheid - geldigheid - bedrijfssystemen
Current environmental, economic and social challenges urge agriculture to change to more sustainable modes of production. Insight in the impact of a system or a potential innovation on sustainability could support decision makers in identifying actions towards sustainable development. Over the past decade, therefore, a large number of tools have been developed to assess sustainability performance at farm level. Several concerns, however, have been raised whether assessment results provide reliable and valid conclusions about the sustainability performance of farms, and whether these conclusions can be implemented in practice. To evaluate the contribution of farm-level assessment tools to sustainable development of agriculture, this thesis analyzed current approaches to assessing sustainability. One of these approaches is the sustainability assessment tool RISE 2.0, which was used to assess the sustainability performance of 37 organic farms in Denmark. Analysis of the assessment results showed the impact of decisions, made during the development of a tool (e.g. selection of themes, indicators, reference values, scoring and aggregation method), on the assessment results. This emphasizes the importance of transparency in sustainability assessment tools to understand assessment results and identify actions to improve. Subsequently, a comparison of sustainability assessment tools in practice was made to gain insight into practical requirements, procedures and relevance perceived by farmers. Of 48 indicator-based sustainability assessment tools, only four tools (RISE, SAFA, PG and IDEA) complied to the selection criteria and were applied to assess the sustainability performance of five Danish farms. Characteristics including data requirements, assessment time, complexity, transparency and output accuracy varied between tools. Critical factors in farmers’ perception of tool relevance were context specificity, user-friendliness, complexity of the tool, language use, and a match between value judgements of tool developers and farmers. Farmers, moreover, indicated that implementing conclusions derived from sustainability assessments is challenging given the complex organization of agricultural systems. A more in-depth analysis of the four tools revealed a high diversity in selected indicators, themes, reference values, and scoring and aggregation methods. This results in different conclusions on the sustainability performance of farms, which does not only cause confusion but also affects the trust in, and reliability and implementation of, sustainability assessments. Variability in tools is caused by different perspectives on how to assess sustainability and is related to differences in context, priorities and value judgements of tool developers. These differences also play a role in the prioritization of criteria for indicator selection. To explore whether sustainability experts agreed on which criteria are most important in the selection of indicators and indicators sets for sustainability assessments, two ranking surveys were carried out. Both surveys showed a lack of consensus amongst experts about how best to measure agricultural sustainability. This thesis revealed variability in approaches to assess sustainability at farm level. This makes current assessment tools less suitable for functions that require a high reliability and validity, such as certification. Instead, current assessment tools present a useful starting point for discussion, reflection and learning on sustainable development of farming. To enhance the contribution of tools towards sustainable development of agriculture, more attention should be paid to increasing reliability and validity of tools, and improving transparency, harmonization, participation and implementation of assessments.
A methodical approach for the assessment of waste sorting plants
Feil, Alexander ; Pretz, Thomas ; Vitz, Philipp ; Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard - \ 2017
Waste Management and Research 35 (2017)2. - ISSN 0734-242X - p. 147 - 154.
assessment - back-calculation - beverage cartons - decision tree - modelling - sample taking options - separation coefficient - Waste sorting plants - yield
A techno-economical evaluation of the processing result of waste sorting plants should at least provide a realistic assessment of the recovery yields of valuable materials and of the qualities of the obtained products. This practical data is generated by weighing all the output products and sampling these products. Due to the technological complexity of sorting plants, for example, lightweight packaging waste treatments plants and the high expenditures concerning time and costs of sampling with subsequent manual sorting for quality determination, usually only final products undergo such an investigation. Thereby, the transferability of the results depends decisively on the boundary conditions (extent, throughput of the plant, process parameterization). Given that the process is too complex, not all relevant information of the process steps can be determined by sampling. By model calculations and/or adjustment of reasonable assumptions, information concerning weak points in the process can be identified, which can be used for further plant optimization. For the example of the recovery of beverage cartons from co-collected and mechanically recovered mixtures of lightweight packaging waste, a methodical approach for the assessment of processing results will be presented.
Naar een samenhangend monitoring- en beoordelingssyteem voor het natuurbeleid
Schmidt, A.M. ; Turnhout, C.A.M. van; Wolterbeek, T. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Soldaat, L. ; Swaaij, C.A.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2758) - 177
natuurbeleid - monitoring - biodiversiteit - natura 2000 - beoordeling - nature conservation policy - monitoring - biodiversity - natura 2000 - assessment
The impact of the feedback source on developing oral presentation competence
Ginkel, Stan van; Gulikers, Judith ; Biemans, Harm ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2017
Studies in Higher Education 42 (2017)9. - ISSN 0307-5079 - p. 1671 - 1685.
assessment - feedback source - higher education - oral presentation competence - quasi-experimental design
While previous research in higher education emphasized the essence of feedback by the teacher, the peer or the self, it remains unclear whether the acquisition of students' oral presentation competence differs depending on the feedback source. This quasi-experimental study examines the effectiveness of the feedback source on 144 first-year undergraduate students' progression in cognition, behaviour and attitude towards presenting, as three interrelated elements of oral presentation competence. Mixed methods of multiple-choice tests and performance assessments using rubrics were used for data collection. Results demonstrated the superiority of teacher feedback for encouraging students' presentation behaviour, while cognition and attitude towards presenting developed significantly irrespective of the particular feedback source. However, the self-assessment condition revealed less impact on developing presentation behaviour and attitude compared to other feedback sources. Optimizing peer feedback and self-assessment in curricula requires knowledge about underlying feedback processes characterizing successful feedback of the various sources.
Creating impact with your BBI-JU call : economic, societal and environmental assessment
Meeusen, M.J.G. ; Meijl, J.C.M. van - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR ) - 2
projects - research projects - assessment - biobased economy - sustainability - projecten - onderzoeksprojecten - beoordeling - biobased economy - duurzaamheid (sustainability)
Within the calls of BBI-Joint Undertaking significant im-portance is given to socio-economic impacts. As a lead-ing social economic research institute, LEI Wageningen UR can support your proposal with insights into market demand, customer acceptance, economic feasibility, di-rect and indirect economic impact, environmental ef-fects, institutional barriers of legislation and cross-sectorial integration along and across value chains.
Passende Beoordeling vast vistuigvisserij in de Oosterschelde
Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Goudswaard, P.C. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C127/15) - 69
vistuig - visserij - evaluatie - beoordeling - oosterschelde - fishing gear - fisheries - evaluation - assessment - eastern scheldt
Voorliggende Passende Beoordeling (PB) betreft de visserij met vaste vistuigen in de Oosterschelde.
Ammoniak-gat vraagt om nieuwe investeringen
Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Sikkema, A. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)4. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 18 - 21.
ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - berekening - modellen - beoordeling - veehouderij - bemesting - nederland - milieubeleid - ammonia emission - emission reduction - calculation - models - assessment - livestock farming - fertilizer application - netherlands - environmental policy
Nederland loopt wereldwijd voorop met het terugdringen van de ammoniakemissie uit de landbouw. Toch is er een ‘ammoniak-gat’. De modellen die de emissie en depositie van ammoniak berekenen, zijn niet meer state of the art, stelt de Britse ammoniakdeskundige Mark Sutton. Hij onderzocht het Nederlandse ammoniakbeleid. Zijn advies: De Nederlandse overheid moet weer investeren in ammoniakonderzoek.
Fishing for knowledge: a pilot industrial survey for associated species (met medewerking van Karin van der Reijden)
Imares, ; Reijden, K.J. van der - \ 2015
Urk : Ekofish Group - 23
noordzee - visstand - visserijbeleid - bijvangst - visbestand - beoordeling - visserijbeheer - north sea - fish stocks - fishery policy - bycatch - fishery resources - assessment - fishery management
The EKOFISH Group, the North Sea Foundation (NSF) and WWF-Netherlands partnered up with IMARES in 2013 to explore whether an industrial survey can be used to strengthen scientific assessment of key commercial by-catch species in the North Sea flatfish fishery. The project was broken down in two consecutive phases. The first phase of the project served to establish the potential role of an industrial survey.The second phase of the project was used to run a pilot-survey and served to determine the practical feasibility of an industrial survey. This report synthesises the findings of the research that was carried out in phase one and two of the project and discusses the main findings to give answer to the main question that has guided this research project 'can an industrial survey for North Sea brill, dab, lemon sole and turbot strengthen scientific assessment of these stocks?'.
Performance of raters to assess locomotion in dairy cattle
Schlageter Tello, A.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): Kees Lokhorst; Eddy Bokkers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572751 - 162
melkvee - voortbeweging - mankheid - voetziekten - beoordeling - gang - lichaamshouding - diergezondheid - methodologie - geldigheid - melkveehouderij - dairy cattle - locomotion - lameness - foot diseases - assessment - gait - posture - animal health - methodology - validity - dairy farming
Locomotion scoring systems are procedures used to evaluate the quality of cows’ locomotion. When scoring locomotion, raters focus their attention on gait and posture traits that are described in the protocol. Using these traits, raters assign a locomotion score to cows according to a pre-determined scale. Locomotion scoring systems are mostly used to classify cows as lame or non-lame. A preselected threshold within the scale determines whether a cow is classified as lame or non-lame. Since lameness is considered an important problem in modern dairy farming evaluation of locomotion scoring systems is utmost important. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the performance of raters to assess locomotion in dairy cattle in terms of reliability (defined as the ability of a measuring device to differentiate among subjects) and agreement (defined as the degree to which scores or ratings are identical). This thesis also explores possibilities for the practical application of locomotion scoring systems. In a literature review comprising 244 peer-reviewed articles, twenty-five locomotion scoring systems were found. Most locomotion scoring systems varied in the scale used and traits observed. Some of the most used locomotion scoring systems were poorly evaluated and, when evaluated, raters showed an important variation in reliability and agreement estimates. The variation in reliability and agreement estimates was confirmed in different experiments aiming to estimate the performance of raters for scoring locomotion and traits under different practical conditions. For instance, experienced raters obtained better intrarater reliability and agreement when locomotion scoring was performed from video than by live observation. In another experiment, ten experienced raters scored 58 video records for locomotion and for five different gait and posture traits in two sessions. A similar number of cows was allocated in each level of the five-level scale for locomotion scoring. Raters showed a wide variation in intra- and interrater reliability and agreement estimates for scoring locomotion and traits, even under the same practical conditions. When agreement was calculated for specific levels when scoring locomotion and traits, the lowest agreement tended to be in level 3 of a five-level scale. When a multilevel scale was transformed into a two-level scale, agreement increased, however, this increment was likely due to chance. The variation in reliability and agreement is explained by different factors such as the lack of a standard procedure for assessing locomotion or the characteristics of the population sample that is assessed. The factor affecting reliability and agreement most, however, is the rater him/herself. Although the probability for obtaining acceptable reliability and agreement levels increases with training and experience, it is not possible to assure that raters score cows consistently in every scoring session. Given the large variation in reliability and agreement, it can be concluded that raters have a moderate performance to assess consistently locomotion in dairy cows. The variable performance of raters when assessing locomotion limits the practical utility of locomotion scoring systems as part of animal welfare assessment protocols or as golden standard for automatic locomotion scoring systems.
Desk-study on habitat quality for the European Sturgeon in the Dutch Rhine and southern North Sea
Winter, H.V. ; Teal, L.R. ; Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Griffioen, A.B. ; Houben, B. ; Breve, N.W.P. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C044/15) - 50
habitats - beoordeling - aquatische ecologie - vissen - steuren - herintroductie van soorten - rijn - habitats - assessment - aquatic ecology - fishes - sturgeons - reintroduction of species - river rhine
One of the most endangered fish species worldwide is the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. The River Rhine was home to an important sturgeon population that went locally extinct in the first half of the 20th century. In recent decades, many improvements of the ecological quality of the Rhine have taken place. Because the last remaining wild population of European sturgeon in the Gironde basin is very small and at considerable distance, it appears unlikely that rapid recolonization will take place if the Rhine is suitable again. That is why Stichting ARK, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Dutch Anglers Association (Sportvisserij Nederland) have started a trajectory with the eventual reintroduction of the European sturgeon in the Rhine basin as the ultimate goal.
Inschatting onbenutte visserij-inspanning voor staand want en zegen in 2012 - 2014 op het IJsselmeer en Markermeer
Paijmans, A.J. ; Tien, N.S.H. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Notitie / IMARES 15.IMA0231) - 10
visserij - visserijbeheer - beoordeling - vergunningen - visvangsten - fisheries - fishery management - assessment - permits - fish catches
In de voorliggende briefrapportage wordt de onbenutte visserij-inspanning berekend van 2013 en 2014. Dit is zoveel als mogelijk op dezelfde manier uitgevoerd als in de rapportage van 2013 (Tien et al., 2013), om te kunnen aansluiten bij de berekeningen van de jaren ervoor. In tegenstelling tot het rapport uit 2013, wordt nu alleen de onbenutte inspanning geschat, en er wordt geen inspanningsadvies afgegeven.
Star+ : monovergisting mest van vleesvarkens
Kasper, G.J. ; Verdoes, N. ; Classens, P.J.A.M. - \ 2015
V-focus 12 (2015)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 29 - 31.
varkenshouderij - vleesvee - vleesproductie - varkensstallen - innovaties - varkensmest - mestverwerking - scheiding - mestvergisting - biogas - beoordeling - pig farming - beef cattle - meat production - pig housing - innovations - pig manure - manure treatment - separation - manure fermentation - biogas - assessment
De versgeproduceerde mest en de vermorste snijmais uit de innovatieve Star+- stal zijn onderzocht op samenstelling en gaspotentie. Daarbij lag de nadruk op de werking van de mestbanden, het optimale drogestofgehalte van de ingevoerde mest, de kwaliteit en kwantiteit van het biogas en de stabiliteit van het vergistingsproces.
Industrial survey for associated species: Results of a pilot-year
Reijden, K.J. van der; Poos, J.J. ; Chen, C. ; Os-Koomen, E. van; Dijkman Dulkes, H.J.A. ; Pasterkamp, T.L. ; Rasenberg, M.M.M. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C036/15) - 25
visserijbeheer - visbestand - beoordeling - vergelijkend onderzoek - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - visserijbeleid - eu regelingen - noordzee - tarbot - scophthalmus rhombus - pleuronectiformes - boomkorvisserij - fishery management - fishery resources - assessment - comparative research - scientific research - fishery policy - eu regulations - north sea - turbot - scophthalmus rhombus - pleuronectiformes - beam trawling
To increase scientific knowledge and stimulate discussion on management of data-limited species, Ekofish Group B.V., the North Sea Foundation (NSF) and IMARES started a research project. This project consisted of two phases. In the first phase, IMARES and NSF performed a literature study on the constrains in management and biological knowledge for species selected by Ekofish. After phase one, Ekofish Group B.V. requested IMARES to set up an industrial survey to gather more information on turbot, brill and lemon sole. A pilot-survey was designed and performed for these species to test whether an industrial survey is feasible and valuable for biological knowledge and if so, how this survey should be designed. To test the design of the survey, research will be done on the haul duration and mesh size. To examine the added value of the pilot survey, results are compared with the BTS. In this report, the results of this pilot survey are presented and answer will be given to the following research question: “Is an industrial survey for turbot, bill and lemon sole feasible and does it increase knowledge with respect to scientific surveys?”
Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: The procedure, the evaluated systems and the evaluation tools
Bonneau, M. ; Greef, K. De; Brinkman, D. ; Cinar, M.U. ; Dourmad, J.Y. ; Edge, H.L. ; Fàbrega, E. ; Gonzàlez, J. ; Houwers, H.W.J. ; Hviid, M. ; Ilari-Antoine, E. ; Klauke, T.N. ; Phatsara, C. ; Rydhmer, L. ; Oever, B. Van Der; Zimmer, C. ; Edwards, S.A. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 2011 - 2015.
assessment - farming system - pig - sustainable
Although a few studies consider the sustainability of animal farming systems along the three classical main pillars (economy, environment and society), most studies on pig farming systems address only one of these pillars. The present paper is the introduction to a series of companion papers presenting the results of a study undertaken within the EU-supported project Q-PorkChains, aiming at building a comprehensive tool for the evaluation of pig farming systems, which is robust to accommodate the large variability of systems existing in Europe. The tool is mostly based on questions to farmers and comprises a total of 37 dimensions distributed along eight themes: Animal Welfare, Animal Health, Breeding Programmes, Environmental Sustainability, Meat Safety, Market Conformity, Economy and Working Conditions. The paper describes the procedure that was used for building the tool, using it on 15 contrasted pig farming systems and analysing the results. The evaluated systems are briefly described and a short overview of the dimensions is provided. Detailed descriptions of the theme-wise tools and results, as well as the results of an integrated evaluation, are available in the companion papers.
Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: Breeding programmes
Rydhmer, L. ; Gourdine, J.L. ; Greef, K. De; Bonneau, M. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 2016 - 2026.
assessment - genetic resources - pigs - sustainable production
The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by reflecting on different aspects of sustainability, this study will encourage sustainable developments in pig production.
Fishing for knowledge: an industrial survey for associated species
Doeksen, A. ; Reijden, K.J. van der - \ 2014
Utrecht : The North Sea Foundation (Report / The North Sea foundation & IMARES ) - 20
visserij - bijvangst - certificering - vangstsamenstelling - beoordeling - fisheries - bycatch - certification - catch composition - assessment
collection efforts for these species in 2011, recommending commercial catch surveys as an option to improve data collection. Following from this Ekofish has taken the lead and has initiated a pilot data-collection project, in which commercial catch data will be collected aboard their twinrig vessels during one season for the species dab, lemon sole, turbot, and brill. The aim of this pilot project is to progress towards science-based management and MSC certification of the mentioned species. This project is carried out in collaboration with the NSF and IMARES. Phase one of this project explores the hurdles and the opportunities for fisheries management and stock assessment for the North Sea species brill, turbot, lemon sole and dab.
Ten building blocks for sustainable water governance: an integrated method to assess the governance of water
Rijswick, M. ; Edelenbos, J. ; Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Kok, M. ; Kuks, S.M.M. - \ 2014
Water International 39 (2014)5. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 725 - 742.
watersystemen - waterbeheer - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - overstromingen - risicoschatting - infrastructuur - governance - watervoorraden - beoordeling - hoogwaterbeheersing - water systems - water management - surface water quality - floods - risk assessment - infrastructure - governance - water resources - assessment - flood control - research agenda - management - climate
A three-step interdisciplinary method to assess approaches to water shortage, water quality and flood risks is presented. This method, based on water system analysis, economics, law and public administration, seeks to create common understanding based on newly developed concepts and definitions. First, generating content knowledge about the water system and about values, principles and policy discourses. Second, providing an organizational process with sufficient stakeholder involvement, insight into the trade-off between social objectives, and attribution of responsibilities in addition to regulations and agreements. Finally, implementing the agreed service level through adequate infrastructure, enforcement and conflict resolution.
Sociable swine: prospects of indirect genetic effects for the improvement of productivity, welfare and quality
Duijvesteijn, N. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Piter Bijma; E.F. Knol. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571525 - 202
varkens - sociaal gedrag - groepsinteractie - genetische effecten - prestatieniveau - dierenwelzijn - androsteron - genomen - genetische correlatie - varkensfokkerij - stakeholders - beoordeling - dierlijke productie - pigs - social behaviour - group interaction - genetic effects - performance - animal welfare - androsterone - genomes - genetic correlation - pig breeding - stakeholders - assessment - animal production
Towards Healthy Diets for parents: efectiveness of a counselling intervention
Eveline J.C. Hooft van Huysduynen
Introduction and Objective: As parents’ modelling of dietary behaviour is one of the factors influencing children’s diets, improving parents’ diets is expected to result in improved dietary intake of their children. This thesis describes research that was conducted to develop and evaluate a counselling intervention to improve parental adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines.
Methods: A counselling intervention was developed, which was underpinned with the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model. In 20 weeks, five face-to-face counselling sessions were provided by a registered dietician who used motivational interviewing to improve parental adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, parents received three individually tailored email messages. During the counselling, the dietary guidelines and additional eating behaviours, that were hypothesized to affect diet quality, were addressed. The intervention was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial with 92 parents receiving the counselling and 94 parents as controls. Effects on dietary intake, biomarkers, intermediate markers of health and children’s dietary intake were evaluated. With mediation analyses, it was investigated if changes in dietary intake were established via changes in behavioural determinants. Thereby, it was also examined if spot urine samples could be used to replace 24 h urine samples for evaluating changes in sodium and potassium intake.
Results: The intervention group increased their adherence to the dietary guidelines, as assessed with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index (ranging from 0 to 100 points), by 6.7 points more than the control group did. This improvement was achieved by small increases in the scores of seven out of ten index components. The most substantial changes were shown in fruit and fish intakes of which increases in fish intake were reflected in changes in fatty acid profiles derived from blood plasma. Also a small decrease in waist circumference was observed. Based on parental reports, the children in the intervention group increased their intakes of fruit, vegetables and fish more than the children in the control group. Improvements in parental fruit intake were mediated by changes in the behavioural determinants attitude and habit strength. Decreases in snack intake were mediated by changes in self-identity as a healthy eater. Although the results of a study in young Caucasian women showed that spot urine can be used to rank individuals for their ratios of sodium to potassium, no intervention effects on these ratios were observed.
Conclusion: This thesis provides empirical knowledge on potential effective elements for counselling interventions aiming at improving the dietary pattern as a whole of parents and provides knowledge on methods to evaluate changes in dietary intake.
From soil nutrient balances to regional policy analysis : a case study of integrated assessment in Machakos, Kenya
Mora Vallejo, A.P. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp, co-promotor(en): J. Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571389 - 168
bodem - voedingsstoffenbalans - regionaal beleid - beoordeling - bodemkarteringen - landgebruik - modelleren - kenya - soil - nutrient balance - regional policy - assessment - soil surveys - land use - modeling - kenya
The efficiency of agricultural production is key when addressing poverty and hunger in subsistence farming systems of developing countries. The transition of the subsistence systems into more productive and more sustainable land use needs to be directed by strong public interventions and investments. While policy documents for agricultural improvement often end up with a general “to do” list of recommendations, the actual effects of these technology or policy interventions are seldom evaluated for specific regions or cases. This study combines biophysical and economic research into an integrated assessment which can help to evaluate these recommendations for specific conditions. The nutrient balance model NUTMON and the Tradeoff Analysis Model are linked and subsistence farming systems in the Machakos region in Kenya are studied. The integrated modelling approach is used to evaluate a range of different policy interventions proposed in recent policy documents by the Kenyan government. This type of analysis normally requires intensive environmental and economic data collection. Therefore, new technologies for data gathering such as Digital Soil Mapping and the effect of input data resolution on model results are tested. The study clearly shows that more detailed input data are not always necessary to provide more accurate results. Policy makers can benefit from this type of methodology anticipating the possible effects of certain innovations in actual productions systems.